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Leadership Principles

Mon, 1 Jul 2013|

This program from the Firefighters Support Foundation debunks the myth that leadership is a separate activity from management and details the specific traits and actions that leaders must exhibit.

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Transcript

[BLANK_AUDIO] Why another project on leadership for public safety. Hasn't this subject been done to depth? Well, its been done a lot, but there is always room for another perspective which I think we, we need here. Leadership is been recognized as a discipline now for thousands of years, from a lot of different perspectives. Perspectable business, perspectable, perspectable politics, from the perspectable church. All from the perspective of the military. All these perspectives have something to add. In addition, academics have glommed on to the subject of leadership in the last 50 years or so. And they've got something to add and we can bring that here as well. Every discipline grows over the years. So there's always room to bring the newest perspectives to the practitioners which are you. Now because leadership has all of these different perspectives and because business people look at leadership one way and the military another, public safety another. The problem is, if you only constrain. Your perspective on leadership to your discipline. You know your a public safety professional. You only look at it through the lens of a public safety professional. You only read the perspectives of public safety professionals. You miss the cross realization that happens in any field, by not incorporating the perspectives from these other disciplines like the military and business. And that's part of what we're gonna do here today is to give you a slightly different perspective, primarily one from the private sector, which of course is profit driven. And there's a lot of money at stake in the private sector for getting leadership right. And some of those lessons can be applied to public safety. Today it's very common for military leaders to go to business school to learn. The perspective of the private sector because it has lessons for the military and vice versa. It's very common for public sector, for private business to hire military leaders on their board of directors, or in their management. Because the military perspective on management and leadership has a lot to cross fertilize, to, a lot to contribute to the public sector. And that's why we're doing this program. It's because public safety today can learn from other perspectives. [BLANK_AUDIO] The subject of leadership has been over generalized and over simplified a lot over the last 50 years or so. Over the last 10 or 20 years we've really come to understand that it's, it's not. A stand alone subject. I mean leadership isn't something that's separate from management or separate from administration, those subjects are all, or rather those disciplines are all intertwined and one of the perspectives we want to bring here today is the way they are intertwined although the focus is on the leadership aspect. When you're talking about a discipline, it always helps to define it so we're all on the same page. We all know what we're talking about. And that's kind of another issue with leadership is it's got lots of different definitions depending who you talk to. You talk to a practitioner you talk to an academic you talk to people from other different, a sociologist. It's got lots of different definitions, so it's important that we all have the same, we're all working from the same definition of leadership. When you read about leadership these days (and you can't open up a public safety journal these days, it seems, without there being at least one article in there about leadership) you tend to get two different kinds of perspectives, two different kinds of definitions. The first kind of perspective you might get, the first definition, is really just a bunch of buzz words, that are repeated over, and over, without a whole lot of meaning at all. We see these too often, and on, on this slide here, you can, on slide eight. I've kind of made fun of these kind of articles. You know, it's, it's the article that goes I [UNKNOWN] integrity, bah, bah, bah, bah. Honor blah, blah, blah,blah, Integrity, blah, blah, blah. Honor blah, blah, blah. I mean it's just keeps repeating the same couple of buzz words as if their saying something. Well yeah, leadership has got to do with integrity, and honor, but there's more to it than that. I mean that kind of. That kind of approach doesn't tell you what the elements of leadership are, doesn't tell you how they intertwine and doesn't tell you how to practice them and put them into practice with your team. The other kind of approach you'll often see in public safety journals to leadership is that of a, a well meaning academic, some professor somewhere that is trying to contribute to public safety and, and writes articles about leadership. I've kind of made fun, of these articles here on slide nine. Because the tend to be, very obtuse, very academic, very abstract. They don't really tell you, how you practice it. What you really do, on a day by day, month by month, quarter by quarter, year by year, basis for your team. So let's look at our definition of leadership next. Take a look here at slide ten. This is a definition of leadership that we found that we really like. We think that this is something that public safety professionals can work with on a practical basis. And what this is is leadership is a process of social influence... In which a person enlists the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task. Now the words that we've highlighted in red on the slide are important. It's a process of influence, not necessarily doing something, but you're influencing other people, so leadership is about having influence on people. Having influence with the object of getting their support for a common task, that you're trying...essentially what they are saying is a leader is trying to pull everybody along in the same direction to achieve a common goal. Now that may seem kind of simple and obvious,. But it's a really good working definition, and if you've been [LAUGH] in public safety