Mon, 18 Oct 2010|
This free one-hour video program from the Firefighters Support Foundation familiarizes public safety personnel about: how to recognize a lab if you are approaching one or are in one and more.
Today we're here to talk about. Clandestine laboratories. Where methamphetamine. Manufactured. We -- in several objectives today to include. Defining the term -- -- -- laboratory. Identifying the five types of clandestine laboratories. Identifying and talking about the war most common manufacture methods of methamphetamine. I -- applying the five different types of laboratory processes. And I've been -- users of methamphetamine. And the dangers that are presented by them the law enforcement firefighters. And Emergency Medical Services. How prevalent this methamphetamine. In our society. Look you were McDougal methamphetamine. You would get over 141800000. Results. What that sort. And you might -- word of people learn to manufacture. Methamphetamine. Well there are a variety of sources to include the Internet as just mentioned the work 141800000. Results that you'll get from the McDougal when you put methamphetamine and in your search engine the other ways thirst there's books out there the can be purchased through a variety of sources one of the most popular being. Secrets of methamphetamine manufacture. My Uncle -- This is an extremely popular book on the manufacturer of methamphetamine. And other psychedelic drugs. Other books include advanced techniques of clandestine psychedelic. And amphetamine manufacture. But the most prevalent way that -- learned to manufacture methamphetamine. Is from each other. Now this makes this drug very unique. If for instance you had a a cocaine deal worked hand in his neighborhood another cocaine dealer moved ahead. Well what would he do he might -- shoot the other cocaine dealer. Be call the police and have them arrested because he doesn't want such a person in his neighborhood. Or -- he could just simply take his business over but meth amphetamines different. It's it's believed that one methamphetamine Cote will -- five other people to manufacture methamphetamine it methamphetamine. Within a ninety day period and they begin to work as a -- We're one they have one specific ingredient for the cook and the other one doesn't. They can combined what they have and manufacturer a batch of methamphetamine. To either -- or to sell. Let -- burst upon what a clandestine laboratory -- It's an illegal operation. Consisting. Of -- sufficient combination of apparatus or chemicals that has been or could be used. In the manufacture or sent missiles we're controlled substance. Now going back to somewhat more objective. Objective -- of which was types of laps. -- clandestine laboratories were classified in the five separate categories. One extraction laboratories. Two conversion laboratories. Three -- missiles laboratories. Or -- laboratories. And five multi process -- reports. Let's begin by defining and extraction laboratory. A Finnish drug is removed from -- plant or pharmaceutical material by use of the chemical solvent. Structure of the drug is not -- examples of this would be morphing from opium. Hashish or hash oil from -- of us. Any bedroom from pseudo -- Now look upon -- -- conversion laboratory is. That's where one form -- that road is changed into a more desirable for. Drug chemical structure again remains unchanged. Two great examples of this or. Crack cocaine. From cocaine -- chloride in other words. Regular white -- -- cocaine is converted. Into crack cocaine. The molecular structure of the drug stays on altered. Another example of this is methamphetamine. Being converted to the drug ice. Which is a smoke -- form of methamphetamine. Again the drugs. Molecular structure or chemical make up remains unchanged. It's just converted into a different usable form. Next let's discuss a -- this laboratory. Raw materials are combined -- a chemical process. To produce a desired drug. The original materials may already be controlled substances. Methamphetamine. From pseudo ephedrine. PCP from piper than -- heroin from warplanes. Next is a -- -- -- -- living laboratory. The forming of a Finnish drug product into -- dosage unit by use of the machine -- gelatin capsule. LSD to blotter paper or window panes GHB to dosage units. Or Ecstasy and DNA. Into its tablet form. And finally a multi process laboratory. Different types of laboratories -- processes at the same location. A pseudo -- extraction lab with -- methamphetamine sentences. More and methamphetamine -- slab. Where they met happened -- -- sentence. The most common clandestine laboratories in the United States -- simply this a pseudo -- extraction lab. -- they methamphetamine sentences in other words pseudo ephedrine or ephedrine is being extracted from pseudo