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Fire Scene Communications

Mon, 16 Jan 2012|

This program from the Firefighters Support Foundation defines communications and its elements, discusses best practices, and presents tactics that ensure that information is being effectively disseminated.


Automatically Generated Transcript (may not be 100% accurate)

In this segment we're gonna talk about -- -- communication. Now -- communications problem -- critical skills you need to acquire because as we talk and try to relay information back and forth all Hussein. It's it's critical that people not only hear what you're saying but they also understand it. So we want to talk about some few a few issues in relation to it. The first thing we want accomplished our first objective is going to be defined communication. Before we Begin on how we got we have to come up with a common definition one that we all understand it can work from. We also want -- explain the key elements of communication. And so we want to talk about were the parts where the pieces of it. And then we discussed some best practices. And that bilateral talk about how to effectively ensure that information is disseminated. These are very critical -- all the same -- -- time and time again there always issues that come up as a result of not being able to effectively communicate with each other. So this is where we want to start off. Now the question comes over why is this important watts is critical that we understand what what goes on policy and while communication is so critical. Many after action reports often say the communication was a breakdown there were issues they're getting information back and forth either to cruise. Either to the incident commander or to other parts of the operation. So it's very important that we understand. Not only why communication's important but also understand how to do delivered effectively. Before we -- we we definitely want talk about what is communication. What exactly does that mean we talk about that. And there's several points -- bring home with us. Make sure we we understand. First is in -- it did -- say an exchange of information. And so communications. It's definitely an exchange of words. Visual what are the -- might be but it you have to make sure that you have this critical point it has to be two way communication. That means you have a sender -- receiver. And there's confirmation that the information being properly. Disseminated. So we also we want to make sure we understand at this at least two people involved. And that again you have that constant confirmation back and forth going back and forth of what is correct and what is being -- -- Not easy way to remember this this to take a look at this chart. We first make sure we have a center. We also have a receiver. The information as to be transmitted to the receiver. And the person against understand that. And how how we confirmed this is when thinks that think they can receive back to a source of axles. That information. So this is a very critical point he calls all the par around particularly you have a number of things going on as -- said. Previously a number moving parts. So. Making sure that what you're saying is being heard is very important. One example of communication the spirit that we would work when this first was played replace these terms with specific items. So for example we have a thunder in this in our example would use the dispatcher. The dispatcher -- -- call. In this case it may be a structure are they give the address. And any other information they may have available. The -- -- -- -- -- apartment. And -- it ended one for example may reveal who won this going up first and so they get take received the message and then they confirmed back. To dispatch. Of the call -- so this is a good example -- the the communication take place complete cycle. Another example would be say for example if you're a public information officer. And you've got information to release to -- just -- general public or to the media in this situation the public information officer will be the sender. They're going to transmit information to the media or to the general public. And then we're gonna look to see that they receive that information back. Either through how they respond to the message by how they questions they may ask. And in that situation we see reversed now we have the -- when they're asking the question. The media may become the sender so the information went back and forth between the two and each time we're trying to do is confirm that the what we think what we're saying. Is exactly what was received. Because -- many cases and you see that particularly. When people say they've been interviewed by a reporter or by someone that the information wasn't. Sent out correctly and and both situations what you make. Is that while the senator knew what they were talking -- well. The receiver didn't quite understand what they were trying to say. Or they may have perceived a different. I think of the -- gamer kids like to play. And -- telling a secret and they sit in a circle and one personal whispered to another person's a year and that person was present for another -- those secret until -- here and go all the way around the circle to the first person. And all in so many cases what do you find -- by the atomic gets to back to that first person the message is completely changed. Or something completely different and that's left we run into and it's somewhere ways all the par around. What we think the person's hearing or we think that they are saying. Maybe -- -- misunderstood. And so these are things we want to make sure we address. Likewise about what from the mistakes of capital fire ground. With communication may be situations where let's say the incident commander. Tells the crew inside the building to go to the other side and do a search rescue. And the crew in the building recalls of noise the -- the other things going on they may not hurt properly and they go to the other -- building dual Spartak. Or even maybe maybe even exit the building. Here's -- this is a situation where the message was transmitted properly. The receiver may or may not words of -- received it properly. And they did something completely different and that's why this this confirmation of being received -- very important because if you repeat back what you heard. Then you know right away whether it was -- that the intended message or not. Now let's talk a little more detail about what these key elements that we have to look for and that we want to make sure in a message. Because they're in understanding that the self proclaimed