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Home>Topics>>Vehicle Fires: Assessment and Response

Vehicle Fires: Assessment and Response

Tue, 1 Nov 2011|

Larry Holloman, retired battalion chief from Winston-Salem (NC) Fire Department, discusses response to vehicle fires.



[BLANK_AUDIO] Hello. Today we'll be talking about vehicle fires. We'll be talking about how law, EMS and fire respond to these vehicle fires and what actions they should take. We'll be talking about apparatus placement, we'll be talking about victim assessment, we'll be talking about fire control and extinguishment and how each agency can interact with one another. For a successful conclusion to the vehicle fire. The response to the vehicle fire is the same for all responding agencies. There are three priorities that every agency must adhere to for successful conclusion to the vehicle fire. Life safety, incident command and property conservation are the three priorities. For any incident. But especially for a vehicle fire. These priorities apply for all responding units. Law, fire, and EMS. Life and scene safety must be your number one priority. At a vehicle fire. There are many obstacles and hazards that can cause problems. That's why the number one priority is life safety in all instances. The first arriving unit should focus on the entire area. To get a good analysis of what is taking place. When accessing life safety, always remember, the safety of responding personnel is first and foremost. If responding personnel becomes injured or incapacitated in some way, they're not gonna be able to help the people, victims that are involved in the vehicle fire. The first arriving units, while assessing life safety for themselves as well as the victim, needs to analyze the situation with a good scene size up, so as not to put themself in jeopardy. Sometimes running headstrong into an incident can cause more problems than it can to help. In determining the scene safety, you also want to keep in mind that the hazards are obstacles that may be around. Bystanders, pedestrians, traffic, are always a problem that the first arriving unit has to contend with. There are exposures that you need to look for. The exposures could include buildings, could include telephone poles, could include power poles, they could include other vehicles that are in or around the area. More than likely most of your exposures in a vehicle fire will be other vehicles, and pedestrians and bystanders that are trying to help. You also need to be aware of leaking fuels that are there. Until you can identify what these fuels are, you need to make sure that you stay away from the fuels, and you keep bystanders and pedestrians out of those fuels. As the first arriving unit, a law enforcement officer can make sure that bystanders. And others are kept away. If you are a first responder from emergency medical or from fire department, it's imperative that you keep the bystanders and those that are willing to help away because of liability issues that could be there for you. Make sure that you are the ones that are taking care of the incident. Don't let outsiders take care of your incident. If citizens insist on helping you do your job, politely but firmly encourage them to move back, that you're trained, you know what to do. They could become, they could put themselves in an unsafe situation. While you're ensuring the safety of the bystanders and others that may be trying to help, inform them of the danger zone and make sure that they understand that they can help more by being away and reduce the liability to you and your agency. While you're moving the people to make sure they're in a safe zone. Look again at the surrounding area and try to determine what may be a hazard or obstacle for you. These again are going to include the exposures that may be there for you. Look for power poles. Look for lines that may have been knocked down if there was a wreck involved before this fire. Make sure that you have the area secure before you proceed. As your moving people in the, out of the danger area. Look for the leaking fuels that are there. Gasoline is extremely flammable and it's important that you see and recognize that by keeping away some of the ignition sources that may be out there. People smoking, live power lines, all of those things are ignition sources. For the fuel that are there. Look for other fluids that may be leaking from the vehicle. This could include antifreeze and oil. While these are not as flammable, they can be a concern from a health standpoint to you and to the respond, and to the responding people and bystanders. To help that first responder differentiate between a leaking fuel and a fluid that may be safe for you, you can use your sense of smell. Gasoline has a very distinct odor. Diesel fuel has a very distinct odor. And you should be able to determine if you see any of those things. Don't move in through that, close to the vehicle. Remember, that your life is most important. You have to make sure that you are able, to help the victim. If you're not able to determine that it's gasoline, diesel fluid. Then it could be, anti-freeze or oil. And that, is a little more safer for you to move, to help a victim that may be trapped in the vehicle. Always remember that every vehicle fire is different. You have to make the determination as to what is safe for you. You have to comply with your standard operating procedures that are in your ages. But you have to determine, are you willing to risk your life to help that other person? It may be safe for you to go in and it may not. You'll have to make that determination based on the incident and what you see. One factor, as a first responder, you want to consider is the ambient temperature. In the summer it's much hotter. And gasoline can ignite