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Home>Topics>>Responding to Bomb Threats, Bombings, and Suicide Bombers, Part 2

Responding to Bomb Threats, Bombings, and Suicide Bombers, Part 2

Wed, 4 Aug 2010|

This free full-length presentation from the Firefighters Support Foundation provides an overview of explosives and bombs, provides examples of various kinds of each.



-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- in fact there's lot of bomb across country every year. Lot of them you don't realize if they are dramatic you don't read about them out of local -- of course the big -- like Iran. And September 11 you read about everywhere. But there are a lot of -- already across country. And bombs are the criminal and terrorist wave of the future but we just gonna more than a pretty much a given everybody knows that. What makes -- an idiot here very easy very cheap to deal. Not our tax -- -- get that it plans. With a computer to download them off the net all Orton. Bombs -- very high impact. And scare people they they cause a lot of damage and they are very active from the perpetrators point you they're easy to deliver. Can be easily guys usually put duffel bag from apple to deliver. You don't need a large group of people who do this isolated individual can do this small group -- -- a very large bomb. A bomb goes off it's difficult to identify. The perpetrators. And all the -- that helped the perpetrator do. They claim credit can be often times in part to connect on what group. And of course -- red examination is difficult because a lot of the evidence just blown up. I mentioned bombs can -- you lead guy who can really be put -- anything. Briefcase backpack -- -- -- things we think about all time but they can be included in things that we think. The volume was already all -- something like that can be -- into a computer you know I think there's no -- and computer hard upon but there's funny. On premier -- says as we know from the Richard -- him. Can put them million anything you cellphone. Old enough explosive material to a lot of damage and kill people. As we mentioned there are a lot of bombing it happened in this country already anyway. Included -- in the twenty year period from 1983 to 2002. There were 36000. Bombing in the united days. On -- 6000 people were injured. -- a hundred people died as all those -- If you ask your average for on street which -- firefighter. Our -- serious problem in this country if one hadn't gone often their jurisdiction it probably now but to indicate otherwise. The FBI we'll tell you that there are two to 3000 criminal bombings a year. So it is a serious problem is something we need to understand and know how to respond to a political and -- war. No they probably already -- that's -- most -- had some kind of terror group acted in an already domestic form. The -- is if you're seeing a bombing in your career. -- pretty good. Bombs and bombing. I'd not just a problem for large -- we can think of your city Chicago and maybe and it's going tickled. We -- next bombings going to be. But all the reason we just -- because cheap and easy it's hard to identify the people you don't need -- large -- to do it. And -- lot of angry motivated. People out there. Bombings happen and will happen continue to happen in small -- to. Don't write off -- horrible bombings and bombs suicide bombers just cause you're working small -- or rural community. You're just as likely to have it happen. As your colleague NYPD. Or FT and -- To take a look at the diagram on page 36. You can see that shows you. The various stages of -- bombing all the things have to come together in order to make that bombing come off. All the way from things like obtaining funding. Purchasing materials are gonna on the target at the beginning stages. Two at the end ages the final preparation. The moving to a location in the final detonation. What we're gonna look at next is what various kinds of -- and -- can do. At various stages. To prevent the -- If you look at the diagram on our -- 37. You can see that the activities. In in gray shadow. And activities that are generally done in secret that -- identify in the target. Obtain funding between the bombers. And constructing the device is usually done behind closed walls. And -- -- in behind those -- -- -- in someone's residence or maybe even a place of business you aren't going to either happening. But public safety agencies police fire -- -- inside of people's homes and -- all the time. We'll talk a little bit later but what you wanna look for at these states he staged -- done in secret. That could potentially stop or -- -- On -- 38. You can see the -- and yellow highlight are the are the stages that need to be done more -- -- -- public these things like purchasing the components of a bomb. Doing your target selection which usually -- it -- deal with recon. And training a recourse in the event. These -- are done in public. And we talk little bit later about what to look for and how you media -- be able to look for the bombing by noticing things at these states. On slide 39 we have circled. The truth final stages before the detonation in his final preparation of the bomb and the moving to the target moving to bombed a target. Once the bomb had the bombing has gotten to the eighties when -- out the door on the way to the target. It's very difficult stuff -- the ideas as public safety professionals. Who want to be alert to what we can do. And the previously -- the stages prior to the final -- and we -- target. -- the -- that with the greatest leverage that we have the greatest chance of making an impact. -- -- activities done in secret. Obtaining funding identifying and recruiting the perpetrators and constructing the device. There's some impact you can have here but not as much as in a later stage. With regard to obtain funding. Unless -- federal law enforcement officer or working with the terrorism task force -- calling -- gonna have much ability to have an impact or prevent. The potential bombing here. In terms of identifying and between perpetrators. Stopping a bombing at the state is pretty