Wed, 2 May 2012|
In this Firefighters Support Foundation, presenter Michael Finney defines the four major components of the emergency management cycle for fire departments.
Welcome to this -- we're gonna talk about emergency management for the park service that's some of you may be asking why is that important. -- if you look at the major instance that occurred within the United States you'll see that in many cases of emergency responders are typically the fire service and law enforcement. So we -- talk -- for a few minutes about why is emergency management important and how do we apply it to the park service. Now I've got some key objective I want to make sure we addressed -- who want to find what is emergency management and world components of the -- -- management cycle. Second we want to take a look explaining what the preparation phase of this. As well the next one we want take a look at -- is -- explain how we respond to an emergency or disaster of this nature. In many cases we're talking a very large scale into the we've -- want to talk about the recovery process. -- -- we take care that as far as numbers our service cuts and -- medication. And medications will be a critical part that we want talk about the -- that takes place -- so many parts of the disaster. Now again park service is typically the first group that comes in when we have a hurricane comes through a major tornado. Earthquake whatever the case may be any Wednesday with a terrorist incident all of these are situations where the fire service is going typically be the first one on C. And in many states what you typically find is that the -- -- is incident commander of these type of incidents. So we really want to get -- good understanding -- good basic understanding and again what we're going to be talking about here are the basics. So if you're looking to expand your knowledge of this you're looking go further -- Begin doing research and looking further into what emergency management is. The first thing we want defines what is the disaster. We want to make sure we have a common definition or working from now the reason I say this we call a disaster. Can be very subjective was considered a disaster for me may not be for you. And maybe totally different for another person so we want to make sure working all the same page. Now a disaster -- as a sudden event such as an accident or natural catastrophe. They're causing great damage or loss of life. Now sounds pretty straightforward. Let's take a car accident for example. -- outside of the interstate -- we use that now it may be a minor fender Bender it may be something small not a lot of damage nobody injured now too. The responders. This run of the -- call nothing major to the person who's going through instant it's a major problem is it stops there today. Could significantly and so the definitions become a little bit different so we're gonna work -- the same definition here -- us that a sudden event. Such as an accident or natural catastrophe that -- great damage -- -- Now what we're what what would be some examples of that example would be hurricane Katrina and you take a look at how that impacted the Gulf Coast area. And in that situation. We hit and a great loss of life we have a lot of damage. And we had significant problems as result. Of doing that incident. Now. One questions the tipping has brought up it does -- for example a tornado moved through. A -- area there's no damage to property there's no damage to people it's a pretty much takes out a few trees and we're we're done. Is that considered disaster. Followed by our definition here probably wouldn't it because we're the responses that -- different if there is -- and the situation. However you take an earthquake moving through Los Angeles. Property earthquake going through Los Angeles in that situation. There's damage to buildings they're pops possibly could be injuries sloth like those type things -- -- -- -- then becomes a disaster. So you need to define is very clearly we need to make sure we're working -- the same page -- us. Bottom line what we're dealing with here today and what were we talk about are incidents that report they either have a large amount of damage. Or loss of life in those situations these are what we're going to be looking at and reviewing -- we go through this particular site. Now from the standpoint of emergency management. There -- system set up in place just like there at the park service. So for example if we talk about what make creates a fire. We're gonna talk about the -- triangle and you've got to have the oxygen and you've got to have the fuel and you've got to have ignition source so those are things you've got help for fire. The same thing applies for emergency management there's a process -- place. And that they talk of the call -- the disaster life cycle or the faces of a disaster a little different terms that are involved there but very similar and along the same lines. And emergency management says their basement or phases of the life cycle for disaster. There's first medication. -- -- there's preparation. Third is the response. And -- for we have the recovery. So those look for things to really make sure you -- -- in your memory. And as you talk -- -- -- managers or talk with other responding agencies the use of terms it will come up quite -- Now here's one that issues that -- we talk about export phase. People typically think of it -- a very Linear approach. So we have -- one mitigation. We have stepped to preparation -- three response and then we have stuff for recovery. And a -- in many cases it doesn't operate like that. And in many cases what you'll see is it becomes more of a circular approach. Where we may start with -- medication and that is circles in the preparation response and recovery in the cycle back in the mitigation. And some vote for the we'll tell you as they'll tell you that medication actually takes place it in the center -- it happens and all of these bases. And -- talk about that as we get into that particular segment. -- the key to remember at this point though is that there are four phases to a disaster. And the first mitigation. Then preparation. Then response. Then recovery. If -- call from the previous slide one of the things when we want to make very clear is that when you talk about the phases -- -- disaster. You're not talking about a Linear approach necessarily. What we're all -- make sure you understand is that it does tend to happen in a more circular fashion. And that in many cases actually what you'll Begin to see is that some of these things this will -- -- bleed over each other. And Alton town particularly mitigation you Begin to see and different areas. It will apply throughout. For example. If we have a bit we have a major incident occur or major disaster occur initially you're gonna have a response. Obviously is this department's command as agencies come in to get involved in the instant help -- and so -- Where does it occur where the response in loans and where the recovery phase begins may not be necessarily clear. You -- -- has to be a very grey area so. Putting these in the box the so to speak and say okay we've completed the mitigation steps we're now moving into the preparation -- are -- are now -- the preparation went out won't recover. It doesn't happen like that in most cases payment and most of the time what you -- see if there's actually -- -- up when these occur. Now as us the mitigation -- -- can actually take place in Indian cities. So and I'll tell you why let's first start what what is it. Mitigation. Our activities that we perform. To either prevent the occurrence of -- -- or minimize the damage. And that's what we're looking forward looking for ways to Begin to minimize compare very similar to either. -- -- prevention. Compared to inspections any of those things