more readily than it can in the fall or early spring. Temperature is extremely important. Above 80 or 90 degrees, gasoline on the street can ignite much quicker than it can at 40 degrees, on a ground somewhere. So be aware of your surroundings and know and see. You have to make the determination as to whether there's a possibility of an ignition source close. Make sure that you look at everything. If there's a significant amount of fuel on the ground, be very, very cautious about going through that to help a victim. If it's in the street you don't wanna start tracking gasoline everywhere all over the scene. It potentially could be a crime scene and then you could have more problems. If it does ignite then you become part of the problem because of the gasoline that could be on your shoes, on your boots, may have gotten on your clothing. So be very, very careful if you see any leaking fuel, especially the gasoline. And, and especially in summer, when it's really hot, when it's above 90 degrees. Ultimately, there's no hard or fast rule to determine what your actions should be. In a vehicle that's leaking fuel or a vehicle that's involved in fire. Look at the situation, evaluate it, and make your best decision. As a law enforcement first responder, if you're the first to arrive on the scene, and you've made the determination that you're unable to access a victim, then begin to set a perimeter. There are no hard or fast distances on a perimeter. You have to make that decision based on the vehicle, its placement, is it involved in fire, is it just leaking, you have to determine what is best, what is the best approach to the incident that you're working with. Establishing a perimeter will mean a 360 degree perimeter as a law enforcement person. Make sure that you determine what a safe zone is. You can do that by assessing the situation and the area that you're in. Remember not to restrict access. So the other responding vehicles that are coming in. Emergency medicine may want to come in and look to see and have victim access. Fire will come in with an apparatus placement to make sure they're in the best position to extinguish any fire or be able to control any ensuing fire. As a first responder, identification of the type of vehicle that's involved will help determine the severity of the event. It could include a car, a bus, a truck, a trailer, or a truck hauling some kind of container. That could have product. That product could include any kind of hazardous materials, liquified petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, oxygen, any of those kinds of things. The emergency response guidebook becomes a valuable tool for you in this case. Also remember that pick-up trucks. Carry unknown cargos. So if they're involved there could be an unknown cargo in a pickup truck. Using the Emergency Response Guide Book will help identify the product and provide information for public safety and emergency response. If the vehicle is involved in fire once, you've identified that vehicle, it's important to note the area that's involved. Is the fire in the engine area, the trunk area, the passage area, or is it in the under carriage? If it is a vehicle that's transporting product. The container could be involved in fire. This is where your emergency response guidebook is extremely important for you. Placards should be on the containers that are transporting the product. Using the emergency response guidebook, you'll be able to look at the placard and determine what product or what classification of product- Is involved in fire and it will give you the exact actions that you should take in terms of setting a perimeter, public safety, extinguishment, control. If you have trouble and can't see the placards. Obviously, the further away you are the better you're gonna be. Page 18 and page 19 of your emergency response guide book will help you identify the type of container which may also help you determine the [INAUDIBLE] on it and what product it's transporting. If your law enforcement or emergency medical services are the first to arrive at a vehicle fire, you may have a fire extinguisher in your unit. It could be a class A extinguisher, a class B extinguisher, or a class C extinguisher. You probably have a, a combination, an ABC extinguisher in your unit. Be careful if you choose to use that because the fire could grow and it could overwhelm you, that extinguisher may not be enough for you to extinguish, or even control the fire. So assess the situation and you make the determination if you're comfortable. Or, if the incident dictates, that you can move in to control the fire, extinguish the fire, with your fire extinguisher. Wait for the fire department to come if you cannot decide what is safe for you. If law enforcement arrives on the scene first, and they're unable to control a fire, or access a victim, focus on the perimeter. Make sure you are controlling traffic in the immediate and surrounding area. Place your vehicle in a position that it won't impede access for EMS or for fire apparatuses that may be coming. Remember that these responding units can be coming from different directions. So place your vehicle in a position that you won't have to move it again and then you become a help to the other agencies that are there. Emergency medical should begin patient care if the situations permit. If there is no fire but leaking fluids. Analyze carefully and determine your safety against the victims safety. If you are able to, begin patient care, but remember that law enforcement will be controlling traffic and the other responding units and fire will be there. You're gonna have to make the determination if you are able to help that victim and access that victim there. If fire is the first to arrive, they can determine if victim access is necessary or