much done with targeted undercover work so unless again that specific assignment. You are gonna have much involvement here. However -- in the constructing -- device. This is where you could have an impact we -- agree or about this later on but when people -- construction devices and we say. They're looking down in their house -- -- -- his place of business for the most part and you are in there quite a bit. This is why we went through the chemicals the typically make up bombs in previous section. Is that why we went to the components of Obama's choice of examples because when you -- in as a police officers firefighters EMT. Doing your job if you -- aware. You surroundings and looking at what's going on you may pick up. On on these things you may see some of these chemicals -- -- -- components components for a -- I mean -- -- on ham radio. Doesn't look like someone working on any on a bomb components are different in the whole layout is different than just registered in your mind differently. The reason we went to this for me was a couple bombs and explosives previously was so it this date the construction of the by age. You could potentially pick up on of these cues when you're in somebody's house and -- -- place -- business doing the job. You came here to do. Now you may not recognize particular chemical. Or a particular component of a bomb but what you may recognize is that something looks out of place. I mean it's just not normal to have large amounts of chemicals in most garages for its most -- So once you see something out of place once that little red light goes on if you -- a little deeper. And this training comes back you -- -- might be a bomb making components at which point of course you notify law enforcement authorities notified. The -- local bomb squad and you get them involved. Clearly the activities that are done public -- where you're gonna be able to have the greatest impact because -- be able to observe them. These things -- gather intelligence on the target training for the event -- in materials you can see these things happen. And -- you can develop intelligence networks so you notified when other people see these things happen. And you may or may not but you may be able to be position. In some cases to observe outside in a public area some. Component of aspects the -- construction. When you're terrorist or your criminal is -- Conning gathering intelligence on -- target. There's lots of opportunity for you to notice that notice things about a place knows activities that aren't normal for people to be doing in that area. For instance if you've got repeated and prolonged presence -- -- individuals around an area that's a potential target. And things that a potential targets are obviously. Public buildings government buildings schools water supply in anything bridges anything will be worth blowing out. He just may notice suspicious individuals and area if you notice suspicious individuals he should automatically be looking. A little more closely yet on what they're doing because they're suspicious. Our usual picture taking video recording that kind of stuff we don't know these days that people doing that around public areas. -- -- -- -- -- -- He's probably an indicator that we ought to pay a little bit of attention to them maybe even ask -- what they're doing. If -- usually use of binoculars for someone would buy -- looking an area where. You know there's really nothing to look at all that much about that -- -- alarms off. Obviously people asking questions about security procedures of school hours of this kind of thing that should. Be on the red light going off in your -- you want to work with the facilities the likely facilities in your. Jurisdiction. To alert them to -- We -- your school officials should know if you've got strangers asking questions about school hours and vacations and that kind of stuff that. It could be anybody could be innocent but that's not normal to make -- -- -- it can get their names. -- -- Other indicators of recon Intel gathering would be people asking. For public documents and extends for -- you want blueprints of -- public buildings with its not a normal question unless your contract to produce more content they want schedules and and routes and times and and things like that -- alert. Your public servants to be on the lookout for things like -- not to just automatically grant everybody's request without at least wondering if it's of a suspicious. If people -- present clearly restricted area that's a big alarm going off testing of security measures this happens a lot. When. When criminals terrorists doing dry runs on -- card but deliberately violate. A security procedures and we know they'll. Walk through restricted area the ticket card readers not supposed to be something like that to see what the security -- -- and don't have Obama and that time. But they want to see what the response is how confident it is politics should do it. Clearly the after a loss of official uniforms is something that ought to get to wondering. If you have far uniforms -- -- T shirts or police uniforms or even UPS or FedEx uniforms and -- -- Or or reported -- Back to set off some alarm bells to that's that's not normal and we do know that that is the route -- that is masquerading as official. As official people. That is a rout the terrorists and criminals want to take -- have taken in the past. People doing -- sketching or. Maybe drawing surrounding areas if they don't -- an artist -- for architecture student. You know this is -- were questioned them and at least taking note that it happened reporting. Included in this program in -- separate. Documents separate file is something called the -- indicators and in that document. Isn't ten of them but these kind of recon Intel indicators we suggest you open up that -- take a look at. Now unity saying to yourself well gosh I'm not a police officer I mean -- firefighter. -- I -- emergency management I don't have the authority to detain people are some questions let's not quite true anybody can go to anybody. In America and initiated congress and you can simply someone