that. May help reduce the number of fires medication does the same thing. Four of disasters for. Bomb the incidents that may occur within our communities. And so these are things are gonna want put in place to help try to reduce the number of either though the level of damage or the number of the -- may occur from a disaster. So. Some of terms shall typically hear in here are things like risk assessment risk analysis. Any any of those terms that are looking to reduce the level of damage and risk to the community. So the usual there were looking for as well -- we're -- look at as well in under medication. Is this things that we can do to. Reduce the vulnerability of a community. Now for example -- use the may third tornadoes. May third 1999. Oklahoma. Was hit when some of the worst tornadoes on the -- And in many cases some of the communities while there was a lot of notice them out they just didn't have the resources to respond to that level of storm. And so there was significant damage to many communities and their work actually neighborhoods and Oklahoma City that people just walk away and left their homes. No no no three point there was just so much damage and so much -- on there. And so at it in the mitigation phase what we're gonna look for is we're we're trying to fairways to minimize that. And so what you should be -- -- -- Andy's been in this situation is that actually medications that take place as we prepare. For an incident. Or disaster as we respond. And particularly in the recovery. They -- -- were recovering and coming back to trying to come back to some type of normal environment. Or were we were before. We're gonna look for ways to improve so that the next disaster that comes -- more than next -- -- it comes -- will be it will create lasting image. Are we just talked about mitigation and that particular phase of the disaster cycle. And many cases you'll find that this is typically listed first now -- wanna talk about preparation. And preparation. By definition -- -- activities that are undertaken in advance of emergency. We've now been given notice we have a hurricane movement in or we may have storms coming in the could be automatic. We may have an impending earthquake that we -- -- coming those type situation we we know that incidents coming and now we've got to start getting ready for. And this is where we Begin to rally together our resources and this is where we Begin to put together the pieces that we need to make sure we can respond effectively. These -- situations where typically you will see. The emergency operations centers Begin to come up and everybody can come on line getting ready for the storm. You may see our -- Begin to move their resources to safer location. Waiting for the storm to pass you may also see -- -- or Begin to work with the getting the -- evacuation process moving and so forth in the notification processes. All of that begins to come into play and begins -- move. So this is for the preparation -- that's doing. All right well what that we talk about preparation I want a break it down a little bit further for -- there are a number of things have been -- take place. And that we want to make sure occur in the preparation phase now the first one begins to talk we look at this as the normal operations. And these are situations where we may have distant noticed that a storms coming in and we may have -- noticed that an -- -- rate took her tornado. And we're beginning to prepare ourselves for that type of -- -- that. And here we're talking very general we're not talking specifics at this point we're talking very very general. And what -- two in the normal operations of preparation. Is first will Begin to develop provides -- disaster plans. And I hazard analysis and this is this -- -- is an ongoing thing throughout the year. And I think this is a mistake often that you -- occur is that we think that okay we've created our disaster plan. And we've got all of that in place the pieces we -- okay let's go put it on the shelf. And now look at it again until -- that -- And and this can leave you pretty well blind sided if you never go back and revisit your disaster plan. Or your hazard analysis and things like that you always want Begin to look for ways you can continue to improve. Your response. And how you're going to handle a major disaster. So always make sure that this takes place on a regular basis it doesn't have to happen every day. But. -- it needs to happen in a regular occurrence. As well in this part of the process. As we said medication takes place that all parts of the -- after phases. So medication can can be a part of this -- -- what's gonna happen is as you're beginning to develop your plans as you're looking for ways to improve your response. What you're also -- look for ways things to do -- look for ways to minimize. The impact. And so while we -- -- riding our plans we may look for ways to improve our building codes when they look for ways to improve. Our evacuation routes and things like that that are going to occur. We also want to make sure we put in place are any mutual -- agreements we may need. Anything that you may need to ensure that the other resources -- coming. You want to get those in place and have those agreements already established so that everybody knows their role. One of the big headaches that you typically see for the incident commander are the sudden influx of people coming up. To announce that. And typically shoot the volunteers you see this when -- Community members from other parts of the country and so forth when there's a major disaster everybody -- -- to help and they want to be resource. The issue though is that these mutual aid agreements with these operational plans and not in place it becomes a free -- -- So you want to make sure those things are well established as well then so we've got our. Emergency RR disaster plans we've got our hazard analysis we've done some of our mitigation. As part of this process. And we've got our mutual -- agreements in place. Now the next thing we want to during this normal operations -- is the most -- one of the most critical parts and that's to make sure we're training moment. And you know as any type of our our training they'll tell you the more you do with skill the more you practice -- the greater the likelihood. That is going to become a natural part of you on natural reaction. So just like we did with our our basic firefighter training just like we do with -- officer development any of those pieces. Our disaster response needs to -- practiced and drilled. So -- as well while also suggests that you also train with other departments the people that are coming and -- -- -- mutually agreements in place when you. Have them come -- as well as part of the train. And so that way everybody gets to know each other everybody knows how the other works and you can Begin to work together as a team. As well what also also what I'll try to put in place is that even part of your review of our our training. That you go through each each month. Try to Begin -- some of these pieces of the disaster. Response and your disaster plan so that people can become more more familiar well. The other piece we want to make sure it will take a look at our public information. As well as our communication systems. If you if you look at any post -- -- analysis. If you look at the one thing that always typically comes up so too many times there's the issue of communication. Whether that be with the general public well that -- -- with people on the same. Any of those type things and typically communication is the part that breaks down. Namely you -- think and -- -- we talk all the time. Some of the folks are apartment talk too much so we want to look at the though the situation but. -- is that the situation where there's a crisis there's a disaster were were having