more than a year, you'll understand how difficult that really is to do. So, although that previous definition, which did come out of academia, is a pretty good one. Let's rephrase that using slightly more common English. And the, the working definition of leadership that we'll use throughout this program, is that leadership. Is about inspiring people to pull in the same direction for a common cause. First thing to remember about leadership is that it's not actually about doing stuff. It's about inspiring other people to do stuff. It's about getting your team to do things, not necessarily you doing things. Now. That doesn't mean that you don't need to be out there sometimes leading from the front, setting the example. Sure you do, but leadership is about getting your team to pull in the same direction, and the way you're going to measure how good a leader you are, the way your bosses are going to measure how good of a leader you are is how well your team performs, how well you inspire your team. Now, it's really easy to get people to do things. I mean, you can put a gun to their heads and say, do it or you'll fire, do it or you demoted. That's not hard. The trick about leadership is getting them to want to do it. To getting them, is getting them to be inspired by the same vision you have. To pull in the same direction that you want them to pull. And this is, also, part of leadership. Is getting this buy in for your team, getting them to want to accomplish the goal that either you want to accomplish or you've been charged with. So getting agreement out of your team as to the direction they're going and getting agreement out of your team as to the fact that this goal is worth accomplishing is also part of leadership. Another mark. A good leadership is that their team is introduced. They're happy, they wanna come to work. They wanna get this done. They are committed to the organization. They are committed to their task. That is also the mark of a good leader. That's part of what you are trying to do as a leader. That's part of what you are trying to steal in the people. As much inspiring people as it is about getting stuff done. So if leadership is about getting your team to do stuff and do it with enthusiasm, then the proof of leadership, the proof of whether you're a good leader or not is not seen in you. It's seen in your team, seen in how your team performs... And the kinda motivation, and enthusiasm we have. And the kinda results that they achieve. So, if you wanna know if someone is a good leader, or not, look at their team. It's not about them. It's about their team. And that, that's an important thing. If you're trying to exercise leadership, if you're trying to develop leadership within yourself, you've gotta lose, the i, the notion that it's about you. You gotta lose your ego. Your focus now has to be on the team, not you. On the team's performance, not your performance. Leadership can also be leading upwards. I mean that is, you can have a subordinate, say a individual contributor, a police officer, a firefighter who through the, through the power of their example and their personality and, and their vision and their communication skills actually inspires the team. Themselves even though they're not the manager, or the leader of that team. So you can lead upwards and we all have been in organizations, probably all parts of organizations where we see individual contributors who do that. And we know that someday when they get promoted they're going to be great leaders, because they are such good leaders now, as individual contributors. So just because you'll need an individual contributor now doesn't mean that there aren't leadership skills that you can develop then yourself. And it's a desirable thing to do, not just from a career point of view, but from a personal development point of view. You'll find it very rewarding. But the most common form of leadership, however and where it's most commonly needed is when you have a manager of an organization, a sergeant, a lieutenant in the police force... A captain eh, a battalion chief in the, in the fire force, those are the people that, need to exhibit leadership, because they have a team, that they need to get performance out of. It's often been said, one of the, sayings you'll see if you read about leadership a lot, is that the first responsibility of a leader is to define reality. And there's a lot to be said about this. We've all been apart of organizations where the, the people running the organizations would just either blind or turning a blind eye to the reality of the situation. They did n-, they didn't realized that. Certain systems that they were responsible for were inadequate. They didn't realize that the mission of the organization was changing from the public's point of view, etc, etc. So the first responsibility of the leader is to find reality. To make sure that not only that they understand the reality of the world that they are trying to work in, but that that reality is reflected in what they expect from their team. An example might be a fire captain, a battalion chief who understands that the, say, the physical fitness of their team members is important, but is just turning a blind eye to that. Only giving it lip service and not really reflecting that in what they expect from their team. Or maybe a maybe a police lieutenant who, who understands that certain aspects of a law has changed, and the way you need to treat the public in certain circumstances has changed. But they aren't really reflecting that in what they expect from their team. They're just going by the old paradigm. They're not full leading their team. To perform in accordance with the way the world is now. You know, if you are promoted to a position where leadership is expected of you in an organization it probably means that you have seniority which means you've got some time on the job. Which means you probably have more time on the job than the people working for you. Which means your experience is all in the past. Now, it's all too easy to look to the past as you're guide post for what you expect of your team. But in fact, time is moving along and you're focus needs to be on the future. Notice I didn't say your focus needs to be on the present. Your focus needs to be