sounds like I -- this -- coming back this so often and pounding this. The -- part of it but it is very important particularly when you're on the varsity or any incident that matter that you have an effective. Medication going on again if it doesn't happen. Or information -- miss or. If things are not -- properly then you potentially run into against -- getting hurt someone getting killed. Make creating more damage in the structure of the building -- things like that happen and oftentimes when you hear about stuff like that happening. Almost consistently there's always an issue -- communication. And so you always want to make sure that this is that if in many cases this has always done properly. So let's talk about -- -- first this is the person's got to relaying information now this can be the -- commander. Trying to relate orders to the team's -- -- orally or through the operations officer. Dick could be the dispatcher trying to get information. To the instant commander or to the crews responding to this thing. All all of these are people that are trying to relayed a message to you it could also be the public information officer trying to relay information to the general public. Or to the media. These are all people who or attempting or trying to send a message. Now we've that we got from -- transmit it how can that take place. Perfect -- on the radio radius the most common one that we use if we're dealing with a -- situation. Make it relayed word of mouth. So for example you may have somebody. If anybody -- the commander in here she says -- tell this person. The followers. That the -- that the way it's transmitted can happen and number -- number wait and -- variety of Obama may be a letter. And a non emergency -- situation in May be an email. You think of the ways when disasters can rate move into an area how we notify the general public that it's time to take shelter. And -- some areas what you -- what you have for the tornado sirens go off you may have where the emergency broadcasting takes over the cable channels and -- posting a message and doing the announcements. Maybe for your radio. You hear that there -- so if you know you hear about updates and so forth. So how the messages transmitted is. Often oftentimes just as important as the message. Because this will determine whether they understand what you're saying and whether copper and what your thing. And so an example another example would be a situation where you may have. To the general -- you're trying to tell them six shelter or you're trying to talk with the media. And you want to make sure they understand through -- face to face discussion. The what what you're trying to relate to them so that's all where you'll take questions. That's you may try to solicit feedback to them to make sure they understand what you're saying. And you also want to make sure that what you're so that what you're telling them they can then relate to somebody else. Again -- -- reference about that game that the little little kids play and telling telling a secret this situation where. You're telling the media they're relaying it to the general public. And who may relate to somebody else whose interest in what's going on so you've got through potentially 34 levels that information -- being relayed. And it has not done properly. That -- -- becomes mixed up it becomes confusing and oftentimes your message may even be dropped. So -- how it's transmitted. Is very important. Another part of you need to have receiver. The receiver has to be -- one they have reopened to the information. Now our our field that's -- a little more that's a little easier to do because there's a crisis going -- there's emergency. Of sorts so those -- They're reception to the information will be a lot. Than in a typical non emergency situation and a non emergent situation I would say is. Are you an example of a -- that comes into the station says there is. You know they've got a newborn. That's trying to sleep at night. And the sirens going out late at night wake of the -- and he wants to talk to somebody about it. Now you you can you can typically transmit to them. The formation of the you know this is a state -- this is requirement. This is something of that -- that you have to go with lights and -- to the call you can't just -- one or the other -- neither. And so. You're transmitting that information -- but my guess is this guy does not want to hear that. He does not only here that you can't that you have the community can't -- -- -- license are so how he's gonna perceive it. And this is very important -- perception. This period very important and how people receive information. -- perception that tells of -- that you can say the words but they're little they're not they may translated a little bit differently. And so -- depending on what what what's going on with -- at the time. So when you you -- ask you solicit the find out if they understood what she says you may find that the response is not what you were -- what you were attending. So perception plays a big role in how the person will receive information. Now one of the things as well along with the us. Is you want to. Make sure that they understand what you said. -- radio communication is very simple we will win the dispatcher tells something we simply repeated back to two. And they know that what we received was correct. Although -- -- is very important. That when you you give -- -- you give a command. That the receiver and -- repeat step back today so that you you're sure they understand what you're talking about. And and again this is where breakdown typically occurs when the receiver doesn't tell them. Or beat back -- what's. There's a there's a possibility they may not have understood. And so you kind of leave that vessel that loop here come open. And you don't know until they actually Begin doing the task if they properly understand what's being told him. And in these situations. Not understanding what they're being told could put them in danger could put somebody else in danger. Or possibly could. Create greater damage to the -- -- to the -- structure. So we want to make sure that what's being -- What's what's being received. Is that exactly what we intend it. And this is where we get this -- left or look this confirmation. Now and I'm not a -- situation. We don't necessarily have that luxury. The loop is a little bit harder to keep closed. So what happens as we have to do when we have to ensure there's understanding. -- -- solicit questions. So for example if I'm teaching a class somewhere. And I've just shared some information. Maybe I'm teaching a class on how to how corner -- And so what