are they gonna be able to control the fire and waiting for emergency medical services. To help with patient assessment. Every incident scene is dynamic. As part of the scene size up, you're also gonna determining what resources are coming and what you may need. Law enforcement may need an extra car, or a motorcycle squad that usually comes to investigate the traffic accidents that are there. EMS may need another unit depending on the. The incident itself and what they seen, fire may need more units. They may need a hazardous material unit. But the thing to remember about the incident scene size-up and resources is call for things before you need 'em. Remember the old axiom it's better to have 'em and not need 'em. Than need 'em, and not have them. So call for resources very, very early, so that you're able to solve the problem in a more expedient manner. The incident Commander should always be kept informed of resource needs. So that he or she may be able to call for those resources, in a timely manner. And it also helps in the duplication of resources. An example of this, are tow trucks. A lot of times, law enforcement will call for a tow truck, and a fire department will call for a tow truck. And two tow truck drivers from different companies show up, and then we have a problem: who's gonna tow the vehicle? If we have a little communication with the Incident Commander, once the scene is secure and the incident is stopped, then we're able to make sure that we've got the resources that are there. Apparatus and vehicle placement is extremely important in a vehicle fire. If law enforcement is first to arrive on the scene, use the 150 foot rule, park in front of, or behind the vehicle, depending your direction of response. Analyze the situation, but leave access for the other responding units. Emergency medical wants to stop 150 feet away, but you may move a little closer depending on the victims and victim access that you may need. Fire department will respond directly to the scene if the vehicle is on fire. If the vehicle is not on fire, the fire department needs to respond a little closer and setup for the potential of a fire. On a rural road or a street they're usually two lanes. Again, if law enforcement is the first to arrive. Stop the vehicle 150 foot away from the vehicle. Remember that other responding vehicles are coming, and they may be coming from different directions. So place your vehicle out of the way. Emergency Medical Services that come in, may position their ambulance 150 feet away. But they may move closer depending on access for the victims that are there. on a parkway or interstate you'll have three lanes or four lanes in which to work. Place you're vehicle 150 feet away, allowing access for the other vehicles that are coming. Once the vehicles are there, you may block off one of the lanes to provide more protection for you and the responders. Another important point for responders to remember. When you're responding to a vehicle fire, never drive through the area. We talked about the leaking fluids that may be on the ground, the leaking fuel that may be on the ground. By driving through the area you're contaminating your vehicle, which may be transferred to a victim if you need to access or help that victim. Never drive through the area if you're law enforcement. A medical. Try to stay away from the area so that you don't drive into that area. We're using the 150 foot rule. If you can stop 150 foot and stay out of the area, it's important for you to remember not to drive through. The area. The fire department's response, they should protect and shield. Their apparatus is usually bigger than an ambulance, bigger than a police car. So it's important that they use their apparatus when placing their vehicle to protect and shield the responders that may be working in that area. Fire Department also needs to remember not to drive through that area also. They need to remember to place their apparatus in a position to help shield the other responders that may be working in the area. But also leave access for egress if law enforcement needs to leave or when an ambulance needs to leave to transport a victim. The first arriving unit should always establish command of the scene. It's important that the instant command system be established so that all responders know that you're working within that framework. Sometimes Law Enforcement or Emergency Medical Services don't require them to announce an initiate the incident command. All fire departments should establish instant command. Of the scene. Command should be established, and announced clearly to all responders, who is in control of that incident. If the incident warrants, you probably would want to establish a unified command of one, two, or three agencies that are there. Law, fire, and EMS can come together in a unified manner, to make sure that the situation is controlled. The different agencies must learn to work together, knowing their roles and responsibility. In most cases the fire department will assume the incident command role. But it is important, that law, fire and EMS, get together and train, before an incident occurs. So that everybody will know and understand the incident-command system. And recognize their place, (their roles and responsibilities) that they'll have to play for an actual incident. The more the volunteer fire service, the emergency medical service, and law enforcement train together before these incidents occur, the better they're gonna be on the scene. The incident may appear to be a fire incident, but it very possibly could be a crime scene where law enforcement may need to take the lead in the incident command role. It could be a situation with so many victims that emergency medical may have to take control of the scene for a while. The more