ephedrine. And -- emphasized in the methamphetamine. So now let's begin talking about the basic chemical requirements. Pertaining to a clandestine laboratory. Basic chemical requirements are necessary in order to produce the desired narcotic. They -- -- follow. One precursor chemicals to free agent chemicals three catalyst chemicals. And pour salt and chemicals. Precursor chemicals. They chemical that -- east central in the production of a controlled substance and for which no substitution can be made. For -- purposes today the precursor chemical is pseudo ephedrine. This photo shows multiple punch packs of pseudo ephedrine. That were found and an actual methamphetamine lab as it was being processed -- -- crimes thing. New state and federal laws and guidelines have been created such as the federal combat methamphetamine act that limits the purchase. -- the purchase amounts of -- -- federal. -- sides of the clandestine laboratory. Dictates the amount of pseudo ephedrine that must be obtained for the manufacture process. But again this is -- attention to -- -- May save your life as a public safety officer. As you approach -- residence for any reason to put out a fire to assist somebody having a heart attack. You could see anywhere from warning to 200 -- punch -- Of pseudo ephedrine laying in the garbage around -- garbage can or in a -- -- This attention to detail -- allow you didn't -- will allow you to know. That you may be walking into a deadly methamphetamine -- report. Now to continue your discussion of the basic chemical requirements in the manufacture methamphetamine. We come to -- -- chemicals. Chemicals which will react upon a precursor causing it to chemically change these include. I've done. -- -- -- -- or premiere erratic gas should. -- -- -- -- Under the common trade name -- double -- Salt. That can be either common table salt or rock salt. And -- ammonia. Is a dangerous chemical mostly used throughout the United States as either fertilizer or referred to -- But it is illegally harvested. By methamphetamine -- And it's placed an unapproved containers such as igloo coolers. Fire extinguishers. -- most common -- A propane -- This dangerous and corrosive chemical. Leaves a telltale sign as it flows through these unapproved containers. And then there's a blue or blue green discoloration. On the bow again attention to detail can save your wife. This chemical has an idea wage or immediately -- -- wife and help and only 300 part per million. These -- show where over 1000 gallons of and -- ammonia were buried. At a clandestine laboratory site by the methamphetamine -- After this tank was drained by hazardous waste contractor. It had to be dug up and removed. The total cleanup cost to the citizens of the United States on -- lap was over 140000. Dollars. -- -- -- -- -- -- In the manufacturing process of methamphetamine. And a catalyst chemicals or chemical which speeds up -- reaction processed and gore calls listen to go to greater completion. These -- catalyst chemicals or red phosphorus. And lithium metal. What the -- coach commonly do. Is so this. Striker -- just the -- plate of the match book in acetone. And then can take an instrument such as a dental school. And slowly scrapes away the red phosphorus. It's contained within the striker played -- them actions. Lithium metal is commonly harvested from lithium batteries. Here's an example of a common lithium photo battery. That could be used in the manufacturer -- -- of methamphetamine. What the -- will do is actually cut away both ends of this battery. And -- it down until finally getting to the core lithium strip contained with him. One thing to keep in mind especially for the firefighter. Is that lithium metal is a water reactive. And when it comes in contact with water may either flash -- -- fire or explode. Methamphetamine -- keep their -- of lithium scripts in Coleman fuel or -- spirits to provide an explosion. Large quantities can be harvested. And saved in the solvent -- woods until needed for a coat. As first responders approaching the scene of -- suspected methamphetamine lab. You should look for battery shells in and around the trash can before the home -- burn barrels. Again attention to detail we'll save your life. And now -- final basic chemical requirement in the manufacture methamphetamine. Solvent chemicals. An assault -- this simply a medium -- -- in which a chemical operation takes place. -- examples of solvents found in methamphetamine labs or Coleman fuel. Acetone. Eat there free on or any other organic salt. Solvents unlike precursor chemicals if you think back to what we set about precursor chemicals which -- -- chemical were no substitution can take place. Organic solvents are different -- one meth Coke may prefer to use Coleman fuel because he thinks it's