Wed, 4 Aug 2010|
This free full-length presentation from the Firefighters Support Foundation provides an overview of explosives and bombs, provides examples of various kinds of each.
One -- this program. With a little bit of background on explosives and explosions that is what they are what cost them with a different kinds aren't sort of -- actually an explosion is just a sudden aren't really of energy usually accompanied by heat and gas. Important thing to -- about an explosion. On like a lighter is at an explosion generates chocolate. So on like the water in our -- on what structure fire. An explosion generate shock -- Explosives. Are generally. Class into two categories low explosives and high exposed. Low -- propagate the explosion by burning. I expose people call the kind of burning that it that most folks who do they call it investigation. Which is really kind of -- on recurrent. What that means is you get the initial little -- The -- explosive explodes. And then as that really heat. It burned and that a -- of the close of and the explosion propagate. By the burning by the -- front. -- -- is generally propagate. Depending on the circumstance -- of goodwill on -- at 3300 feet per second or less. Won't -- -- are usually mixtures. Of a combustible -- -- -- -- -- -- and -- that can apply our. When it and make sure -- -- you have to physically separate compounds it physically mixed together. And that want to -- -- Low posters are generally used as propellant in rocket pyrotechnic. Fireworks. By contrast. Hi -- -- propagate the explosion by the awkward that is it is the propagation the shockwave. That. Detonate. The next little piece of explosive -- -- part of exposed that it comes in contact with. And high explosives course. Propagate -- generally greater than 3300 feet per second. The difference between knowing -- -- -- it at high explosives are generally compound. That is not a physical mr. Of two different chemical is -- angle camera angle chemical compound. Generally -- a high explosive. An important thing to remember is that an explosive that -- up the gate in opening here. Made it -- or -- detonate -- it's confined. To illustrate -- point for it or something like gunpowder. To take gunpowder and just put on the table and put a match to it you'll see it just burns. However you can find that in something like a pipe to make a pipe bomb and it will float. High explosives. Are further categorized. Into three different types that is primary secondary and tertiary. Primary or are extremely -- -- -- shock. Friction heat or or or I'm kind of insult. General rule their compound. That can be. -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- A relatively. That is relative to primary -- relatively sensitive to shock auction heat and other kinds of it -- example a secondary explosives -- good of a good example of common compounds we come across a dynamite TNT. Our cardiac or four PT PT NH and after. Secondary explosives require -- primary exposed it to detonate them. That is -- has been like for you can apply in -- inserted into it to cut off the -- Tertiary explored are even like if I'm kind of all like you friction shocker electric stimulation. Tertiary close at times go by term black and agent. And tertiary explosives are in -- -- not. To shock that they can't be detonated -- practical quantity of a primary exposed -- something like a black. That is to say that amount of plastic cap would have to carry around an off a large amount at a tertiary expose -- would just be impractical to do. -- to set off a tertiary explosive he needed secondary explosive which of course they are exposed to -- it. So the way he would -- off a large quantity of a tertiary explosive. It by an -- something like and so. Which is ammonium nitrate oil mixed together the kind of thing blew up the Murrah building in -- in Oklahoma City. Is -- you would have a -- can count they primary explosive in herded into a quantity -- secondary explosive. Which then inserted into the large quantity of the -- -- She would need three kinds of explosives and off that chain and get that large explosion from that -- tomorrow. -- something like -- -- and shown in slide eight. Now any kind of close. Require two elements -- a tool that is something to burn and requires an oxidized to -- to provide the oxygen. And kind of fire requires as well. Obviously that you fireplace. Or -- and it -- -- is what got in the air structure fires and thank. The problem if -- trying to create a large amount of -- urgently. Is that the -- in the -- a varied -- and not concentrated source box. If you wanna create a large and she believes he can very concentrated -- walks and right -- of the fuel and that's what -- an extra tool and oxidized. In an explosion the oxygen comes from the chemical part of the explosive. Applies the of the -- on like a fire which -- the oxygen from the year. Light -- gives you an example of some common rules that. That are used in explosives. Two common hydrocarbons -- -- -- oil interpret aren't even sugar -- us going. -- sought mr. -- so you can very common compounds. Can be used to provide the fuel part. An explosive. There are even more energetic hydrocarbon compounds that are not nitro methane which is great and you'll nickel -- -- nitrate. And there are other common compounds that are used to call elemental you'll powdered aluminum and magnesium. Far -- -- critics -- the thing to remember about -- -- Is that the you'll part of a -- Can be found easily and -- rattled because. The cool part of -- -- -- can be made or can be provided by home any common compound. A preview at an explosive isn't really pardon the -- rocket. If you can get a