you rehearse, the more you train with incident command and unified command, the better you're gonna be able to solve the problems that you're gonna see out there in the street. Make sure that everybody knows their roles and responsibility. Put your ego aside. Remember, the victims need our help. Once we've arrived and got our vehicles in place, if the vehicle is on fire, we have to consider a fire-attack mode. If law enforcement is first to arrive they may pull their fire extinguisher, an ABC extinguisher, out and see if they can control the fire. If not, then they need to leave the extinguisher in the car and set a perimeter to protect the citizens and bystanders that are there. Control the traffic flow. Control access for the bystanders as well as the other responding units that are there. Help to establish that perimeter. If emergency medical are first on the scene, focus on scene safety. Look at the entire scene. Determine what you can do. Prepare yourself for any victims that may be on the scene, but also remember that first responders can become victims also. Prepare for them. The Fire Department is the first to arrive on the scene. If you are a volunteer unit that are responding in your personal vehicle. Place your vehicle out of the way, so that the truck can come in with the hose and the water to help extinguish the fire that's there. Focus on scene safety. Again, remind yourself, what do I have, what do I need, what can I effectively solve this problem in the most safe manner? You want to pull at least and inch and three quarter attack line. That should be the minimum line that a fire department should use to extinguish a vehicle fire. Always approach the vehicle at a 45 degree angle. This allows you better access. And also a better visual on the fire. Note where the fire is. Is the fire in the engine area? Is the fire in the trunk area? Is the fire in the passenger or undercarriage area? Approach the vehicle using a straight stream, and as you get closer. Change the pattern on your nozzle to a fog stream. Access all of the closed compartments. If the hood is closed, open it. If the trunk is closed, open it. Open all doors. Open them from the side, not from the front. Once they're opened, prop them open with the tool or some piece of equipment to ensure your safety. Remember, the first priority for all responders is personnel safety. Do everything possible to ensure the safety. Of the personnel that we operate on that scene. Constantly monitor the area. Law should constantly be aware of the perimeter that they have set. Fire department may ask them to expand or contract that perimeter to make it more safe for bystanders. Emergency Medical needs to look at thee entire area. Not just focus on the the victims that are there. Fire needs to constantly look for any leaking fluids. Any leaking fuels that are there. Watch for tires. When tires become heated. You have the air under pressure, they can explode. So you have to be aware of those. Work around the tires. They could explode when heated. Disconnect all airbags. If you're working in or around vehicles that have airbags. Try to disconnect the battery but also remember just because the battery is disconnected, that doesn't mean the airbag will not deploy. Take precautions for those that are working inside a vehicle to prepare themselves for the deployment of an airbag. In the newer cars today, you could have 9 or 10 airbags. The airbags could be deployed from the steering wheel, from the dash, from the head, from the back. They could be deployed from a number of areas. Disconnect the batteries with the airbags and protect all personnel that are working in or around that area. In a fire situation, remember, that the airbags can be deployed during a fire. The fire can heat something that causes them. To deploy. Remember that some of the newer cars have gas operated shocks. Those shocks could be in a hood, they could be in a trunk, they could be in a hatch-back. The gas operated shocks could explode. Remember that the shocks are there, and take extreme caution to keep those cooled. Disconnect them if you have a chance. Bumpers also make have shocks in them that can explode during a fire attack or the extinguishment or control of a fire. Make sure you stay away from the front and the back bumper of a vehicle when you're operating. Law enforcement needs to remember to stand to the side, the passenger side or the driver's side of the vehicle. Emergency Medical Services, if they're working after the fire is extinguished. Doors, hoods, trunks, should be propped open, and they should stay away from the bumpers and the tires that are there. Remember the general stability of the vehicle. If the vehicle has not been stabilized in some way. It must, after a fire is extinguished, and you are helping a victim. This can be done by a chain wrapped around a tree, a chain wrapped around another vehicle. It can also be done with wood cribbing. If wood cribbing is not available, use any tool, anything that, that will help stabilize that vehicle. Remember vehicle stability during a fire and after a fire's control is extremely important for the safety of all the personnel that are working in and around the area. Be aware of those that are just standing. Law enforcement may be EMS may be, other firefighters may just be standing in the area. You are responsible for their safety. Make sure they are in a safe area as you complete the operation. Once the fire has been controlled and extinguished, you need to be aware of any and all victims. Victims that are in the vehicle can be accessed and cared for. Don't forget that sometimes in a vehicle fire, if it was involved in a wreck before it became a fire, you could have victims that were ejected. Check the area. The, the entire area for any victims that are