on where the future, because things are always changing and your job is to bring the team... Into where it needs to be to develop the capabilities, it's going to need 6 months from now, 5 years from now. It's all too easy to get caught up in the past and manage from that paradigm, from those set of expectations as opposed to the new set of expectations. So leadership is about understanding that the reality that we talked about earlier. Is in the future. The reality that we're managing to, that we're charging towards, that we're trying to achieve is in the future. Not in the past, not in the present. [BLANK_AUDIO] When you take charge of a team it's almost always the case that something needs to change in that team. You, I mean, the world's not static, therefore, our organizations aren't static and our teams aren't static. So you're almost, always, trying to lead and manage change and change is always painful because people don't like to change. So just recognize it. Part of being a leader is instilling the willingness and the enthusiasm. In your team to do something that is somewhat unnatural, in most people, and that is to change. So what are the actual jobs of leaders, other than leading change. Well, a leader needs to set the vision for the organization. Need to tell your people what it is you're trying to achieve. It's not necessarily just a, a physical goal, but it's a vision, it's an inspiring vision for the kind of team you want it to be. You, you need to define the values of the team, that is, the kind of behavior that you expect, the kind of behavior you'll tolerate and not tolerate, and the, and you need to make very clear what the values are. That the team needs to live by. This is the kind of thing that will either make the team highly enthusiastic or highly demoralized. If you have the wrong values or you aren't consistent with the values, that you play favorites with people, you need to inspire other people to work towards a vision. We mentioned that was the primary job of leaders. Often times leaders have people working for them or if you're a first line manager you've got individual contributors working for you. But you need to make sure that the right jobs go to the right people. You know, your job is partially is to delegate things, and you set the vision but you also have to delegate responsibility for getting parts of the task done. Need to make sure they go to the right people, that the persons that you charge with fulfilling part of the task of your team, part of the mission of your team, are the right people. Again, it's all too easy to do this simply based on seniority, based on friendship, based on grudges, can't do that if you're a leader. Can't do that if you want a highly motivated, highly effective team. One of the other jobs of leaders is to install what we call a sense of quality in the organization. We've all worked for teams, we've all worked for organizations, whose performance, that is the organization's performance or the team's performance, was pretty poor. Hopefully we've all worked for teams or organizations that were, were high-functioning and did a really good job. And we all enjoyed working for the high-functioning, high-quality organization or team a whole lot more. It's just a lot more inspiring. So part of the job as a leader, is to understand what quality needs for, your organization. How you're going to measure your organization? And to actually do it, on a consistent basis, to lead your team, towards good quality performance, and not just let midioka quality slide by. You need to create an openness to change. This is part of inspiring people. Remember we said that you're always trying to install change cuz you're moving towards the future, you're constantly moving towards the future. Installing openness to change, installing an enthusiasm for change, in your people is something that is the job of a leader, too. If you look at, for instance, high tech companies. The best high tech companies are the ones where, of course things are always changing in high tech, but if you look at the high performing teams there, they aren't looking to the past. They're bored by the past. They're always looking for the next thing to glom onto and work on. They want to change. They live for it. Now, living to change things may not be the right attitude in public safety. Things will move a little slower in the fire service and the police service, etc. But being open to change, and being willing to change, and being enthusiastic to change when it's necessary is something that's critical for any high-functioning team. That's part of the job of the leader, to install that. One of the hardest things for leaders to do and certainly for new leaders to learn is to actually encourage contrary opinions. To encourage people to disagree with you. You aren't the smartest person in the world, no matter what you think. You don't know everything, no matter what you think. Your team members have opinions, have experiences... And have knowledge that can help you make better decisions. And if you don't encourage them to bring those to the table, which means encouraging them to disagree with you when they really feel strongly, then you're missing the boat. It's your team's performance that matter. It's your team's performance that you are gonna be judged by. It's to your best interest to encourage disagreement. With your views, with your decisions. When those, when people really have something to contribute. If you look at high performance teams, for instance a high tech. If you sat in on a, say a product development meeting, in a high tech company. You know, a high performing high tech company, you will see lots of disagreement. More than you'll ever see in a public safety environment. And that's part of what makes them so effective, is that people feel free to disagree, and out of all of that, you know, the leader listens to all the different issues, and, eventually makes a decision. But encouraging disagreement, encouraging contrary views, is something that you need to, to, to do, and to let your people feel safe, in doing. And then you finally have to support your people as they do the work towards your vision. They're gonna one in the obstacles, the obstacles, obstacles could come from within