to deal whether it. Communications can be religion. And you wanna make sure that you have as part of your disaster plan as part of your natural operation you wanna make sure. Bit communications a big part of it and that that that does not just within your department as well the general public. And make sure that those things are being taken care as well. Then finally -- part of this Marmol operations you won't validation that your plans working. That people -- properly trained to deal with -- that your mutual aid agencies are effectively working with -- So you -- try to run exercise I would recommend at least annually. Once they hear you pull everybody in. And you run your exercising your -- -- it. And what you wanna look for art that are that all the pieces -- like they're supposed to. So did did it was everybody able to respond. Effectively. Did they get the communications they needed. Effectively were there breakdowns. And communication with the each other that we need to work on. Were there skills that we need to build up in preparation importance of the and these are all things you won't look at how Weldon. Pulling all these pieces together you could it becomes a continuous improvement. And as you're preparing to deal with you these other areas. You Begin to learn how are we going to operate. And this imports -- doesn't always occur so you may -- again going back to Watson earlier. You see that created the disaster plan -- put on the show they don't look at again until the incident occurs. And if you don't do that you don't know that works. You won't have any idea until the incident occurs about them is too late. At that point everything's emotion and everything moving and you don't have the time to go back and -- -- I would say okay can we revised our disaster plan now. So the key things in the normal operations and prepare the preparation for disaster are you want to make sure you're you're disaster plans. Are well well well written and in place. You wanna make sure that your mutual -- agreements are in place and already established. The injury you're training your personnel on how to respond -- disasters based on your -- disaster plan based on your -- agreements. And then finally the things -- look as you won't take a strong look at your communication. And you also want to take a look at Rhonda exercises to see if everything works. Artist something's up for us we talk about preparation phase. There -- several thing and particularly in normal operations. Is that we want to take a look at several key years several key areas. Of -- -- look at our plants themselves. Typically when things go wrong or you have a problem at a major disasters one of the big key issues -- -- disaster plans or out of date. Or they haven't been revised -- they haven't kept up that's the first key area that you typically see issues occur. The second part is communications. Communications plays at that one because -- that's only top of its smaller incidents in margins. And it's not a situation where you hear person say you know. Bring out. Specifically the communication was an issue what you typically here is we did not get that information to respond. Are to handle that component of the that the response. We didn't get the information we needed or -- wasn't clear what you were trying to explain to me those are the type of statements you typically here. From the general public -- communications. And it's an issue of the U what you typically hear and you hear this in the news media so if in addition to us saying had they been media also season. Is that you'll see the people say what I didn't know all supposed to evacuate. Or I didn't realize -- -- going to be that bad. And that's a very -- when you do here did not realize -- level of the storm or the situation. And that that happens common -- and hear people say that. And then finally the other big area is training and exercise on the on the disaster plan. And this is working -- breakdance another part against breakdown his greatest. It's terrific if we've got a solid communications system. But if we never practice -- those. In many cases you'll see the responders when they get -- to the saying it becomes a first it's as if they've seen all -- for the first time. And that's -- -- and become a very big problem. Because if they don't know buy it reflex almost what they're supposed to be doing. The sinking very quickly spin out into chaos. Are we talked about the preparations the -- -- normal operations. Now we'll talk about we know the disasters coming we know the situations -- -- to occur. And we've got to start get -- We've really at this point everything escalate supple several -- as we're getting ready for the it impending storm or situation. So what do we do in those situations where there's increased readiness -- we're increasing our situation or -- increased our preparation. For the storm. We first want to take a look at our critical facilities. And this is one of the things of people. -- -- -- -- what look at your community and this takes place back actually in this space the mitigation phase. If you want to look at what your critical infrastructures are for your community be it transportation -- water. Power. Any of those type things that are. Imperative for your community survive. And in this situation. We're -- increased ratings are they prepared to deal with that enters the warm and we want -- look at structurally. Personnel wise all of those pieces that may create a situation where that critical infrastructure cannot operate. And we wanna get ready we will get -- ready to deal with a disaster. We also want to make sure we reviewed. Gone through -- time. Reviewing our SOPs reviewing our disaster plans things like that as a civil war we've been training on it. We've been -- revising and updating -- over here. And we're not to putting on the -- were actually looking at our bases at this stage one -- for one more time to make sure we've got all the parts in place. Then that. Well prepared to deal with that the situation. Com we also want to Begin updating resource lists. Now resource list can be anything from personnel were playing to brain to. Equipment. To any of those things that we will need to have in place to deal with a disaster. Now something I would suggest particularly in this preparation phase is the more of this you can -- played out prior to the incident. The better off you'll -- maybe you may have to what what does he mean -- that. What I mean is that that one of the easiest ways to deal with the -- -- a disaster once it's going. Is to have everything set up almost like -- checklist and then kids. So -- the public information officer -- will be dealing with. The media I want have a series of kits over here that has all the equipment I need everything already packaged -- ago. I may have my checklist. Of what I need to take care decisions were -- were back up and operational we're going. They also have -- -- out some press releases that are ready to go any of these type things for operationally what I -- look at -- -- May say. I wanna have checklist where model -- personnel. Wares that you see going to be all of these type things and -- -- that way when I'm ready to go. And the disasters past and we're now responding to it -- -- everything already in place and I can operate fairly easily. We also want to Begin mobilizing those resources. Now here's something to keep -- -- Won't talk about mobilizing resources I'm not necessarily talking about bring them into the community. Now think about that -- minute we've got a hurricane. We've got a tornado that we know is can you rate move through. We have a situation is going to create a lot. Disaster -- -- after results so what we what while we bring those resources that we're going need for the response. Into the community. We want to make sure those