the best one to use another one may use -- -- -- All of these are examples. Of things that can be used for -- can be used in the manufacture methamphetamine. For instance heat gas line Amy freeze is really just -- -- all. Course one of the most important things to remember about any of these solvents is but -- all flammable. The reason that many of these laboratories catch on fire is because of these chemical. These chemicals and and of themselves or common household items and you can find them and almost any garage in the United States of America. However the met -- during his extraction. Of the ephedrine from the pseudo ephedrine pills. Must first grind those tablets up in a coffee being grinder -- or or just -- them up in a back with a hammer. He then has to put them -- a pop. -- -- flammable chemical solvent. And -- what on the stove of this house the potential hazard that you face as -- first responder is this. You as a firefighter. Or an emergency medical technician get a call to 132 Smith -- Related to an older person having congenital heart failure. As you -- you have no idea that her two grandsons are actually cooking methamphetamine in the kitchen while she's having a heart attack. On the -- their boiling this deadly -- They don't want you to know that this is happening so they basically just stand in front of the kitchen door while you take care of the grandmother. Leaving their boiling flammable chemicals on attended. A situation like this is more attention to detail may save your life the first responder and -- saving the life of your overly patient. As you approach the standards residents you know this fifteen cans of heat gas line any race. And multiple lithium battery feelings you already know that you're headed into a bad and serious situation. My advice to you at this point would be to take your elderly patient. And get her out as quickly as possible and do your fine work. Inside the ambulance and then report what you've seen immediately to local -- work. Another deadly chemical used in the manufacturer of methamphetamine. Regardless. Of the method of manufacture being used by the methamphetamine coat. This hydrogen chloride gas you may be asking yourself. -- of these coach -- hydrogen chloride gas they simply make it themselves. They take a container such as the gasoline -- sitting in front of me. And the host it's running out of it and connect the two inside the -- and they mix sulfuric acid. And either -- table or rock salt. Or another alternative. Would be to mix you erratic -- and -- of aluminum foil. Once this gasoline can has capped all and this to put on -- the hydrogen chloride gas flows freely from the two. And into the methamphetamine oil to finish the process of manufacture. It doesn't have to be -- -- gasoline can that's used. Anything but Gatorade bottle a Coca-Cola bottle -- Jack Daniel's bottle and any type of tubing and the ingredients -- mention can be used to manufacture. Hot in chloride gas. If you -- first responder. -- those multiple bottles of any variety from a Gatorade bottle to a Mountain Dew bottle to a Pepsi bottle to a gym being bottle. -- pieces of plastic tubing coming off of them. And either -- brown sludge. Wore a gray sludge in the bottom of it. You most likely now encountered a hydrogen chloride gas generator and one of the scariest things to you the first responder is this. Do you anywhere on this tank see an on off switch. And because these items don't have on off switch -- You the first responder need to be careful what you kick what you touch and what you moved. You -- -- this item on -- war while trying to do your job as we talked about it for the elderly patient having a heart attack. As you crouch over you -- -- one of these Dedrick deadly hydrogen chloride gas generators with your foot. And all of a sudden it's -- to make hydrogen chloride gas again even though the cook -- burned out or lost its usefulness. Hydrogen chloride gas. When inhaled by the first responder. Would -- respiratory protection -- and can -- first second or third degree burns. To -- sinuses. -- Nasal cavities and loans. It can also kill you. Now begin our discussion of the actual methamphetamine. Production methods what's first or what he read PHI. Method. The chemicals needed to produce methamphetamine. Using this method or. -- Federer pseudo ephedrine our precursor chemical. -- -- -- -- periodic -- Or iodine crystals. Sodium Hydro oxide. Organic solvents. Hydrogen chloride gas. And a heat -- require with this specific method of manufacture. With this method of manufacturer as I stated earlier they heat source is required. If a -- one of the clandestinely manufactured using this method -- -- say in the woods were forced somewhere -- to camping site they would most likely use some type of stove. Propane