the organization, from other managers or other people within the organization, from trying to get resources from other parts of the organization. The obstacles will come from outside of the organization. From the mayor, from the city, etc. etc. And your job is to be there and be a buffer between your people and the people that are trying to inhibit them from doing your job. Part of your job is to buffer them from the criticism, buffer them from the resistance, and support them and help them get their job done. You know, at the end of the day, leaders are responsible for getting stuff done. They're responsible for making sure their team accomplishes something tangible. I mean leadership is not this abstract, airy fairy, touchy feely thing. I mean, it's a very practical skill. You gotta get stuff done. And the way you get stuff done, is you have a vision. Inspires people, that vision leads to developing strategies, which are overall plans to accomplish that vision. Those strategies lead to tactics, which are plans for individual actions that support the vision and support the strategy. And then people doing the tactics have to be help accountable to make sure that they're actually done... And they're done right. And that they're done in cor, in a coordinated way that all supports the vision eventually. We can see that being a leader sometimes gets you in the weeds. It's not just all, ya know, high level airy fairy stuff. Sometimes you're actually in the weeds making sure that the people are doing their job right and that they're being held accountable and that the accountability standards are appropriate. For the task, and coordinated with the, with the whole vision. So this goes back to a point we made earlier. Leadership isn't this stand alone discipline, isn't this stand alone skill, it's integrated with management, it's integrated with administration. Part of what you're doing in a leader is to make sure that people actually get stuff done and that they are accountable for the jobs that they have been assigned. One of the critical ways that leaders can do this, leaders and managers, is if you instill a sense of momentum in your organization. That is, you don't need to be there every day, to make sure something gets done. You don't need to be there every day, to make sure that progress is being made toward the goal that you're trying to accomplish, the change you're trying to institute. You do this by instituting a sense of momentum in your organization, that people come and they do this on their own. This goes back to inspiring people to be enthusiastic about reaching the goal, reaching the vision that you've articulated for your team. One of the distinctions you'll read a lot about, if you read about leadership, is a distinction between effectiveness and efficiency. Now, effectiveness is doing the right thing. Efficiency is doing something with a minimum amount of resources. They're different. You obviously need both in any organization. You need to do the right thing and you, you can't be spendthrift about the resources you use to accomplish doing the right thing. So you need both. Now, leadership is primarily about setting the vision and getting, making sure the right thing gets done. Efficiency, that is doing, doing things with a minimum number of resources, in a cost effective way is primarily the job of management and administration but they do overlap. Leaders need to be concerned about both. It's a pretty high task, pretty high bar set. If you want to inspire an organization, you want to get people to do things they don't normally do, to change. You know, that's why good leaders are a rare commodity. That's why they're valued by their organizations. That's why we try to instill leadership in promising people. What are the qualities, that a leader needs in order to be an effective leader, what kind of person makes an effective leader? Well look at the list here on, on slide 19. You need maturity, I mean, you can't be an immature kid and try to lead people, it's just not gonna work. You need some maturity and some wisdom, some life experience. You need rationality. You need to think a thing, think things through in a reasoned way all the time. When people come to you with a problem. When people watch you operate, they want to know that you are leading, that you are operating in a way that adheres to logic, and rationality, and not just pure emotion. Not only is that ineffective but none's gonna respect that. You need some competence, you need to be competent at your job. And you need to be competent at the job your people are doing. Now this brings up kind of an interesting distinction. You don't need to be the best firefighter in order to be the best fire captain. You don't have to be the best police officer in order to be the best police lieutenant. You need to be a good firefighter in order to be a good or a great captain. You need to be a good police officer to be a good police supervisor. But you don't need to be the very best at it, cause there's slightly different skills. But you still need some competence at the job that you're doing and your people are doing. You need, here's the word again that we talked about in the beginning, that's repeated a lot, you really do need to be honest. You can't lie to people. You can't lie to your superiors. You can't lie to your subordinates. You can't lie to yourself. You really need to be dead honest in your assessment of what's going on in your communications with people. If you lie to people, if you mislead them, if you withhold parts of the truth from them, they will catch on. They won't respect you, they won't be motivated. You will have a dysfunctional team. And yeah, you need integrity. It's the word we hear all the time when people talk about leadership and write about it. But you just simple need it. there's, theres no way around it. You need to be fair. If you treat different people on your team differently, that is highly demotivating. You can't play favorites. You need to be dead fair with people. Which means you may wind up challenging some friendships as you do this. That's just part of what it means to lead an organization or lead a team. If you're not up for that, don't volunteer to be in a leadership position. We mentioned this when we