are carefully placed Al Assad whose -- of the disaster. So that once this past we can bring -- all went. And I example -- give is again. Looking at the -- which -- hurricane Katrina. And death situation FEMA head resources. Stage back in Alabama. Waiting to respond after the hurricane passed. And so in this situation the resources that were needed from the federal government were placed outside -- -- Of the hurricane so that they -- they weren't damaged -- became part of the instant as instead of part of the resources. And so you have because is that what I would suggest when you do this is come up with two staging areas a primary in -- back -- And these are outside the zone. -- the disastrous coming through. And they're carefully -- so they can get in fairly quickly. And the reason -- -- come up with -- that two places. Then in a situation that -- -- tornado hurricane what happens that the storm shifts one way or the other. You want to make sure you have an alternative -- go just in case. We also want to Begin testing -- warning communications systems. We want to get -- make sure the overall point bump on operational. Now many communities they test these weekly you'll hear on the radio station you'll -- this is a test of the emergency broadcast system. Depending on the community you live then you may hear the tornado sirens go wall. And things like that those -- all tests and so -- we're gonna run that one more time just make sure we don't have any problems. And but doing that that -- everybody familiar one more time of what it sounds like what the sirens sound like what the tone sound like what messages are gonna be. Coming through so they can become familiar whether they can Begin focusing on those as -- storm moves them. We also want to bring up our public information that point. Those folks need to be ready to go and -- operate and here's something -- suggest. Don't wait till the disaster occurs upon us body on the scene -- talked to me. Go ahead and have a and establish position. That handles public information. And someone that can basically be there. Throughout the -- to talk to them to give them updates and keep the information -- -- -- once the instinct is -- what's your response is going the instance going. Keep -- the media it'll probably be your primary source of getting information the general public. So we want to make sure they're getting everything they're supposed to have in a very timely manner. You also want to make sure that you everything set up that the media has -- place -- -- And this is sometimes often the case that bill roll into the innocent and they may be all over your saying. And that's that's not -- if you go ahead and haven't established place let the media now. Where is going to be so they can go to get -- to the most accurate information. And so we makes up some place I -- -- that you see -- out of the danger components. That they can they can so the cameras -- -- -- the microphones everything like that. And they know that in a timely manner pit every thirty minutes every hour whatever the case may be for this particular incident. They're always going to be getting their information. And they can really relate that out the general public. And so this -- alternate. Misconception with the media we always look at them in a very negative light in a sense of trying to -- wrong. Well in these type situations you can actually use the media to your advantage utilize them to get information. Seen situations where. Part parts of use them to rule to release information the general public in a couple circumstances I've heard where at the bomb. Fire department -- -- were using news media helicopters. To help get better size up -- how how much damage has occurred. I helped me because they were getting live footage they could send back to their station it helped a part of marchers fired because they -- use it to determine where to -- -- -- So -- utilized -- to your advantage. As well in this in this increased brilliant stage we're going to Begin involved pulling in our disaster workers. Will -- looking at one additional staffing rules need to deal with us. And so we Begin pulling all those pieces together. So to summarize things up a little bit for -- -- part. -- -- -- today increased readiness stage. We want to evaluate our critical infrastructure make sure they're ready to deal with it and they can recover quickly. We want to review our standard operating guidelines and take a look at our disaster plans to make sure those -- up to -- prepared. We also want update our resource -- we may be specific to this announcement. We Begin mobilizing our resources. We also want tests are warning communications systems. We want to Begin disseminating information out to the public and to the media. And we want to Begin recruiting whatever additional staff and disaster workers when they need. -- with it we talked about mitigation. And had a would Begin to try to minimize and our community that the potential damage and destruction that can occur. We've talked about prep preparing for disaster in the sense of not only are normal operations but as well win the instant against -- we know what's coming. And now we want to Begin to move into this third base and that's the response. And this is where are incidents are disasters occurred are storms have moved through. The explosions occurred and now we've got to deal with the and as you can see. Well obesity through this is that once this occurs everything goes into action. If any of these other parts are not in place. At that at this point it's too late. Because you've got everything is going at that point. So this is -- this part -- both of these but this part of the disastrous coming in or you know what's coming. Making sure you have those. Everything in place -- me. Now what is the response. -- sponsor actions that will be taken to save lives and protect property. And that best -- in a nutshell these are the actions that we're going to do to try to save lives. To try to recover and that much property as we can. And to try to Begin that process of getting things and -- Now at this stage things Begin to happen rapidly. So. One of the biggest issues you typically see big -- goes wrong is during the preparation days. We underestimated how many of the type the number of resources in the amount of resources we needed and we get here it's like -- what do we do now. We need more personnel we need more equipment we've -- allocate or not food resources -- war. At this point it becomes a very big part -- very big problem at this state so this is -- the preparations so important. And that we cover all of our bases there that we make sure everything's in place prior to going into the response. All right when we talk about response. -- -- several parts that were work through with this and I -- make sure we we get everything covered so that you have a good understanding of what is the response piece of it. Now with a response -- begins the proof we we first start out with a pre impact. That -- the storms come in and we're already beginning see some of the damage we know. The level of storms will be incredible and I use that as an example can apply to most any situation. And but in this case we're talking about a storm and were now -- beginning the early response portions of it. What we're doing that apple -- during the pre impact. Is were sounding the sirens were doing the news notification emergency broadcast those things that -- the general public know. This thing's coming in this coming in part. And we don't want -- we want to make sure we can do. Everybody prepare for you also -- -- at this point deal with it any advice you can give people. Actions or instructions that they can use -- as there in the storms coming in. -- for example if we had a tornado. And you see this. On the news channel where there