I'm gonna do is when I'm done. Is someone who solicit. Questions to. And typically the best way to do this is through open ended questions. And what I mean by open and -- questions. The easiest way there's planes there's just like was a -- in a closed in question something they either the responder -- the receiver. Have to answer with a yes or -- true or false. In an opening question they have to give you some type of more. And in the non emergency situations you want to make sure that you do that that US open questions to ensure that they understand what you're talking about. And but doing that you can Begin to get a better understanding or help correct -- and information that wasn't properly understood. So it two ways. That we talked about that we can ensure that this -- stays closed. Up first this by repeating information have to having sending the message haven't received repeated back to -- the second way is sending the message. And then asking open and questions to ensure the receiver understood. And again you you can use the -- these can't be used interchangeably but you also have to weigh it out based on the situation. There are certain situations this very critical time sensitive than we've got to make sure it happens in which case -- a drop to the just repeated backed him. In situations where we may have a little -- -- dealing with much more detailed information. We may go -- open -- questions. The -- you don't want to put don't want to do when sending a message. If you don't want to mislead completely closed ended questions like did you understand or do you understand. Because all you're gonna get there is a yes or no answer. And getting just say yes -- no it doesn't really clarify for you if -- completely understand what -- talking about. Let's briefly talk about here's some of the concerns when this does not that -- Luke doesn't occur what can happen all our ground. Now there are several instances where this can happen. The first one is the receiver does that received information or did receive a properly. And what will you determine this. Is that you get you get no response and say this is one of the issues that makes a very critical blunder for them the receiving personal respond back. The calls -- several things can occur if you don't. If they don't respond -- one that may not hurt your message and if you think about what goes on the par round and how the radio communications take place. It's them it's a very good chance that your information may not have been hurt. And so I can -- confirmation back -- you know they they've acknowledged further information but they understood that getting nothing back. They very well may not -- larger message. The other situation is that if they don't respond back you don't know they heard correctly understood what you want it. Took her -- the as the commander so what you may have told to go to one room -- -- four. If they did they'll respond back the very likely they go to another -- not understand what you're talking about. Another concern that occurs when the receiver doesn't -- reply back they receive information if -- could be in danger. This is one of the best ways to tell if the par plotters are in danger or there's a situation than they were -- made it. But when you don't get that response back. And if this it consistently. A policy that anytime you receive a message that you have to respond back to it. And you don't get that and you know something could possibly be wrong and you won't follow upon how -- make where the crew is and what's going on. So keep it was called blue clothes and always keeping the information flow into the receiver back the sender. It not only make sure that information is understood. Com but it also gives you a way of tracking crews making sure they're safe and the building and that nothing but nothing is one on there's an emergency that needs to be addressed. The second issue is -- when you get -- closed in -- response. Marijuana thing to talk about what you don't wanna ask people what question that wall -- part yes and the -- And the -- when you do that there and you may be sending one thing. The only response you're getting back that was a yes or no. Did you understand. Yes or no. Now if you think about what do you understand the pretty vague question. And so. -- do understand this. Yeah in my -- may perceive a quote my may have understood that the calls all the way up procedure question or your your order. But you may have intended something completely different. In which case you what what happens is -- opportunities -- -- mix -- There's opportunity there for things to go wrong and it eventually possibly even situation where somebody could get hurt if they didn't properly understand what you're asking them to do it. So we will again another example why we need to keep this live close. And always make sure there's a good could -- information. The set the third one is a rush response. Somebody who just rapidly here's -- here. You're trying to tell them to do in an -- -- and this is actually very nominal or par around. You may have someone who keys of the radio they got the order things. And all they go to their hurry they're trying to get -- knock down -- trying to get things back in order they're trying to get thing you know you bring stabilization to the -- And so they just kind of rush response -- yeah we got. Well and that's how great you know they've you know they've received it did they understand that you -- you can have no idea. Without actually following that up with -- can you tell me what's that can you repeat back to me confirm what can can you confirm a message. All of these are ways that you want to make sure that particularly on the progress of where it's very critical. Is that. But once they receive that information. Did they understand. Did they -- and what you're telling them. And you may find in some situations that just simply repeating a thinking human have to try to think -- different way to word it a different way to phrase things so they understand. What you're trying to get them to do it. So all of these are concerns that do have occurred over par -- that do -- still. And in most most cases what you'll find is it over it was a result of a breakdown in communication. And all the time you hear about accidents there curl bars things in my -- injuries Mike got hurt something like that in in a number of cases. Many of them what you'll find at some point in the process some point in the response. The communication broke down. Now that could be a breakdown where they didn't understand what's. Could be a breakdown where there was no communication so the crew are fighter