talked about fairness and rationality, but you do need, you need to be consistent in your behavior. As you lead your team, as your team members come to you with problems to work through, you need to be consistent. They can't get, you know, good leader one day, bad leader another day, rational leader one day, emotional leader another day. You just need to be consistent. And you need to have some, some amount of persistence. Some doggedness. Because accomplishing a vision is never easy. Dragging people along, inspiring people, pushing them, pulling them to accomplish a goal is never easy. You need to be doggedly persistent as you do it. Now, there are some characteristics, some personal characteristics that people often. Mistakenly confused with leadership, that really aren't necessary. For instance, charisma. Some of the best leaders in the world both military, public safety, business, have just been dead dull personalities. It's got nothing to do with charisma, got nothing to do with personality or, or efferfasiveness, you know. It's got to do with these other qualities like, that we mentioned just earlier. Doesn't have to do with touchy feeliness. You know, you don't need to really be a people person. You don't need to be highly sensitive. You need, I mean, you need to understand what people are going through, but you don't have to be you know, a social worker to be a great leader. You don't even really need humility. I mean, everybody likes humility in people. We always like to see that in our leaders. But you don't really to be, need to be humble so as long as you are consistent and fair and rational. So as long as you recognize your people. So that is give them credit instead of taking credit for yourself. You don't really need to be a humble person. It's nice, it's not necessarily necessary. Remember back in the beginning we said. Speaker 1: That we now understand that leadership and management are intertwined skills, not separate skills. Let's look at the difference between them, and where they overlap and where they don't overlap. First, let's define management. We know what leadership is, it's about inspiring people to accomplish. The team's goals. Management, however, is at a slightly lower level of abstraction. Management's about setting goals to support the vision, organizing and directing people to, to implement the strategies and tactics necessary to achieve those goals and then measuring progress against those goals. And see that's a different set of activities. Then leadership. You can also probably intuitively see that the definition of management or the job of management is, is, is overlapping it is interrelated with the job of leadership. If we look at the matrix on slide 21, we can see the ways in which leadership and management overlap and differentiate. If we look at, for instance, the difference between leaders and managers in terms to their relationship to people. Leaders are trying to primarily influence people. They are trying to enlist the support of people. And they, they set or they define what success looks like for the team. What a manager does, when a manager's relating to people, is the manager is organizing the people and directing them and measuring the output of their actual task. If we look what a leadership, a leader rather, accomplishes, the leader accomplishes the vision that, that, that that they set or that has been given to them. What the management, what managers accomplish are the objectives of the organization in terms of very specific task or very specific strategies. Leadership focuses on opportunities to do something great and the effectiveness of the organization, as just doing the right thing or as management primarily focuses on efficiency, that is getting. The task done that is handed to them with the most cost effective set of resources. The primary tool of leaders is inspiration. Their ability to inspire people to achieve a goal. To inspire a team to move in the same direction. The primary tool of managers when you're involved in management. Is measuring people. Did you accomplish the task I gave you? Do, did you do what we agreed what you were going to do? Now the leader and the manager can be the same person. Leaders and managers are, are rather a, a single person often has the same task or a joint task of leadership and management, and they're doing all of these tasks. But to the extent of the doing the leadership task, they need to understand the skills and the tools that they are using and to the extent that they are doing, say, an hour later, a management task. They need to understand the skills and the tools that a manager needs. Just for completeness, let's just mention administration for a moment. Administration is concerned with. The implementation of the policy, the process or a procedure. And it's, it's not part necessarily of leadership or management but it's something we all have to do. It's not concerned with accomplishing a goal, it's just concerned with doing the, the process, doing the procedure. And we mentioned here just to differentiate it. From leadership and management. Another way at looking at this intermix of, roles and responsibilities between leadership and management, et cetera, is to recognize that there are essentially three levels of people in any organization. There are the leaders, there are the managers and there are the doers. Leaders. Are essentially concerned with what hill to take. What's the goal? What's, that we're trying to, the overall goal that we're trying to accomplish for the team? What's, what does success look like for the team? What's the vision we're trying to accomplish? We mentioned that leadership isn't completely distinct from management, and there's some overlap in the fact that leaders also have to. Recognize and help articulate what resources are going to be needed to accomplish this vision. And a critical job of leaders, a critical job of managers, a critical job when you're defining any task no matter how high or low a level, is what's the time frame here? When is this thing going to be done by? You know, the time frame for completion is part of the success criteria. Now managers, take the vision, take the information from the leader, and they lead, they don't take the effort though. The leader