burning stove. Other dangers to this method of manufacture include. Red phosphorus which as we go back and review his manufactured using the striker -- off match books. Hydrogen chloride gas which we talked about earlier here's more worried -- gas generator examples and then any type of chemical solvent. Such as he. Which is -- and all. -- rational time. The most dangerous thing about this method of manufacture. Is the production of -- gas that is created one -- Hi -- -- and red phosphorus are -- together. Again this deadly gas is sometimes filtered through kitty litter which -- and simply thrown away in the trash cans of the methamphetamine coat. Other times this deadly gas is put in punch ball balloons and simply released into the atmosphere by the cook. The next method of methamphetamine manufactured that we'll talk about this the and -- -- ammonia method. To chemicals needed or again. If ephedrine or pseudo ephedrine -- precursor chemical for which no substitution. Can be made. And -- ammonia. Sodium -- lithium metal. Sodium -- drop side. Organic solvents of some type and hydrogen chloride gas. A heat source is not required. Making this method of manufacture ideal for doing in clandestine locations. Such as in wooded areas. And again just -- -- some of the items that you may see comment to the -- Hydro some ammonia method of methamphetamine manufacturer or. And Hydro some ammonia in some type of unapproved cylinder or -- such as a common propane barbecue -- Sodium -- -- side or some type of drain cleaner. And most importantly. Lithium batteries. But the most important thing to remember is attention to detail. It's all common household items in non -- and quantities. Our third method of manufacture. Part of which we haven't touched on yet is the condensed ammonia method. The chemicals needed for this method or ephedrine should look Federer again -- precursor chemical for which no substitution can be made. Ammonium nitrate fertilizer. Up 3400. -- -- -- lithium metal. Sodium -- -- side. Organic solvents. And hydrogen chloride gas again there is no -- -- required for this method of manufacture. The condensed ammonia method is used when -- methamphetamine -- does not have pure and congress ammonia available to him or her. Keep in mind that -- hybrid simply means without water. And why would that be important. Well when you mix. Anything with lithium metal -- -- -- would. It cannot have any -- of water to it or you would get the explosion. -- flash over that we talked about earlier. Condensed ammonia is about 9% water. But will not calls an explosive or -- reaction with lithium novel. The manufacturer. Of condensed ammonia is really a distillation process. Sodium -- -- side. Ammonium nitrate 3400. Mix. Which can also be found. In medic cold compress -- And a little bit of water are mixed together in a container. After those three ingredients are mixed ammonia gas then -- to pass. The route to being. That are submerged in a cooler. In dry ice and acetone. As the ammonia gas is super cooled in the -- -- in the acetone. It drip salt into a container. The of the -- And can now be used from this container by the cook. As his manufacturing ammonia. Things to look -- -- this method of manufacture or igloo cooler approximately the size of the one that I haven't problematic world -- -- -- plastic tubing. Dry ice containers. -- -- wiser the ammonium nitrate 3400. Mix. Or -- quantities. Of those medic cold compress packs. The dangers of this method of manufacture or many but some -- have decided to make it even more dangerous. And instead of using dry ice and acetone. To super -- the ammonia gas. They've decided to use -- -- propane. We had an -- -- in my state where this was done and one of the coach in the room decided to smoke Marlborough. While it was being super cool. -- the single wide trailer that they were -- to be blown to -- three of them ended up in a burn unit and one of them ended up dead. The final method of manufacturer of methamphetamine or we're gonna look at is the one pot -- -- shake and bake method. First the -- must produce condensed ammonia as described earlier. And performed the cook in the same container or pop. You use the very same ingredients as used in the condensed ammonia method of manufacturing methamphetamine. Containers usually a plastic soda bottle with a -- It's the fastest cooking method would very little waste which means very little evidence. You can easily burn or bury your laboratory evidence on site. If you're an illegal methamphetamine lab operator. There are smaller cooks because currently -- looked -- there's -- available because of the new law also we talked about earlier. The following photographs. Or -- or of recent examples of one pot method methamphetamine laboratories. Found in the state where I work.