whatever the case may be may have gone to a freelancing mode. Because they're not getting any information. Or of their situations where it was it was completely misunderstood. And completely. That they end up won't completely awful what plane was intended. So we want to make sure we keep clear communication -- apart around we want to make sure there's always that open -- communication. And that is loop here. Remains closed all the time. There were costly -- what are we send out there's always a confirmation in the world of what the receipt and that they understood. I'll with a basic understanding here what is a transmission what are what is the message. And how's it work the problem nesting process work we now want to talk about them. Guidelines and practices for when you're actually talking on the radio. When you're trying to communicate on the -- ground and so forth. So listen again first. What is the first thing I want do before us -- a message. Wanna I wanna make sure there's a clear. -- way to talk on so the -- in this is a mistake a lot of folks might they get so excited that get on the scene. -- they want they've got a message to relate back and they'll key of the Mike and start talking. Now one of the problems with a particularly in this those this is a very common problem. Is that when that -- -- other people are listening there are also trying to communicate. There's traffic coming from dispatched to the instant commander information going to pull around and what -- -- happens when you key up. The Mike to talk you walk all over -- else -- already Hungary. -- situation McChrystal might do that -- you. So those very first thing we -- do before we try to relaying information over the radio. Is we want to make sure that -- we have a clear channel. Now if you've got a lot of information -- you're gonna have some ongoing information. Good tip to do is to make sure that it contacted us back to contact innocent men and ask if you can get a separate channel but that's available. This is one way to kind of take to remove some of the noise and -- going on from all the other -- trying to communicate. Another good thing to do is that it if you've got up fairly large operation going. -- tried to streamline some communication my putting them -- separate channels. And this way you don't have to worry about -- -- walking all over each other or people missing information McAuliffe so much traffic going on the radio. One of the big things you were you'll see this occur important situations where you'll see this occur is during mating operation. And in the made -- operation you -- -- make sure that the crew trying to do the rescue. Has -- very clear line of communication. Convinced the commander to each other you don't want them having to try to deal with all the noise -- background still going on. What with a -- So you tried -- try to move them over to a separate channel. And so that's that's want to. The other thing is don't just blurt out what you're gonna say take a second take a few seconds for a few minutes and collect your -- What are you trying to broadcast. To that other people. Be it to the dispatcher to be the crew in the building -- it to whoever own Hussein. Take a minute and try to collect your thoughts in what do you -- -- Along that lines. -- that is keep your transmission to brief concise statements. Now if you think about how much you remember when a person's talking if you think about that think back the last person you -- besides me. This you were -- listening to you. If you think about how you remember what they said is typically in practice. And that's how most people remember things and in practice. Now that the issue though is is when we're transmitting information. All the parts thing we've got to make sure that they remember and the they understand what was being told we weave when we talk about that. So when your transmitting your message make sure it's a brief. Clear concise. Statement that can be understood. I see this one of the once the -- receive this is commonly broken is when people are doing the initial -- size up. And when you to a national -- size and you have called back into ones on saying we have a single story residential structure and nothing's showing -- won't be coming up. But the issue -- that is -- -- what typically see is when people are -- that description. You'll see situations like engine one we'll see we have a single toward residential structure. We have nothing showing it has. Your walls is her home. Like Peru. Stone masonry long -- -- you get the idea becomes a very very long message. And what you'll see happen is after about the first phrase or two. The anybody listening to that broadcast but -- you just can't -- He had mentally or. Whatever. Here's look there's -- thing to kind of keep in the back your mind the average person takes the mind during about every -- So if you've been blessed and that this segment for about a minute more than likely every eight seconds you've been taking -- a mine during somewhere else you're thinking about. Getting your car wash your thing and I got to -- pay the bills. Maybe stopping it -- or trees or whatever the case may be. During this time and so every second salute. Then when you're doing your broadcaster you're communicating something over the radio. You've got approximately -- seconds to get everything out before their mind go somewhere else. And so you wanna keep it clear. Keep it this concise and keep it simple. Keep a very simple don't get too tied up in the different. Components. That's the next thing you want -- you won't wait for confirmation. From the other party. So that -- so the way this is gonna take place. Is. About the power that is the commander and I'm trying to send news and information to the team of the building almost an assortment message. I'm awake for the confirm. That -- another -- the message. Wait for them to confirm. -- -- -- they confirm I'm look I'm listening to hear they repeat back to me what's that. And so if you get until long. So what. -- -- say is anything to do. -- And think command to entertain. An agent go to the -- side of the building. And -- -- -- throw something in there as well let them know there's more information comics -- -- break. So and you wind me up and -- it into your team go to the these side of the building break. Them away for them to respond back and say. -- team. Tends to command confirm go see saw the building. With Brett. And did you do. Searches or search in the front room or the room on -- saw the building and confirmed there are no more victims. -- respond back to to a search and rescue in a room with these other