says, we're gonna take this hill, the managers actually leading the individual efforts, they developed the individual strategies and tactics. To take that hill. They developed plans and schedules and, and detailed responsibility for individual people. They established the metrics and the measurement points along these plans you know. I mean it's not just enough to say I have a plan to get here. You need to say these are the intermediate points. And at these intermediate points we're gonna here, we're gonna be here, we're gonna be here. And we're gonna measure that that whether we've accomplished these intermediate goals in the following ways. An example might be say, a fire chief or a new emergency services manager that says we're gonna be competent in a certain level of ICS, within a certain amount of time, you know, a year from now. Well, the, the managers that work for the chief, work for the manager, for the emergency services director, are gonna have to figure out plans, strategies and plans, to get their people to that level. They're gonna need to detail what people are gonna attend what training, in what time frames, how they're gonna measure that they are competent in the various supporting levels of ICS, et cetera, et cetera. So, no matter what your goal is, no matter what the team, or the organization's vision is, what their overall goal is, there are always sub goals underneath it that need to be planned for, and need to be measured. The majority of any organization, military, business, public safety, etc., consists of doers, individual contributors. These are people. That are actually experts or at least highly confident in there area of responsibility, in the job that they've been assigned. They require direction from their managers in order to know what job to do? How to coordinate with other doers? What, how they're going to be measured? So they, they know what they're driving towards when they're trying to accomplish a,a task. Doers also probably have some administrative duties to perform. But the doers form the bulk of the organization. Now, a leader or manager can also be a doer, particularly, in a small organization. You know, a small fire department, a small police chief. It's not unusual to have a, a fire Chief that is actually involved, say, in equipment maintenance. Or in a very small police department. A a Police Chief that does patrol. So the fact that you are in charge of an organization or in charge of part of an organization, doesn't necessarily mean that that's all you do. You know, you, you might have leadership, management and doing responsibility. To illustrate this point, take a look at Slide 27. What we're illustrating here is that. The farther up you go in authority in the organization we're looking at a fire organization here. The farther up you go from firefighter to chief, the more leadership responsibility you have and the less doing responsibility you have, but that at almost every level, those responsibilities overlap. One of the points that we're trying to get across in this program, is that leadership and management and even administration in doing, all overlap for most people most of the time. Not all people, not all the time, but it's quite common. And the fact that there's a lot of literature out there that says, they, they are entirely separate disciplines. That is, leadership and management. Has led to a lot of common myths. They can lead to a lot of common misconceptions, if your trying to, to be a leader in your organization. Slide 28 we list a lot of these myths. You know, the, the manager administers, the leader innovates. Well. Not necessarily true, there's a lot of innovations that goes on into management level. And there's some in administration that probably goes on at the leadership level. You know a manager maintains things, a leader develops things. Well not necessarily true. Again managers can come up with great ideas, great new ideas, they do all the time in all kinds of organizations. I'm not gonna read everyone of these to you, but You know, the manager focuses on process. The leader on people. Well not necessarily true. The leader can be very concerned with the process. In fact, one of the jobs of the leaders is to make sure that the right processes are in place. That the managers are implementing. You know, a manager has their eye on the bottom line, a leader on the horizon. Well... You know, you can't lead any organization, I don't know of any fire chief, any emergency services chief any police chief, that isn't concerned with a budget, their budget. They have to be concerned with bottom line, as well as leading their organization. And perhaps. The most insidious myth is that leaders are more than managers. They're just better people, they're better quality people and they're certainly worth more than doers. Well, not necessarily true. You need all. You need doers, you need managers, you need leaders in any organization. Leadership is a very difficult job to do. It's, it's a rare person that can be a great leader. Doesn't mean, that their worth more than a doer, it's just a different set of skills. We mentioned earlier that, great leadership skills, great leaders are aware. Well part of the reason that their aware, isn't just the fact that leadership skills are harder, [LAUGH] and, and require. A lot of individual characteristics that take development in people. Part of the reason that great leaders are rare is because there are very few just pure leaders. As we've mentioned many times in this program, leadership and management overlap, and so you gotta be good at both. If you want to be a great leader you also have to be pretty good at the management part of your job, too. Because you're just one person and you probably are charged. With some leadership roles and some management roles. And so, in order to be good at your job, you need to be good at both of these sets of skills, which as we have shown are, are different. That's another reason why great leaders are rare. One of the distinctions you'll see in the leadership literature, and as you read articles in the professional press about leadership. Is the distinction between organizational and operational leadership. And, we might as well just mention what the distinction is here. They