doing it looks patients -- I don't what do you -- -- -- -- -- And I mean you can't physically detain -- at that point to protect the rest and unless your -- -- to a probable cause you can do that but. Anybody can talk to anybody but our conversation so don't be afraid to -- all public safety professionals -- -- -- the job seriously and we see something suspicious. About it. Recon Intel gathering aren't the only things -- public now the only things you might observe human -- people actually training for the incident. Clearly usual suspicious people around an area acting suspicious way always wants investigation always warrants going up and saying who are you when you don't. Meet you -- employee off. You -- -- you know whatever. At least you've asked and now you have to report because most people responding to update if you're just doing innocent thing in that area. You will probably respond to someone asking. If you seek court choreographed movement of individuals or vehicles through an area well that's a clue that's that's -- usual. And that should set off alarm he had this going on here maybe somebody's training for some kind of event. And thing. With timed move which basically was stopped watchers are -- clearly timing of the -- Connie and when we wanted to point B that's another clue -- suspicious going on. -- In many -- -- only one component. In any -- bonds will be combined with gunfire or some kind of other -- So if you see some kind of obvious Marshall -- combat occurring. In secret. And this is obviously if you -- take notice I mean you know on my talk about martial art schools and talk more people on -- -- -- talking about. Clearly. Marshall warfare type activities terrorist activity occurring in secret that not know. When someone some group of people purchases materials for a bomb. This is the public activity and this is something you can actually get some in light into. Now many explosive materials these days and -- precursors are at least somewhat cryptic and for -- and follow. Large quantities of -- now reportable and somewhat restricted after. Timothy -- incident. To what you wanna do. Is try to monitor the sales in jurisdictions might -- -- The fire department the police department -- depending on your jurisdiction. But for these some -- restricted reportable type explosives or close precursors. Making a point to monitor what's being -- and -- make friends with the vendors facilities in your area. And get them to tell you to report -- pick up opponent tell you when someone -- usual put it. 01 part -- an unusually large amount. On the other hand many bomb component components in the precursors are not it was widely available. You know a threaded pipe and and caps -- you can pick up on any hardware store. But you should have you should develop a relationship with a hardware vendors in your your jurisdiction or UB. And -- pass on his face if somebody comes in here and they buy 106. Inch. Sort of points and twenty and camp. That's not really normal in -- must -- Person doing. It's very specific job that's not a real normal -- for most people. That should be something that you want them to pick up the phone -- open it up elect a number of the -- bought that it may be a completely innocent home project for somebody. But that's kind of thing but at least raise alarm. Point here is there are vendors and suppliers. Of both restricted and non restricted. Bomb making components your -- you beat or within the area station house -- whenever. Make -- -- -- out to them make friends with them and ask them to report suspicious activity. We've been saying here that should take note of these activities. And and and reports on what does that mean exactly. While both you. In the people -- recruit -- is the vendors and suppliers in your area can do things like take registration numbers of vehicles. Of people that they feel special. You -- take your own picture suspicious people want people to have digital cameras -- -- anyway and we all do in our cellphones. So if this office -- going one's suspicious people I think -- are you picking up yourself on taking a picture that's perfectly legal. Because as we said before you can ask for names. And what sort of come -- anybody. If people present identification to you have the ability to for a copy it or ticket between -- -- -- -- at me if it's a suspicious activity are investigating. Some present you with some identification. We'll go the next step. And snap a picture if you have a capability that might be forged document and and when examining that went on holder. You want to report information to your fusion center every state has if you -- And it actually become the focal point for gathering disseminating analyzing this kind of information. They are the people that's what we can tough -- a lot of no -- information comes in handy -- a lot of -- relevant information doesn't matter how can get at all but their job to find the patterns. To find a little bits of important information from all the stuff the comes in and connect the dots. Just letting people know that they have been detected if -- even -- activity. Could -- be enough to deter an attack on the location. Operation safeguard in New York City is a really good example -- successful outreach reporting program. We don't need to go into detail in that in this presentation about that operation but just Google it. It's an interesting report about what the police the public safety was in New York City did. And they were very successful in getting lawsuit could type of information to prevent another terrorist attack there. Like 47. We just reiterating a point we've made many times before which is that public -- to people are in people's houses of business all the time for all kinds of legitimate reasons. -- they have an opportunity to one observe things sort of what's going on. What are -- -- out of place and you have opportunity when you're there to talk to people. I mean. We invite in the -- someone wants putting is we're invited into people's homes all the time would you please fire. And people don't clean up before we come you -- you wind up