building. Confirmed their -- that. Now about doing that what we what I've done is I've now been able to send them multiple. Pieces of information. I still kept in a -- months. So -- easier for them to retain. And then and -- -- in each situation any part of without waited for them to confirm back. And that they understand what what I'm asking them to do. And if you take this step is sound in May sound very elementary. And you think about whirlpool we don't need talk we like that. Consider the circumstances. That you're talking to people want to. This is not too too folks sitting around at the bar at the kitchen table or at the coffee shop have a conversation. This of those hi tends. Very very rough situations -- you're dealing with. This a situation where there's multiple things going on everything's in rapid mode and -- ability for them to comprehend information can be harder. Couple that with the fact that they -- there wearing here there and an air attack and the communications a little bit harder. They've got flash -- -- cover their -- things like that. And so even though did you it sounds like you're talking normally it may sound clear if you just listen to a microphone. When you add those other disturbances -- such -- -- going all the having an air mass gone. Those type things then it becomes a lot harder to understand. -- -- much more complex for them to try to figure out what you're saying and so you wanna get that confirmation back. Now what happens -- don't if what they send back is incorrect. Then you're gonna want immediately notify them. That that's the case it's would -- make -- state. I think correctly and then. Then you come back and tell them what the correct information. So they so they confirm go to the beside the building. I'm a comeback that's incorrect please go to C kept. Side of the building. Maybe what they have I think can be any reasons any number reasons why they didn't understand it was too noisy they could hear well. Maybe they also lets see they heard the letter B. And so they're number -- whopping income breakdown but you certainly want to make sure and that's something I would also recommend with the us. Is that if you're using letters -- side of the building beside the building. The side. If you listen how those sound the sounds are very close. So if you're using letters trying to associate a word whether -- help make make make him a little bit clearer. So for example prostate beat southern bill -- mostly B boy. C -- -- all those are things that help them understand better what letter I'm using. Because in many cases again. Considering as well -- ball well everything sounds from where the air -- and weren't things like that. You you're going up -- there will be misunderstand what you're saying and many cases or in some cases. So we always want to get that confirmation back what they heard. And if that's incorrect we won't go ahead immediately notified of this and correct and provide in the correct information. One of the questions that typically comes though is how a lot Begin practicing and how improvement speaking skills on the radio and on the -- -- And this is actually really good question and unfortunately not many really take advantage of this but there are a number of opportunities where you can improve. How you present and how you speak on the par. And I say this is important because if you think about it if -- instructor teaching. A class. If you're leaving a meeting you're gonna want to make sure that you have some basic level presentation skills. The same thing -- -- are saying when talking on the radio and when trying to relate commands that you want that same level below proficiency. To be able to do your job effectively and when it. Compared to any other school you would -- par round. Communication is a tool just like your air act just like pelicans are just like your -- line. All of those are things that you would not send someone to a building that didn't know how to use them. And in the same context when speaking it's a tool that we use to communicate information back and forth. We wouldn't want to send out wrong information or intentionally give people bad information. But in us since we're not practicing this particular skill and we're not keeping the skill -- Then we. Could just as likely do that and send them and book a bad situation so we want to make sure the skills or. Deftly kept up to speed that we're doing -- well and doing things properly. The perfect way you can do this and outs of justice that again listening to the radio and other departments are going -- -- on other calls that you're not going to within your department. Listen to how they communicate. What goes well what doesn't go so well and -- those out in relation to the communication. -- get this going on and see if there -- things that they are doing that work really well that you could be an integrated the way you speak on the radio. Maybe there's some things they didn't do so well. And those situations you may want to learn from that to not use those skills that particular -- so listening to the radio. And listen to the calls are going on. Is a great way to learn how to -- how you communicate. -- another way is many departments -- of the dispatch centers now record. What's going on at least on the primary channel. So of something you can do as a training session as an after action type thing is get a copy of that record it. Use that in in your department with a -- respond -- ways they can improve how to communicate. Again -- -- -- communications typically the weakest link on the scene and often is the one that leads to a breakdown problem. So we want to take advantage of that if we can listen to recordings that went on if we don't listen to the communications that are going back and forth. Then we can Begin to learn -- how we can improve. A step from there once you've done that run some practice -- us. They're in the station and just practiced -- -- each other. One way you can do this is -- -- -- to handheld radios or you won the truck and -- to to surf reports the station where you can't hear each other talking. And Begin relaying information back and forth this of the great way to practice and great way to learn how people communicate how they how make sure information speech here properly. Because the only way you're going to be able to make sure -- officials relayed by doing this -- in this type of practice session is through what you're communicating on radio. Another way you can do this as well is record yourself. Maybe come up with a -- listeners for yourself to work with and -- world and listen back to how it sounds. I'll -- you do that one thing