will come up come up on the news broadcast they say you need get the -- -- your room -- -- you get to your basement. Different things like that that may be set to help people understand what they need to do. As well perking you go for example you you're telling people how to evacuate -- tell -- where to go. To get out of the area and so. Those are things -- this is the type stuff that's going on now. You may hear the tornado sirens going off at this stage -- to notify people and you get below ground or they need to get the senator of their home. You Begin surveying and -- by way to merchant services -- emergency situation. And discipline thing we're we're now beginning to monitor do we have to re sort of what our resources doing do we have enough to deal with what's going on. And so we're beginning to track all that information you may see at this point. Apparatus going out to respond to -- -- you maybe embassy. The calls coming in purpose downed power lines all of those type things that are part of a storm. A disaster moving through. And you want to Begin surveying -- evaluating those to make sure you've got everything covered. Where at this point as well we're beginning to pull together. Our response in the -- to allocate our resources and good look at what where can we put everybody. And so for example I use one community during of them may third tornadoes. They took their apparatus for the part apartment and move them out of the community. While storm passed once storm passed it brought back camp. A number of years ago when not Hurricane Hugo came through -- and came ashore in South Carolina. One of the barrier island apartments actually pulled their apparatus off the island. Waiting for the storm -- that brought back to handle that merge -- response. Those are the different things that you -- -- Juan during this sort of -- impact stage. You Begin also mobilizing any other necessary resources. As may be everything from volunteer work -- -- -- Salvation Army. It may be neat food resources you -- allocated -- or you've been working with you -- -- Begin getting -- folks mobilized. And as well you wanna -- -- positioned. So that when -- but once the storm passes they can go to work. At this stage -- you -- let them know that you know once storm -- -- -- -- -- this location. Are on did you on main street -- quarter of -- or you're very specific information so they know where they need to go. And once everything's past and they've been activated. You -- also Begin -- stepping up your -- operations center. At this point you see -- become active all the players -- members that are involved. Are going to be there and you Begin it begins -- regular operation ongoing operation. At this -- also. You may wanna Begin this is where -- also Begin to evacuate your community. And you wanna Begin to take in those resources in those people out of there it if necessary. We talked about. As the storms coming in arrest situations beginning to occur now want to talk about what are the immediate and this case the immediate emergency that we got our hands. -- at this point you need to Begin prioritizing. We want -- -- and what's important obviously the very first number one priority that we need to be focusing on is saving lives. We want to Begin saving lives this point and getting our teams out there doing the search and rescue doing the rescue operations in general. All of those things that Begin to deal with a like priority this one on right now. Second we want to regain control. Of our community. And what I mean by that is that win an incident occurs of that -- a large magnitude. What tends to happen -- -- tuned to -- somewhat chaos around the community people coming back out. They're looking to see what damage is done they're beginning to see what's trying to -- what's going on. And asked the emergency responders you've got it -- one weekend thinking control appearance and and then what we do from here is that we Begin to minimize. The effects of the disaster we tried to Begin to get control and keep further damage from occurring. So. What are we doing we get three priorities here. During this flight safety number 11 -- Portland and wanna say like priority keep in mind this is not just about the victims. This is about responders as well. And this is something we sometimes will miss -- in this particular stage. Is that. There's such a focus on getting the bit films they're such. Energy put into doing that. That we forget that the mergers ponders have to make sure they're taking the proper safety precautions as well. Because if they get injured or they get hurt the NASA that's an additional victim we've got the -- -- that's -- additional probably got. Who got -- -- with so we want them -- -- safety as the number one priority but to the public -- -- the responders. Second we want to regain control of our community and repeat -- gain control -- And then third we want to Begin minimizing the effects of the disaster. So those are three priorities. What -- begins the at this stage as well we've we've we've had -- -- -- operation now because we knew the situation was -- occur. Now we Begin setting up our command posts and we Begin this rampart -- -- up even further. The calls what's what's -- -- -- that's gonna happen it's gonna be a little bit different than what we do with this structure fire -- we deal with as a car accident. Because in those situations we've only got one -- we're dealing with. I've got that's structures are going wrong or have my car accident. In a situation over the major disaster. Is very likely you'll find you'll have multiple scenes going on. And you did it would not be uncommon at all to have all these different areas operating as their own incidents. And so what you wanna do it as the part of -- as the instant commander. -- -- you wanna Begin breaking my house so that they can they can deal with their own scenes but it's all information -- back into you and into the university. And this -- you maintain control over -- -- -- instant one large instant with multiple things going on. You have a number of smaller incidents that are -- And so for example one me one situation over here may have their own incident commander another one here may have an incident commander. Here in all of those are reporting back to that -- -- And so that's that look good way to maintain control understand try to maintain control of your instant. By breaking it down into smaller pieces. I'll -- tell people that with a good they got a big problem it's overwhelming to them the best -- to break it down into manageable parts. And try to deal with -- that way and we're we're basically we're doing the same thing here. We're taking this massive disaster. For breaking it down into smaller parts and were -- people deal with a small ports. And hopefully they in the reporting back to the the -- manner -- to the merged operation center. So that's that's how we're manage -- since then and then they can call in and say what resources they additional resources they may need. So -- needs -- from -- worse than as the commander for one section can call him the UC. Have those responded maybe somebody needs -- Help for a family. There's also home. That can call back the university have that's out and so. By doing it this way you -- you can keep some order to what's typically consider chaotic situation. We talked about first the pre impact situation of the response. And how we deal -- how we Begin ramping up for the -- disaster we've also talked about the immediate impact. Where where now we've now got a situation here where we're trying to manage. And the next thing I want to talk about is what we do when it becomes a sustained emergency. And sustained emergency what's happened is just not something we resolved -- -- -- one hour for -- six hour period. In these type of situations and