going to their house just as it is. You know people often say things to fire and -- personal that they wouldn't say the police. They may identify the fact that they got the chemical -- from such -- such a chemical they've been using but it wouldn't that typically has another chemical. It's it's kind of suspicion. So. Just because you're not to -- Doesn't mean you can't ask people questions and you can do so under the guise of medical necessity or -- Now there are lots of things that we can noticed in someone's home or place of business or or or some other place where they are. That might tip off that they're planning a bombing and making bombs. But -- -- to you we actually have to have the awareness to notice. And we go into a situation when -- -- somebody's home when they respond to a call. They are generally looking all around most of the time. And are doing to re. What is it looking for danger because typically -- -- -- to situation the keenly aware of the fact that it might be dangerous so they're looking for bad guys from the dangers. They're also looking for. Are contraband or evidence of a car because anything they see in plain sight is is seasonable it's -- and actionable so police are always. Look around if they're doing their job. Fire and -- can do this to. When you respond to that opened fire in somebody's apartment once -- get to the door don't only just zeroing in on that fire. Accurate EMT -- responding to report -- somebody down get to lead going to the person down the victim down notre zero in on them take. -- second -- secretary -- look around. And then had it and you're looking around. Notice as much as you can't you're looking for the same thing the police are the same things police are. You're looking for other dangers number just because your firemen. -- firefighter just because uranium here paramedic. Doesn't mean that there aren't people there at that -- that might want to hurt you. So look around -- that's the dangerous for people that might be dangerous for animals might be. And -- you're doing that look for anything else you might -- that might be useful like evidence of the car. Bombs being made or bombings -- being planned. The kind of thing you can notice from the very quick -- But keep your awareness up. Our our usual. Out of -- amounts of virtual or oxidize or one went through the whole. -- -- chemistry lesson that we want to earlier. You might notice bomb construction activity or explosive materials are precursors. -- sees things like blasting caps for det -- somebody's apartment clearly that's right that's something that we reported. -- much difference of -- switching now to schematic or or routes or something that just doesn't look like for the content. Of the people in that apartment. Most people don't have blueprints of public buildings hang around living -- it. He much he switches are small electronic part that might ring a bell there might look like. Something -- -- make a bomb they say you know as we had earlier. Someone -- ham radio or we're working on aerial. Is that gonna have -- -- -- components in the same. Kind of general -- re someone making a bomb so hopefully that will. The -- trip. Something in your head and -- in a recent report -- -- -- -- Kind of extra unit is popular toggle switch as -- have to be the kind of thing by -- source which is an -- and -- be -- mechanical clock. Excellent foil clothes -- anything that can cause to. About conducting materials to make contact. Connect which for bombing and then it happened. So when -- -- things look a little bit out of place. Ask yourself. -- -- can -- be quick and if you see some aluminum -- was close in some -- you know all together on a table. That's -- But there are too many uses for that kind of thing so hopefully the -- to this program it's a popular recognized that that out of place something on top. If you're attending to an injured person and you have any suspicions at all -- might have been an explosion that injured them. Ask them about it say what kind of explosive. -- -- working with where this happened and they did it may be reluctant to tell you especially if they're up to criminal activity. But you're gonna medical pass a Republican be more willing to talk to you -- would be too and investigating police -- here. You can say things like very important forced know what kind of close of this was what kind of chemicals to what -- so that we can treat -- correctly. And prevent you from getting further hurt that may cause them to -- to volunteer a little more information and who would otherwise. But if you suspect that an explosion has caught -- kind of injury. When you when you working on somebody by all means do again didn't dig as deep as long. As you can't get as much information as you -- because the information you gather. On that person for that incident may be all the information that's available. Two investigators later on so keep asking questions. On slide fifty we have a really neat story for you that happened in 2003. In Jersey City. In this case the fire department that department for reports of -- smoke. A report smoke. And at a -- couldn't aren't -- -- But when they were searching you know looking for for -- fires in the apartment. They -- they discovered multiple one gallon milk jugs full of Europe. Now that ring some bells and that's not normal and actually -- proposal. A member of that team was a recent graduate of one of the courses we told -- about the New Mexico -- And recognize that fact that you did your aren't as a precursor to a urea nitrate bomb. After what happened is he savior and you boil it down to a 321 concentration and he used that sort of -- community bomb. This is a technique used by a lot of it -- terrorists. A further search and obviously -- -- for the -- etc. and for the search of the apartment. Discovered blueprint and diagrams and notes for the tunnels and bridges and access Manhattan so clearly this is a great case. Great example. A firefighter. Being alert to what was around and understanding significance -- -- and a bombing attack was --

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