common fuel combined with common -- -- And detonate it was gonna -- account you're good to go. In terms of the oxidized and -- we don't wanna get too detailed. Just a little point remember perhaps is at the -- guys are all our guys are part of these -- -- its health. Two elements or 22 component and the bonding agent and the oxygen supply and the two combined to form the oxygen or. On and you get something like you -- take -- as a bonding agent. And nitrate doctrine apply to conform they combined to form ammonium nitrate fertilizer. -- -- -- -- without and I is that many oxidize -- used in criminal bombs and in AT. I TE variety. And the list to hear things like nitrate crew rock on chlorine. Chemical names like that chemical names -- in one of those three -- topic is. Are often. Explosive -- and answers. And in other common -- -- that doesn't meet that rule but that is commonly used communal bond is electric. Following through with combining -- You you get compounds like ammonium nitrate which is -- oxidized and fuel which is fuel -- cancel. Nobody knows -- and always these days and as a lot of -- in construction and even agriculture it's a very common thing. You get -- and -- and sugar to combine. Chlorine oxides or should -- -- you'll. Or make look at it and you -- -- two point urea nitrate. Also want to keep in mind that a lot of hype folks like TNT and cardiac and -- -- four. -- are actually chemical compounds are not mixtures. And in this case you don't have the softer to go by that that AT -- They're a little harder to pick up on except that they tend to come packaged but which normally think of explosives and you normally. Think of them as explosives or exposed packaging because you've got an exposure to -- on TV in the movies and in fact. They don't do to better job portraying what these things look like in their native form when -- come from the manufacturer. You -- rely on your sense of what these look like from what -- seen. I like a commercial military markings indicating that there are still or -- you include it might be explosive. Keep in mind though that many high explosives like four can be molded. Into almost any shape. And -- -- and creativity on the part of the criminal can wind up looking like almost anything you may not recognize it if -- been. Camel clutch and now one. You also want to be aware that there's another class of explosives which are peroxide based. And you may have heard the term AT&T DT EPP a -- GT ATP and the UKP. If you hear them they just referring to rock my big -- crock I've -- what are usually very able very dangerous so. Com cost he's written you know you're coming across these are a lot of caution. Now what exercise caution usually means -- get the heck out of there if you can't if if you don't have a job that you have to do. If you see anything that you suspect might be a compound you're very dangerous spot -- lot of between you and yet between your teammates and yet. And what kind of city about these cross a bit closer and -- -- TD NTT ATP look like cracker -- And a lot of -- have been injured when you are broadcast on these because god can -- cause. An explosion. So these truck aren't -- folks are very dangerous. And they do look like crack -- -- But there isn't really. Any one or two -- we can give you what you -- that they're in your pro and its gonna be aware of them -- surrounding. We -- to contact between them know you're going to regard -- -- -- -- little extra careful about looking for things that might have. An explosive content to them. And if -- -- you don't have to be right there right then get out of there. Like to -- -- a gives you a little. Story a little arc and audio saw what happened to I'm not laden -- in Phoenix. -- these officers paid attention. The surroundings what they saw him with it and it wound up not getting hurt by by dangerous chemicals and they were in -- -- -- Didn't have to be a -- and it -- been on fire it is he responding to reports of fire could have been you -- whenever. Pointed to pay attention surrounding the -- people telling you and and don't try to be -- hero if you think that might possibly be. Kind of high explosive. -- Back away and get get the experts which bomb -- there. Now the next couple slides which are some examples. Of there -- kind closes. You can -- when we had earlier that TV -- -- -- don't have to got a job that you know these these are these photographs of real closer. Don't look to to much much in the movie. About for -- take a look at why haven't seen it leverage -- -- over there. We've -- could be any. It received an army markings on it. So something packet like that notion that the purpose of this program is when he's something package like that that your antenna connection go up. And the little red lights are going up and hadn't -- -- wonder it -- for my being -- More clues and I will -- from the surrounding the contact. -- from the people who -- saying there. -- ATA TA TP. Looks like a white -- -- -- be hard to note that nutcracker. Or some other white powder. You can you can it an -- even comes in sheets could look like nineteen. -- this is they -- thought of that are -- peaking -- in cardiac it's called data sheet commercially important. And it it's just like the I like -- You can see. On before. And if wasn't ignored already on the can be -- in molded and and really -- to be almost any shape. Part of what this program is about -- to help to recognize. Bombs or bomb making material when you come across when you're when you're -- some other legitimate reason it don't part of your job and so. Recognize it bombs -- -- -- or components there's the closer look explosive chain. There's the initiator