that's what makes -- unique. Is they can go on for days or four weeks and you could actually find yourself spending time in this response mode. For quite awhile. So what do we do at that point. When we're dealing with a response. In a sustained situation. What we're doing is we're we're gonna take a look at how are we providing care. And treatment for the casualties what do we do -- those folks that are coming in. As well we want to bomb. Deal with how are we dealing with monitoring our responders. In -- are they they getting proper meals are they are -- facilities available to them. Are there resources available them to keep them going any sustained situations. And you know for example FEMA typically says for the responders. When they're when they send in response it. Teams this -- -- for fourteen day cycle. And then they rotate it back out. If -- -- -- dealing with an instant where you're dealing with your personal -- more local. You could see that go a little bit longer. And but as well US that's the -- commander and if you're dealing with this type saint. You want to make sure those that the people that are responding -- closely monitor. As well we we want to Begin collecting. I've been applying. And what does storing or dealing with that problem with the -- for the debt. At this point remember we talked about what is a major disaster we gotta we gotta do something with these body particularly if things as -- that things -- moving forward. We've also got to look at mask here for displaced people in these situations. We we we now have a lot of people that may have -- -- home. May have lost all of those things they consider to be normal and we've got provide them. Those for the time -- until we can Begin to move into this recovery effort and we -- get things back to normal. So we've got to look at things like food water. Places to clean up. Places to sleep. These these are all different things we've got to look at and resolve as part of this response suffering -- people going. To Begin try to rebuild. When talk about the sustain the -- one of the issues you typically see any use of against back in the initial impact over spots. If you Begin to get in -- of volunteers coming in of people wanting to help. And you keep in mind what's what's typically happening is that the incidence is being broadcast all over the news making all the media. As well even today with a social media you're seeing all rolling -- FaceBook Twitter -- all those different type of resources. And what can happen is people want to get -- they want help. -- people to bring supplies -- -- helped look for missing that don't be it whatever the case may be. You're gonna suddenly find yourself with the as sudden influx of people coming in. Now this this this sounds good initially. But here are some things that tend to occur. If you don't have area set up for these people report -- from them to be properly vetted to be make sure that what they're. There -- are assigned to do what they're skill levels allow us. What Walton tend to happen is they want in the water off and again getting involved all the wrong. And this is a very common occurrence. You have these what -- basically put all of our freelancers in the fire service. Is they will Begin to Monroe and start operating. As a responder. And so if you don't you want to make sure you've got some way of managing those people so that they don't kind of one overall and start getting involved. It also become a victim himself think -- -- do more damage. Those type things Begin to occur if there's not a system in place for bringing them out. Now one thing -- -- set up much like you did for the media. And it in the initial planning for the does the disaster and meet immediate preparation. You also want to the same thing for volunteers. And this play as people Begin -- homeland asset influx occurs. Then you have somewhere to send them -- have a way of getting them involved. And -- this way you Tennessee west freelancing less people just kind of wondering around Indians that. The second issue that are typically -- -- this is once the novelty wears all of the -- they tend to disappear. People there's a lot of hype -- -- you watch the major networks for picking it up. Depending on the level of your -- you people are wanting to get involved they're very excited to help. But as she -- in with a sustained your -- yes let's say you're getting into days and weeks and that are involved in your response suffers. And so. Again people grow tired. They have -- -- -- -- how they've got to get back to their families. And what's he do it justice -- many cases just as quickly as the people were coming again you Begin to see the only. And so what you may plan based on the initial response of having. X number of volunteers. Two weeks three weeks into your incident you may not happen. So this is where some careful planning has take. And early on he get in here into this -- we've we've got the ability to. Bring in more resources and more people -- -- -- case made it. Are we talked about several -- the parts of this disaster cycle we first looked at mitigation. And we talked about what do we do to try to -- minimizing some of the things that go along with a disaster. We've looked at preparation both on the daily bases. And we've also looked at from the standpoint what do we do as we know the storms coming or the situations getting -- to occur. We also then looked at the response. And and the responses what are we going once the -- -- has occurred. And about one word reaction we're now having to deal with the incident. And if you remember our priorities in response talked about you know first -- safety. As we said both for the members of the community the victims and the responders. We also talked about seeing control can control our incident. And bring order to that and then finally minimizing. The effects of the disaster. Now -- just a week in a sense we've accomplished all three of those people what we're looking at now -- then how to we began to return to normalcy. Or returned the way we work. And -- -- here's a misconception that typically occurs is there's a thinking that okay we're in recovery mode. Now we're going to get everything back to the way it was before the disaster. And that is not always the case. Sometimes. The destruction and -- -- incredible. That we we cannot return the commute back to the way it was before. And so you need to kind of keep that if you're -- -- the commander -- part of the response you kind of keep that in the back your mind. That we may not be it would get things back to the way they work. But what happens in the recovery -- We first we -- we first take a look at our health and safety measures. And we're not talking just for the immediate it like we did in the response we're now looking very long term. Because in the recovery phase which you can Begin that this can actually take quite a while. This is not now we're not talking at this stage days or weeks we're not talking months possibly years. So the recovery phase can take quite a while to get back get us back -- where we were before or attempt to. So we've got look at some of the health and safety measures that we can put in place that are more long term. And Begin to -- provide some people some of the basic needs. -- were in the recovery phase. We want to look at ways we can protect. And control and allocate our vital resources keep -- on -- at a premium this point food is at a premium. Sanitation is at a premium this -- the -- those resources may be very limited if there at all so we want to make sure we've we've got some way. Protecting controlling and allocate those resources out for the long term. Because the -- that the recovery phase can take quite a while. We also want to take a look at the that's reestablishing. Or and activating some of those vital resources. In