there. Protect all the victims in the vehicle. Remember we talked about the air bags. You can control by putting something over there are airbag restraint systems that you can put over. The steering wheel and the dashboard to protect the victims in the case that they deploy unexpectedly. Do everything you can to protect the victims after the fire is out. Extinguish the fire as soon as possible. Control the fire before you extinguish the fire. But extinguish that fire as soon as possible. Start medical care as soon as possible. Remembering safety of the personnel. Note all trapped or pinned victims that are there. You have to access these victims very carefully. This is where the unified command will come into play. Because emergency medical maybe wanting to access those victims at the same time that fire and rescue is cutting, or tearing, or pulling, or even still controlling the fire, and extinguishing fire. Always remember, when you are protecting the, the victim. Protect the victim with a sheet or a blanket. Constantly talk to them while you're in the area. Tell them what you're doing, let them know what is happening so they'll know what to expect. Fire department should be aware that emergency medical may be starting IVs. Maybe administering oxygen you're going to have to work together to make sure that victim access and treatment is being carried out in a safe and effective manner. In preparing for a rescue of a victim that may be trapped or pinned. Make sure that victim is stabilized. Make sure that everybody working on the scene know what is happening. Inform law enforcement we are about to cut and tear we will be finishing extinguishing this fire in a few minutes. Emergency medical should know that we are going to be ripping the car, cutting the car to provide you better access to the victim so that you can provide a more safe and effective victim care. Secure and stabilize the victim and make sure the Safety Officer is doing a constant walk-around of that vehicle. To ensure the safety, have the tires deflated? Do we need to add more wood? More cribbing? Do we need to chain this vehicle so that it doesn't roll down a hill? So that it's not gonna turn over. So we can work with the victims that are there. As soon as you have the victim free of the vehicle. Transport that victim as soon as possible. In dealing with large vehicles, our containers that are transport containers of different product, you have the same priorities, life safety, instant stabilization, and property conservation. The vehicle placement is different for large vehicles and containers that are transported. You want to stop your vehicle at least 500 feet away from any vehicle or container that's being transported. Remember that you have got to protect and shield personnel from the potential problems that come from the product that may be in this large container park uphill and up wind if possible. With the large vehicles and containers that are being transported, remember, 500 feet may not be applicable to the situation. You're gonna have to determine because of hills and valleys and a lot of things that may hinder that 500 feet view. But used five hundred feet as the standard distance to start. If a product is leaking, five hundred feet away, try to identify that product. That can be done by placarding that's on the container, that's on the vehicle. If possible, try to find the driver of that vehicle. Who knows exactly what he or she is hauling, and are able to tell you what the product is, what happens when it's exposed to air. Make sure that you eliminate all ignition sources from any product that's leaking. This could be difficult but your Emergency Response Guide Book is another great help for you determine what the ignition sources are. It will also give you a guide on what distances you may can move to and work in a safe manner. If the vehicle or the container is on fire. Use the 500 standard. Stay away from that fire. Once you have identified the product that's on fire, you can determine what action should take place. Law enforcement should focus on safety. Establishing a perimeter as best they can using radio communications. Most of the large vehicles in the containers use the interstate. You're able, through communications, to block interstate to stop the flow of traffic to that will hinder the operation. If you can move more than 500 feet back,. That's even better, but make sure the perimeter is, is clearly announced so everyone knows where you are. Don't forget just north and south, or east and west, use the perimeter to the sides too, to make sure everybody knows where they are. Try to leave access for the appropriate unit that can help solve the problem. If it's on fire, this is gonna be the fire department. It may also include a hazardous material vehicle or a group of hazardous material vehicles or several teams that have to come in. The determination to allow the vehicle to burn. Will cause more problems, but always remember that, that may be the safest way to solve the problem. If your law enforcement or emergency medical and the vehicle is leaking or involved in fire wait for the fire department. Every fire apparatus should carry a set of binoculars so that they can identify product from a, from a long distance. All police cars or law enforcement vehicles may not carry binoculars. that would be a good addition to the duty bag to have as a resource in the event that you come upon. A large container that is involved with fire. You are better able to use that 500 foot standard to stay away from the problem, identify the product through the placarding system that is there for you. Alternative fuel vehicles are different that ordinary fuel, gas and diesel fuel. The priorities are the same, light safety, instance stabilization, and property