I'd recommend is don't necessarily listen to immediately. Because still fresher mind what you're trying to communicate. So -- of course -- gonna make sense today. Purport yourself leader for a little bit come back and listen and see if there's still makes sense and if that doesn't mean you know you you've got to improve some of those speaking skills. And then finally the the biggest one -- -- practice practice practice. Again going back to this is a tool. This is something we use just like any other people we use only -- thing. And so you would want to put an -- Tacked on one time and say okay I'm -- -- can go from here on out forever. Same thing with tying knots. Tying knots tied at one time almost had -- -- -- look into all the time now. We all know that it with any of those that it takes practice and not only just one time but on board -- to keep the skills. The same thing happens with communication. Anytime we don't keep those skills we don't continue to improve the way we speak and the -- improve the way we communicate don't fire ground. We -- is we tend to lose. And just like is tied in -- if you don't price not for -- -- you're not going you found that pure skill level drops considerably. And so the more we practice the more we keep doing this over and over again and the more we keep working on those communication skills will see things improve. And definitely this is a great way to ensure that what we're communicating around and what we're talking back talking about all Hussein is understood. And can be responsive. Want to talk about now as effectively ensure that information is disseminated. Now we're real world step -- a little bit broader road just in the parks theme because this is apple to many years the park service but I'll we'll stay focused -- -- particular area. The first quarter wanna bring up -- talk about how effectively disseminate information is stick to the basics. Now and this is sometimes of this little mistake a lot of people make is they try to get so detailed. They try to abroad so much information into their statement into their broadcast where the case may be. That it gets lost the actual message the intent gets lost. So this is why I say let's step back let's look at the basics and we answer the questions of them who what. How. Win and why. Those are things if we focus on we're doing our communication. And what we're sending out -- -- that you'll find that things become a lot simpler. That they've become more understandable to the other party and it's a lot easier to break down -- senate's progress we're talking about. When bills that they would -- -- -- -- an example. If I'll mortgage I have a team inside the building -- in there don't Barbara operate at a operations. And I need to relayed a message to them all of them moved to the other side of the bill. And Begin operations there. Are the first I don't want to end and actually a neat little way to do that us is to maybe just create mobile. It you can print it out you off your computer to -- -- your vehicle people truck -- locate the basic Michael cheat sheet so you know what this is us and well. Though the first thing is that food. -- -- all of us in this message -- in this case are based on our example going to send it to the team the team and -- the bill. All right the second question what do I want them to do. I want them to move to the other -- of the building in which case we may just say it's the -- side of the building to stay consistent. So we've got who answered the what answered. How. In this case we may need to tell them how we need them to exit the building go around the seaside in the in -- from the exterior. And so we got the -- that information may be relevant may be necessary so we want to make sure that questions answered. Went. Based on our example earlier with our common throw some winners when the questions and in this case -- -- -- immediately there may be circumstances where you don't need them moved to those bill until later. But we need to know that win and when it's gonna take and how we want when we was gonna take place. And finally why. The we will there have to be reason we knew that I want to -- move over there. Maybe has to do search and rescue. So -- questions so they can Begin a search and rescue on the room but I just to see side -- bill. So we go by answering those basic. Five questions. Wee bit we have our message that we need we need to rely. And is very simple very easy for them to understand. And becomes. A situation where that we don't have to worry about trying to explain ourselves. So we say -- in -- team. I need you to move to the hit a see saw the building. Oh by exiting the front. And going in entering through the -- exterior. Immediately. So you can Begin search and rescue in the room almost he -- bill. To understand this you -- was take a situation where may happen -- correctly. And so for example we did -- -- bit address one of those questions. And so let's say. We we don't address the how. So for example we -- Who is the interior team we need you to. Go to the -- out of the building. Immediately to do search -- risky. We didn't tell them how now that ended in some cases that may work fine there may not be an issue they may be able to go whichever what -- whatever means. Are necessary but let's say there's a collapsed four. On their path to the -- -- the building from the interior. Now we can we may know that. It may have been broadcast over the radio but the interior team may not have heard that again we have we have a lot of chatter going on and they're wearing a lot of here. So the likelihood of them hearing that -- may not be as well we think. So. But not us not relaying that piece of information. We could potentially put them in harm's way are put in a situation where they get in trouble because of a little snippet we left out. And I also is we want to make sure that we keep all our bases cover. And again that taking a clip board and maybe some book Paper -- just make sure you've got all the information you need to relate to them. And makes a lot simpler than you that point you just referenced in your -- The next point won't talk about is how to deliver that message well keep your message brief and concise. Now that -- -- contradict victory to the previous point of making sure you cover earlier formation with -- two actually can work together. And just because you have a lot of information to relate doesn't mean you have to -- all at one time. So it's period is much easier to break it down and the clear simple concise points. And that's exactly way to think of it is just very clear simple concise points. Keep your statements short