typically like a blasting cap or -- -- a power source because they provide the power to the initiator and usually. Or click on that or more commonly -- probably -- -- -- -- battery timer. And then you had -- -- Which is what. Connect the power source to the initiator to -- little or component that make up most of the criminal -- that are used these days. The detonation can be caused by any kind of in -- to which the primary expose of how have things like electricity including static electricity. He friction shock that would be impact hammer that's mechanical impact. Where -- things like radio show -- So bear in mind. Because when you are in a place if -- police officer you replacement camera investigation -- refer you there for collier. Your empty -- their -- and kind of emergency. Want to -- what -- -- recognized. Locations and people that may be making -- Here are likely to -- obvious component it put together to make a bomb. -- pretty low tech in the batteries to battery that there -- dime. Which is -- -- nine which from the hardware store. They need to -- to blasting cap. Is something that could be commercially bought or -- won't talk. The only really hard part yet is explosive and go to secondary explosive AT&T. But you know with a little ingenuity. Little false credentials -- stealing it not all -- -- -- shrapnel has yet. Put -- together such a big criminal -- very simple very low tech -- -- to make. Take a look like twenty straight what you got here is your -- car bomb. I can't remember if it's a 150 or 300 pounds -- and in the back at a car but it's only a couple couple you fifty pound bag. Expect -- bought anywhere. You secondary -- him on top of the political night that tertiary -- of that info. And if you go to. Like 24. Because he -- left of that car. One -- explosion happened. Now remember. That there was only a couple hundred pounds -- -- -- in the back of that truck most car bombs the entire car. Packed. You know every -- -- was that can make it. A bomber or or that the driver. What you're seeing like when he or is the result of very small car what you would he you're responding to the site of a deliberate car -- would. Be even less residue of the car and and and that huge amount of damage to surrounding structures and people. Let's take a look at what a briefcase bomb could do to look like 25. You can you -- closer and in the briefcase there. Very well why don't expose it doesn't take up even half the white but it won't briefcase in the building sitting next -- -- -- -- -- -- Can he should realize that this building was actually built. Auction coat or not and flimsy thing that was just put together -- -- -- it's actually real building that would -- building code. He went to that small market close -- in the can find base of the building would do very little the building left. Point here being they only take -- -- closer to -- an awful lot of damage. -- -- Juan Cole attack and throw a couple of programs that put on free -- for -- -- one -- -- terrorist bombing and the other one was prevention spot with bombing. -- you can go respond you can go free these weeklong course and we encourage you to camp in more nation. How to do that -- -- -- weeks which are. Contained at the end of the program. You know we're all -- -- seeing the movies where the building explodes in the hero gets thrown from the air. And get up and walks away just as you -- on well. That's not real life. We saw in the preview photograph. Small monitor what it can cause an awful lot of damage. -- shrapnel to the -- you had tremendous amount of salad course that explosion. The explosive itself that is without any shrapnel without any mechanical damage -- the pressure from the explosive. Can do a lot of damage. I'm like twenty ever you can see what all of the PSI and the -- are that are generated a very distant. On some typical kind -- -- -- before. 200 pounds -- info which was in the trunk and carted off. And -- and very high PSI numbers at at not an editor at a reasonable to away from the explosion. For -- cheered 300 pounds a man throw a hundred feet away. Talking quarter to 9 PM on music or restaurant go higher or lower opinion -- -- -- collections of things that. What does that mean what is 49. 1 PM on knock -- over knocking on your bot. 5 PM on what figured on -- life on making death. 30 PM I would damage belongs to a hundred PSI will look -- you just like that. Now have to realize that. If these pressures are reflected. -- this car bomb went off city. He had buildings or reflecting the pressure is just an amplifier with the bomb off doing. Point here being that explosions are not anything you wanna be anywhere near around wanna get -- he had. That -- like the movie -- just -- thrown through the air because the building -- up with a car blows up you walk away. One of these bomb goes off it lot of damage and kills people. Of course not just a shrapnel from the bomb could kill -- aperture is not just the over pressure that could kill -- -- It's what happens when everything around you. -- crumble and fall and all in on. An awful lot of -- from -- occur because that can look at this chart for a look at how little pressure to take. For -- to honor guard. Falling glass of course -- dream -- very deadly. Some pretty gruesome story came out of the -- -- along those -- If you look at. For instance if you reinforced concrete walls and eat it doesn't take that much over pressure compared -- bombs programs for concrete walls to start the combo guard. So. -- -- take away from this is it doesn't take a very big bomb to cost structure to collapse and -- And so doing the -- -- the death. -- -- the danger and -- to make your job difficult.