conservation. You need to look for markings to help you identify it as an alternatively fueled vehicle. Law enforcement and fire department personnel should look for those markings in the form of a decal. This decal can be on the bumper. It could be on the trunk. Could be on the passenger window or the rear window. It's somewhere there and it will identify it as an alternatively fueled vehicle. This vehicle could be a battery fueled vehicle,. It could be a compressed natural gas vehicle, a liquified petroleum gas or it could be some form of grease that's converted into a fuel. but there should be something there to market. Not all personal vehicles are required to have the marking. That identity it as an alternatively fueled vehicles. But look for those markings, remember to look first in the trunk area, on the rear window, or on a rear side window. An alternative fueled vehicle is very important to locate where the tank or container is with that fuel. Most alternative fueled vehicles, the tank is mounted in the trunk. It could be mounted on the frame under the vehicle. It could be mounted in the bed of a pick up. Find the container and you'll be able to identify the fuel. Remember to check for the markings that help you identify what that fuel is. Again, the markings can be in the shape of a decal. Maybe on the trunk, maybe on a window somewhere. And find out what the fuel is through identification if you're unable to locate a decal or some identification that will tell you what kind of alternative fuel you're dealing with. Then once you have everything under control, look at the trunk. Look at, attach to the frame. Or if you're dealing with a pickup look in the bed of the truck. If law enforcement is first on the scene and recognize the car that's involved with fire as an alternative fueled vehicle, the best thing that law enforcement can do is establish a perimeter and get people back. Allow the fire department to come in with their special equipment. To extinguish the fire. EMS should take the same role. Stay back and allow the fire department to come in with water, with foam, whatever they need to make sure they can control this alternatively fueled vehicle. As a fire department again,an inch and three quarter line is the minimum line that should be used. Used for attacking a law an alternatively fueled vehicle. You again want to move in to your attack mode at a 45 degree angle. This again allows you to see the fire better to see where it is coming from. Remember to identify the area that the fire is most involved in. The engine area, the trunk area, the passenger area. Normally in an alternatively fueled vehicle the fire area will be in or near. The trunk area. This is because most of the containers that carry the alternative fuel are mounted in the truck or on the frame. Depending on what the fuel is for this alternatively fueled vehicle, you want to either start with a fog or a straight stream. The fuel would determine what you use. With a compressed natural gas you want to control the flame by keeping it as far away from the responders as you can. You may need a fog pattern. A straight stream may help you better. It is instance specific and where the fire is most prevalent. The fire officer will determine whether a fog or a straight stream is necessary to begin. Control the flame before extinguishing it. In an alternatively fuel, fueled vehicle you have to remember to control the flame because you may not be able to extinguish it as soon as you can. With a gasoline fueled vehicle or a diesel fueled vehicle. Once you have the flame controlled, go ahead and extinguish the flame. If you cannot extinguish the flame you may have to access the container that the fuel is in and shut the supply of the fuel off. To extinguish the flame. This can be done in a number of ways. Depending on what the container is and what the fuel is. You may be able to turn a valve. You may be able to cap it. But make sure you control the flame to protect yourself and the other responders. Once you have the flame extinguished, access the trunk, the engine area, and the com, passenger compartments very carefully. Prepare for a reigniting of the fuel if you aren't sure that you have it shut off completely. Check and secure the area for all leaks in the vehicle. In summary, safety is the first priority in the event of a vehicle fire. Safety is the ongoing priority. Make safety. First, always be constantly aware of your surroundings. Don't let anything surprise you. Watch for fluids. Watch for fuels. Watch for bystanders. Watch for the stability of the vehicle. Remember, you've got to complete a safe operation. Look for any of the potential hazards that are there, or obstacles that will impede you from having a successful conclusion to the vehicle fire. Ensure that you have placed your apparatus in all vehicles. In the proper place. Check and help all the victims that are there. Remember, anybody can become a victim in a vehicle fire. It may be the victims that, that a victim may be in the vehicle, it could be one of the responders, or a bystander could become a victim. Prepare for these things. Constantly monitor your operation. Law enforcement, had you got the parameter established, is it secure? Do you need to expand that parameter? Do you need to contract that parameter? Emergency medical. Are you sure you have identified all the patients and victims that are there? Have you triaged, treated, and are you ready to transport them? Make changes in your operation if needed. Stop what you're doing, assess the safety of your personnel and the victims, and then move on. Monitor your personnel for safe actions. Don't allow them to do anything that's unsafe and you will have a successful completion. To any vehicle fire.

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