both require a lot of the same skills. But operational leadership is concerned with operational excellence. Let's say, you're a newly promoted fire captain, and you want to make your fire company. Perform to a very, very high standard. That would be an example of needing operational leadership skills to accomplish that operational goal. Organizational leadership is more concerned with transforming the organization, or bringing the organization into a new area. And an example might be 20 years ago if you were a Fire Chief. Trying to bring your fire department, which only fought fires at that point into the EMS world. That would be an example of a case where you would need organizational leadership skills. And, the, and again, the distinction is, primarily the focus of where you apply your leadership skills. But the characteristics that you need individually, and the skills that you're applying, are pretty much the same in both circumstances. Slide 31, again, drives home the point that management and leadership are overlapping skills. And we're kind of harping on this point because as we read the literature today, the popular literature in the the fire magazine, the police magazine, etc. We see a lot of, what we believe to be, toxic mis, misinformation. Claiming that leadership and management are just very different. And if, you know, you're a good manager well you need a whole another set of skills to be a great leader. In fact, in practice the skill sets overlap. I mean take a look at slide 31. You can see that the management task of planning and budgeting an organizing and controlling. Overlap a great deal with setting directions, aligning people, motivating people. And just, intuitively, you can see how you would need to be able to do both in order to bring an organization along. So they aren't different skills. They overlap and you're going to want to develop both sets of skills if you want to be a great leader or if you want to be a great manager, you're gonna have to have some leadership skills, too. Slide 32 should look pretty familiar to a lot of us. I mean, some of us have been very fortunate to work in high functioning organizations. Almost all of us have had the opposite experience at some point in our life where we worked for low functioning, or dysfunctional organizations. You know that you're. Organization's in trouble, you know you have a leadership deficit if one of these, one or more of these symptoms is present. You know, people cling to the old way of doing things even though, you know, failures, organizational failures have made it perfectly clear that the old way isn't good enough or, or appropriate anymore. There's no sense of commitment to the organization and people are demotivated. That behavior is rooted in tradition. You know, that's the way we've always done things not rooted in the way things need to be done particularly the way things are going to need to be done. You've, if you've ever been in an organization where everybody believes hey, everything's fine, we're doing great. That's probably not true. You know, an organization where people aren't recognizing that change is necessary and that some things aren't being done as well as they can is probably an organization that is blind to its own faults. One of the really toxic things that you'll see, toxic symptoms, of a low functioning, a dysfunctional, poorly led organization is that... Is that tolerance of criticism is nonexistent. You can't raise your hand and say, hey, I think we ought to be doing things slightly different way. Or, can I talk to you about this, because I think that it's being done wrong. You know, if you can't do that freely in your organization, then it probably needs some leadership change. Now it's important to understand that public safety organizations are quasi-military organizations. You can't run a fire department or a police department the way you run Apple. You can't tolerate the same degree of, of criticism and sometimes just outright disobedience that happens in, in high-tech companies. But nonetheless, you need to have a tolerance for people voicing their opinion. You need to have a tolerance for people suggesting different ways to do things. And you have, you need to have a tolerance for your people, your subordinates criticizing the way the organization is going. A little bit more about the integration of leadership and management, and here we're quoting from John Kotter, who is, is a guru in the management world. Back in 1990, he wrote about some of the myths of management and leadership being separate. You know, the, the myth is that managers promote stability and leaders press for change. Well, the fact is any organization needs both. All organizations need to change because the world's constantly changing. And yet you need, the organization needs to be relatively stable in order to do its job effectively. And it's the tension between those two that leaders need to manage. Neither is better. You need both managers and leaders. They're both high valued, highly necessary people in any organization. Another method is that leadership, you know, great leadership, inspirational leadership, you know a great leader is a replacement... For poor management, or poor management systems in an organization, and that's not true either. You know, if you don't have stable, competent management systems that can accomplish goals in your organization, no amount of vision setting or inspirations are going to compensate for that. You need both. Now, another myth is that management is about coping with complexity, and leadership is about coping with change. Well, not necessarily true. It should be obvious by now that one of the things that leaders do is they understand where the world is going. They define the new reality and they inspire people to achieve an appropriate organizational goal relative to that new reality. Well, that can be a pretty complex process. So, leadership and management again are overlapping skills. You wanna be a great leader? You're gonna need some management skills. [BLANK_AUDIO] More here on slide 34, from John Conner. We've covered the first two points before, but look at the third point. This is critical. Great organizations don't wait for a great leader to come along. You need