her up talked about at this point. Within the preparation phase -- we're looking at our critical infrastructure transportation. Roadways are -- apply electricity. All of those things -- where we're making sure they're prepared for the instant. Here -- recovering we're beginning at that point to bring those back on line. Now it may be a very minimal. States or maybe did very limited capacity but we're going to try to Begin bringing those back and bring them on line for usage. The pending home -- the safety situation. Well also -- Colombian looking at law enforcement beginning control. The day to day operations and bring order back to those in this situation here during the response. We're looking at just trying to. Get everybody accounted for get everything employees try to deal with the immediate issue. Here or now again looking -- terms we wanna see -- -- began to take take back that -- today. Control of the scene and the operations of maintaining order. From the -- service side we're -- Begin looking at how can we Begin. Reducing down on that response capability. We're no -- where it -- we get into this mode were no longer in the search and rescue mode. Approach it necessarily as much as stabilizing. And trying to rebuild. And that that you can look we're looking -- from all agencies. That are involved -- what we're know we're we're slowly moving out of that response mode. And everything's a crisis situation we're trying to take care of -- life safety issues were trying to take your immediate. And we're now looking longer term and rebuilding so a lot of things are going to step down. Or be replaced by something up -- another part of the response. We also want to look at establishing access controls. In the recovery effort we also as well as. There case ways to control movement. Throughout the town and typically what you see in these situations as win. The mayor the governor opens up to allow -- back into the community. This all what used to happen in this situation. And what are they gonna come back to power they don't move about the talent -- are -- gonna keep things like looting. And all the parts from taking place these are all parts of of the -- the recovery effort. And as I said with a shifting taken place from response to the recovery would hear the volunteers that may have been involved in this -- The initial search and rescue initial clearing roads to get -- -- vehicles through. The initial. Helping people get some of their basic needs to that go back to a shelter. Those type things is shifting now and what -- the volunteer response you'll see here typically. Is people coming in to help rebuild homes people coming in to help clear yards. Things that a word what may not have been essential. At this -- Will Begin to do so at this point. Now as I mentioned to you earlier -- said that mitigation is going to take place each one of these in the recovery phase. What's -- happens as we Begin to rebuild. As we Begin to attempt to bring normalcy to our community again what you're going to see happen is you're gonna look for ways that we can improve. -- community for the next disaster. So when we're rebuilding homes for example we may look at ways we can build film that are structurally. To withstand. Worst storm next time. We may a look at our roads as those comments were rebuilding -- -- OK how can we create better evacuation routes for people. We may look at the buildings -- those critical infrastructures we talked about how can we improve them. So that when the next next incident occurs. We are better prepared we've got better resources in place and we can. That a deal with a lot better than what we did this go around. So what you're saying this is medications taken place and all. And all these pieces were always looking for ways to improve. Well no matter what phase we're in granted litigation does have a sold standalone. But it is is going -- -- and -- all the others as well. So. To kind of recap. But we talked about. We've got four basis of -- disaster. And if we were -- again to look at it in organized manner. This is this is what we would go -- we have -- the mitigation process. What do we do want to minimize the disaster -- the damage disaster can occur what are we doing to try to reduce the risk to the people that live there. We then move. For the second phase is preparation. And in the preparation phase what we're looking hat is one day to day are -- overall prepared to deal with a disaster. Do we have the plans in place -- mutual -- agreement do we have the training do we have all of those pieces that we need to deal with a disaster prepare for. And second part of that we are looking at. We know that's the disasters coming work and we're getting ready to deal with -- the immediate. The third -- we move into is the response. And that response were we're we're now. Mobilizing our resources we're now pulling out our disaster plan and -- an album making it work. And so we're looking at -- response well protecting life. Minimizing damage in gaining control. And then fourth we've got the recovery. And that's where we Begin to rebuild the community. Rebuild those critical infrastructures then all the other other components of the community to try to return us if not to normal. At least close to -- all. And so please look for phases were looking. Now -- set from the standpoint of the parks service. In most cases you're gonna be the first one -- call. You're going to be the first one on the -- And in some states it's even written into statutes that the fire -- is the answer commander and that natural disaster. So the -- apartment problem more than anyone in the agency needs to have an understanding of the emergency management process of the the faces of a disaster and how they play into it and how they fit into it. They call that there there's only so many occasions where you you're agency will be the one that takes the lead on this. And so I would suggest making sure you have a very good understanding of these -- how they operate what you're department does -- that process. And then -- suggest as well expanding beyond the basics. Looking at how you can take a great get a greater understanding of the the these basis. And how you can expand your knowledge and integrated into your response. -- ultimately that's going to be the Q this is good information -- This is great to have somewhere in a textbook somewhere. But until you can integrate it into your response. It doesn't make sense and it's not applicable yeah. So with the I would suggest going back reviewing. Costly learning and looking for new ways to improve the way you're doing this. There -- a number ways you can go get further information further research this particular area. First form -- -- state Begin at the FEMA website. FEMA dot gov. And that's a great resource for emergency responders for citizens for government officials business owners all of the cam looking at how -- -- best deal with a disaster. So that's a great starting point second is you can also look at your local library for books and materials on that from that area. As well the national park enemy offers a learning resource -- Which will have numerous resources in this area and all of those can either be. -- they -- or you can check those out from the learning resources there through your local library. And then finally go online. A number resources out there are a number of web sites you can look at that will be very hopeful. In addition to your research and looking for a way -- resources that way. You contact your local your state emergency management agency and -- about courses that are being Alford. Four in this particular area and there are a number of orientation for -- management. Many cases they break those out and a four components an individual courses the relate these specific areas. And all of those