shortest possible don't don't intentionally. Abbreviate and down but. Make sure that you're not relying any more information that's necessary. And this is for a number of reasons one -- that earlier bit mentally and the way we absorb information. The long statements extended up commerce statements and things like that are very hard to understand and very hard to remember. Particularly when you're dealing in a crisis situation and hearing so a bit of a problem. The other part is as there are also a number of other crews teams individuals that -- also be talking more than likely on the same channel you're using. And those situations if you're spending a lot of time talking they're not able to relaying information. And so it can create bottlenecks for other parts of the operation. So keep them simple. Make sure there's something the can be understood. And keep them should keep your message short and then you also poppies here for them to confirm back that they heard what -- said. Let's take -- example here of looking at the same transmission delivered to different ways. And look at Powell keep it clear concise it's much easier than trying to give us much information as possible -- radio. The first one I'll take this I'll show you is when we give too much information. So on the incident commander I'm transmitting to the team -- in the building. And my comment comes back -- it is the command to entertain leader. Into your team leader response would go ahead. So -- -- respond back with I need you to take here. -- -- the building take the hose line. Also Jim and Bob need to come with the -- yourself maturity -- if you've got need to -- come out as well. And he you can kind of see as we're as -- talking eventually mentally he's just don't show at all and all he's going here is when you get out of building. When he takes the building. And that that comes from the fact that we only take things and small snippets we don't take big long sentences. In the memory very well. A second person thinks would be to say. Come back to say -- the command to -- your team leader. He response going. That's that I need your team and all your equipment to exit the building. Very much simpler much shorter. And much more concise it accomplishes the same messages says the same thing. And but it's a lot -- a lot easier remember. As you can see from this that opened up a lesson learned here is that it it needs to be trained on anything -- an ongoing practice. Because we need to make sure that these are skills we keep well. And that we don't lose otherwise -- problems for us as we get onto the -- Now an issue wanna take a moment talk about -- you call cognitive dissonance. And this is a very common occurrence on our ground. Now if you consider for a moment all that goes on all the -- You consider we've got crews working the building they may be pulling ceilings pulling walls. You've got teams and they're talking -- fire you've got in other teams that are going also doing. Search and rescue. You may have people also trying to pull furniture and belongings out of the house so they don't get further damage. There's a number of things happening here and lot of things went on as well you've got bells going off you may have. Air packs that sounds good from the air act that are being picked up so you can imagine when someone. Tried to communicate to you inside the building that when you're inside the building they can be very hard to hear and it can be very hard to understand. And one of the things that tends to happen is when were inside the building working. And all of this -- this is going on the tendency is to Begin to kind of mentally block it out so that we can focus on what we're doing. Now that works great to continue that focus and keep us focused on what we're doing the problem is -- select -- communicate to -- over the radio. There's a good chance we won't hear. And this is a common problem unless there's something to snap -- person out of what they're focused on and to have listen to the radio communication. You may find yourself where they're trying to broadcast and nothing -- So one of the things that -- highly recommend if it's not a part of your department. Our policy is to find ways using the radio. To kind of break that that all across the sort of break that concentrations. When you've got -- -- a message that you gotta relate. To everyone inside the building or to a particular crew -- -- the bill. And so we'll take -- key words -- think of things that you can use that will help break bring that focus back to what your front side. Now a good thing about this is that it actually doesn't take something incredibly. Traumatized -- -- Problematic to get someone's attention to break that concentration. It can be something very simple as a -- it can be something their moral all the apparatus. Things like that can be used and that's one of the reasons you typically see when people are teaching about how to win to make a call to evacuate the building. The common practice -- to sound here -- to let everybody know to get out of buildings. The reason for that is the -- of the situation you may be concentrating working on something. Very focused on it and if the -- and something over the radio very likely will not here. So by doing the air -- -- a break in the monotony. Is a break in the ongoing noise and battle called you to suddenly get. Focus your traditional what -- And this is a good thing to do intend to find ways that you can do this using the radio maybe there's some type of noise on the review or simply calling their name. Initially and this is actually one of the reasons you typically have. -- what does this when you broadcast your message as you say who you wore it and who you're trying to contact. Because that immediately keys up for the person that person who's receiving the message to women they mention my name or image -- Taiwanese focus on what's being said. And then again waiting for -- confirmation back that they hear you want to proceed when your message. Now the next one -- want to talk about is that you should always received confirmation that your message was correctly receipt. And I and I know we talk about this in the previous part of this what do you do when you don't get that. And this is very important because you always. Always I can't emphasize this enough -- confirmation. That what you're telling the other person is -- -- -- properly enough and well understood it. Some things you can do for that if for example I send a message to. The entertain. Interior attack team needs you to move to the -- side of the building using our work health -- an example. I don't get confirmation. So