leadership throughout the organization. Great organizations, high functioning organizations, organizations that excel at their job over time have a history of seeking out people in the organizations. Young people, junior people with potential for leadership, who've shown leadership potential. And exposing them to the kind of experiences. That they needed to develop that leadership potential and prove it. Or just prove it perhaps. Now this is a lot easier to do for instance in the private sector where you can take a 24 year old kid who's a couple of years out of college. And give them a great deal of responsibility because you think they might succeed out of it. They might have exceptional potential. Harder to do in the public sector where seniority plays more of a role in advancement. It doesn't mean that in the public sector you still can't find that police officer, that search and rescue person, that, that firefighter that's just exhibiting the potential for leadership. You can just see it. Their peers respect them. They've got a lot of potential and giving them a assignments, where not necessarily even assignments that requires a promotion or a pay grade advancement, but giving them assignments to develop. That potential within so that by the time you can promote them, they've got the skills to do a great job. Slides 35 and 36 review some of the points we've talked about early about what management and what leadership do. It's a good review but look at slide 37. We've said that what leaders do is they set the vision for the organization. Well, it's important to realize that visions aren't mystical. You know, they aren't airy fairy things. Visions are, are dead practical things that can be accomplished. They're, they're goals that are often mundane. Our men, our men are not revolutionary. It can be as simple as, I'm gonna take my fire company, and I'm gonna make sure our response time is X, in six months. Or, I'm going to take my, my, my police squad, and I'm going to make sure that our our clearance rate on certain types of crimes is x in a certain amount of time. They can be very mundane goals. But even accomplishing these mundane goals can be exciting, can be inspirational and fun for people that are trying to accomplish them, for the people on your team. So don't get confused because you're studying a vision that needs to be something, you know, extraordinary or revolutionary or You know, like, like the voice of God. It can be a very mundane goal, and still get your people excited. We've mentioned quite a bit, that one of the things that leaders do is they inspire and motivate people. And they do this of course, through their own commitment, their own personal characteristics, but. They also do this by encouraging risk taking. And letting people do things that they think are necessary to support the goal. Now if you're going to encourage risk taking, it means you have to allow failure. Somethings okay to allow failure at, some are not. You know, obviously you have to be careful about how much freedom you give people in certain circumstances... But if is not something that has a life or death consequences, or huge financial consequences. Let people take risk. Let people do what they thing that's necessary and every now and then they are going to feel, and that's Okay. Faith it can be Okay as long as is not a chronic condition. As long as was done with the right. Motivation in mind. An, an organization, that doesn't allow any failure, it has a zero failure, mindset, is an organization that's static and dead, and never progressing. Part of keeping, your people motivated of course is to recognize their successes. You know, as your accomplishing a goal as the leader, as your, accomp, as the team is accomplishing the goal that the leader has set. Remember we talked about the, there are intermediate goals in between that the managers or the management part of your job is managing and measuring. As people accomplish these intermediate goals make sure you, you recognize them. Yeah, it could be. It doesn't have to be anything big. It doesn't have to a raise, or a promotion. It can just be, hey. We really appreciate what you did. And, and, and, and keep it up. You know, we see it. We like it, and we recognize it. Keep your people motivated by recognizing their successes. We mentioned a little while ago. That great organizations seek out potential leaders and develop them. Well on this last slide, it's sort of a summary of what the best private sector organizations do in terms of developing their leaders. There's a lot here if not all of it that can apply to public safety as well. And that is right. The, what these organizations do, and what fire service or police service can do, is recognize who has potential early on. People exhibit it. I mean, they, there are, we all know what a natural leader in an organization is. It's that person that people look to, and are inspired by. It's not hard to find these people. Give them a significant challenge early on in their career, in their twenties and thirties. Give them some significant responsibility as I say, it doesn't have to be a promotion. It can just be an assignment that they have and let them exhibit their leadership capabilities. Let them develop it, and you'll find whether they have it or they don't. GIve them some broadening experience. Don't keep them in a narrow niche, you know? Give, if, if you need to take them out of their comfort zone. If they're really good at, at this kinda job police service it might be, maybe they're really good at narcotics. Take them out of narcotics and, and put them in some other area, maybe homicide. Give them a broadening experience so you can see if this leadership. Potential that they have is actually something that can be applied to an organization as opposed to a very narrow discipline. And there's nothing magical about this. This, this is a organizational competence that lots of organizations have managed and it's just a sort of a step by step process and like so many things, understanding what to do. Isn't that hard. There it is. Understanding what to do isn't that hard. It's just having the discipline to do it day by day, month by month and year by year. [BLANK_AUDIO]

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