are typically free for your stadium -- So -- look at that there's also through FEMA. There is the emergency management institute -- -- Maryland. They also offer courses for -- that you could take both online and their own campus. I would say that they very basic level. Everybody in the department should be trained. Good basic understanding of emergency management. And again there are a number of courses they can the people can take. If you're an officer unique notes some of the -- more supervision type skills that go along with managing a disaster. If you're the chief -- -- you need to -- some of the -- -- well some of these high level responsibilities that go on during a disaster. And again all of these are courses that are offered through either the state -- made through FEMA through in conjunction with emergency management institute. You can also -- a number of courses online but I would say it to break it down into one of the priorities. Everybody in the department needs to have a good basic understanding. Supervisory and up an officer level positions need to have. So -- good working knowledge both that supervision level in command level. And then your -- officers need to have more of the planning and executive level type understanding of bookmarks -- This is actually very common problem that -- run into with a major disaster. And particularly when you're dealing with small community volunteer departments smaller departments. Where the victim the the responders and members of your department they very well be members of the community. And as well they're going to be experience in the same Vick problems as that comes as well trying to take on this role -- emergency responder. One of the key things I would say right away and this happens this preparation -- It is you need to make sure that you've got enough resources and enough people coming again. To compensate for the possibility. Of a loss of half three -- or possibly even your whole apartment. And so -- really comes into this this preparation planning and making sure that those you have those resources and -- One of the things always tell people it's it's much easier to turn responders around -- the -- and get them in route to you. And this has been particularly -- you're looking at this this is where it really becomes critical. It is much better -- to have people there that you don't need. Then to be calling around trying to find people respond. So I would say deathly look assume as you're doing your preparation. Worst case scenario and that -- -- what happens I'll lose half three quarters on the whole apartment. How a -- still managed against them. The far -- plays a very critical role in the recovery -- just as they did in the response. And the response well what do is make the comparison. That and the response space compared to instructor -- how -- respond to a structure fire. In the response faith what we're doing is we're at that point trying to save lives and property we gotta get people out of the house. Get the fire knocked out in the recovery phase I would compare that salvage an overhaul and at that point what you're saying is the department personnel responding out. There assisting with removing property from the damaged home Wednesday you will see them assisting in. Helping clear yards helping clear driveways so people -- in and out. Homes can be more visible. And so you'll see more of that title role -- his Mormon assisting role to the homeowner to the community member. As opposed to that response -- where you may see the spot thus far undertake a leading role. And -- again -- is more things like helping them clear stuff out of their homes helping them. Clear -- yours look for ways thought about it necessarily the building context put to help try to recover. What they can from their home or facility. The Maine got just to use that word that should people look for -- base and -- first in mitigation. I'll start without one in mitigation you need properly assess your community. And typically where you see problems occurs when they haven't done a proper assessment or one at all. And so that that's where there's probably -- problem really takes place. And the preparation. Typically what you'll see -- they either haven't allocated. Enough resources to deal with -- disaster. Or they may not put have those prepared to go and those of the two things I would say typically happens in the preparation phase and where you see that. Is in the response. If proper allocate our resources have been allocated -- people. Food water those type things then it really catches up we're doing here. I'd say -- the response what typically is the big problem -- -- -- is communication. There it's almost like religiously there's some type of breakdown in communication and a personal response. So it and that's why product helps us how important it is. Here this that this state -- you're getting ready for the disaster to make sure that your proper proper communication is in place everybody understands. In the recovery phase the Tennessee here where you see the problems. Is if something has not worked the response so we have a say -- we have properly secured building. We -- properly secured some component of the community. And we find out about it in the recovery. And so this is where you want to make sure prior to moving into this recovery mode. That. The the community safe and secure for people return. You don't want to release that the community to go back to the public when there's still potential threats that are. That's actually -- very question what do you do when the agency's. Do not have to establish relationship of working together and some cases where you may see. There's a definite conflict between the two aides say police and fire. And in the preparation phase of getting ready for the disaster and in the ongoing development of that. Those steps those relationships have to be established so while maybe the department is their chief authors -- not get along. It they have to come together and to make this whole thing work. And that's one of the requirements of that is -- those little White Sox what -- disasters that everybody have to work together. -- -- law enforcement fire be it neighboring departments and the fire department being in mass waterworks all of these agencies. To make this operate successfully they have to be able to come together now how can that take place. In these early stages of preparation if you remember -- talked about. About training and ongoing training its -- -- with your -- changed and we disaster plan and so forth. This is where you Begin Begin to do that is. While the relations maybe tens of -- bringing them together for training and beginning to get them to work through the disaster plan together -- Begin to. Build those relationships. Now you may you may not be able to get to a point where there's this harmonious relation between the two legacies. But it at least. By doing this you know they're all worked all the same page. And this is if we're used typically seeing that the response go really south -- where you have a lot of problems with. Is win the agencies are not communicating and whether or not working together and in some cases where you may see. Each agency has their own command post so to speak and they're running their own operations. Independent of the others. And when that occurs this of the things really began the -- part. And when -- if you see on the news you see on media where. It you see that part apartment and the police are there's chaos there between working win. In most cases if you go back you see there was not some type of joining us -- man. Or any type of communication going on. So it's very important and these early stages here to Begin trying to build those relationships if not. A perfect relations at least the point you can work together.