I at that point I don't know they received it I don't know they've understood it or or if they've even heard. So windows -- come back -- the radio again. And I'm going to say interior attacked did you understood did you receive my last message. And if -- at that point they just say yes. They're and we can we get that close to -- question which means we can't we really don't have confirmation. Then I'll then I'll come back with can you please confirm. Or can you can please confirm. And then that's telling them to repeat back to me what's that and that way I know. There -- told them was understood. And that they can now move from there. So we we want to get it in that type of war and again if we don't get the confirmation you need to go ahead if you don't get a confirmation you're looking for. You need to go it forces. Force the issue in the sense that. Calling them back ask them confirm. Now and then again if you don't get -- response back and second and third time. Then you're going to send another team to find out what's going on. The Falwell let them see what if she -- Now one thing that does come up with what you do what you've got a -- that is consistently not responding back to you or you've got an individual that's not responding back today. How do you handle that. And mock -- commented that specifically is that. It needs to be addressed because it does create a breakdown in communication system when you're not getting individuals -- crews that are responding back to him. The initially I would suggest -- immediately. Let them know. -- this is your feedback to them. Let them note that they need to respond back to -- Radio transmission they need to respond back to others. It may be a situation they've made maybe they don't know for whatever reason they didn't understand they were supposed to do -- -- and this gives you the opportunity -- correct that before they go back in the next time. And potentially you could have a problem. So giving -- immediate feedback or response that if they needed to let them know that they need to be responding back to you. It's very if it could point to bring home. Next one I want to talk about is avoid flying or technical jargon. And it made sense this may sound silly but have to do world -- all our -- were all operate -- same thing. And more than likely. Most of us will be from the same department. But -- the issue that comes up when you use let's take for example flying or contractions or things like that on the radio. A lot -- they can be misunderstood or not hurt. Properly win by the time accuracy about the other person. So try to avoid making using contraction -- line. Make sure you quoted sound the war itself be very precise -- -- sound. And that way you have a better chance of as as being transmitted is being hurt like it's supposed to. The other one is technical jargon and the reason I say that is that even though most of the people on -- -- maybe from your department. And you guys use the same terminology. There may be others on there as well all from other departments that may not use that same terminology. And so you wanna make sure that the terms use the way you phrase things. -- -- very understandable to whoever's listening. And one of the early examples of this war of the old ten that we can use in the park service and they were saying ones with -- law enforcement. And often -- when -- visit Townsend and things like that you would see that the part apartment in the police department may have different ten cuts. So even within the municipality they couldn't communicate to each other because there there's differentiation and where they were talked. -- and now another department or several apartments than they have their own pin code system. And you just really increase the problem. So -- the -- the key lesson here is to stay with stay with common terminology common language stay away from contractions. And slang terms. And keep it personal. Now the last one I wanna bring up on this particular topic is the issue of remembered the listener. May use other terminology -- you use so you wanna make sure that your talking in the same language used the same terminology they are. And I'll give you a perfect example is on the East Coast we have engines and we have tankers. Engine is. Rest goes to saying that all the votes -- by the parties in the engine. In most cases. As well the tanker as -- about the war -- we're doing a -- environment. So we want those -- to now out west. You typically hear less than the use of the term engine and more use -- Paul -- And the -- person kept -- goes to listening and -- closing -- fire. From the standpoint as well he also -- to -- water -- Instead of tanker. If our -- -- not call -- tanker I'm gonna get an airplane coming with a lot of water that they've got the bill before they can land again. So we want to make sure in those situations and as we're dealing with different agencies and different departments. That were all operating on the same terminology. And that we all have a consistent way of understanding each other. -- conclude with a segment I want to emphasize a very important point here and that is. Communication. As we talked about throughout the segment is very very important very critical to the instant success. The other said before any -- you -- a breakdown or something that -- to go wrong are seen. Typically ties back to some problem and with the communication process. So it's everyone's responsibility. In the department to ensure that they had understand. And probably are able to communicate with -- other people. From the far -- level is ensuring that you understand what's required of you when you're speaking on the radio is understand that you can speak appropriately that you speak. With the -- consistency that we talked about here. From the officer -- and other levels of management within the park apartment is important to understand that. All of your firefighters. Are gonna look to you can look -- that's mineralization. So your role in this is not only to work on the speaking skills put to establish the standard and station within -- department. How do you what do you expect from people when they respond to a call what do you expect when they write -- when they arrivals thing. What type of communications do you anticipate. Throughout the -- how do you expect people to talk to each other over the radio. All of these issues are. Fall on the -- -- etiquette on the radio and it's up to you with the chief officer and the management level people to ensure the best established. And enforced so that you have that consistency.

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