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Home>Topics>>Terrorism Planning and Response for Mid- and Small-Size Public Safety Agencies

Terrorism Planning and Response for Mid- and Small-Size Public Safety Agencies

Fri, 1 Mar 2013|

In this training program from the Firefighters Support Foundation, presenter August Vernon addresses the role of public safety agencies in preparing for and responding to the grave potential threat of small-scale terrorism.



[BLANK_AUDIO] The focus of today's training is gonna be on terrorism preparedness and response. For small and mid-sized communities. Typically, terrorism training will focus on larger agencies and communities. And, therefore, there is a lack of understanding and knowledge for the smaller communities that may still face this type of threat. So, again, today, our focus is gonna be for smaller and mid-sized public agencies. A lot of smaller [UNKNOWN] in jurisdictions do not believe that terrorism is a realistic threat to their community. So it's very important to remember that any community, large or small, can face these type of threats. International terrorists may not be focused on your community, but there are a lot of other extremist groups and individuals that may be. Any time you're looking at some type of terrorist threat, you always want to do what's called a threat matrix. This is where you identify the threats that could be applicable to your jurisdiction, your operation, or your agency. Some of these groups can include the United States international terrorist groups as we saw with 9/11. Domestic terrorist groups as we saw with the Oklahoma City bombing. Also your criminal elements and your transnational gangs which we'll talk about in a little bit. The biggest threat for our smaller and mid-sized communities are these three type of threats. Your insider threat, which is an individual from your community. The lone wolf, which is an individual that can come into your community. Are the home-grown violent extremists. These are the three types of individuals that your community can be faced with. Those individuals can cover all three of these. They can be one type of individual or they may be all three. But this, if any small mid-sized community is gonna look at planning for these events, here is who might most likely your threat is going to be. If you remember from the top of our threat list, we did identify international terrorists. Which is a threat in the United States because we've had a history of it. And there's always potential, for the next international based terrorist attack. But when we look at international terrorism, we'll typically break those down three ways. Are states sponsors of terrorism. Our formalized terrorist groups and our loosely affiliated national radicals. And we'll talk about them a little later. Also, if you remember under international terrorists, we had identified domestic terrorists, which typically includes right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists and the biggest threat of what's called special-interest groups. When you look at international terrorist threats, again, those are broken down three different ways. State sponsors of terrorism, formalized terrorist groups and radicalized internationals. Our first is state sponsors of terrorism. These are organizations that have nation states support that provide training, funding, network support, intelligence support, for their operations. Our next is the most commonly known. It's called Formalized Terrorist Groups. Al Qa'ida, or Al Qaeda, is part of that organization. Lebanese Hezbollah, Palestinian Hamas, Eta in Spain, The Rio RRA. All of these are known, formalized terrorist groups. Those are identified by the U.S. state department. And probably the biggest threat and the most current threat is what's called the loosely affiliated international radicals. Those individuals also turn into our home grown bomb extremists. So out of those three international threats, the loosely affiliated international radicals may be one of the biggest issues we're facing. It's very important for our smaller communities to realize. Even if their community is not a realistic target for international terrorists, these individuals may be in their community. They may be looking at targets, they may be setting up safe houses, they may be experimenting. If you remember, a lot of the 9/11 bombers did not live in large cities. They lived in smaller communities where they thought it was easier to maybe blend in and out of the community. So again, remember smaller communities may not face the threat, but these individual international threats may be in their community operating. It's important to remember, that some of the 9/11 attackers did have contact with local law enforcement agencies, prior to the 9/11 attack. Those type of situations are a good opportunity where we may be able to stop these individuals. Some attacks, they may be planning explosive attacks. They may be gathering supplies. They may have safe houses. They may be gathering logistics. All those may take place in a smaller community, So it's important for our public safety agencies to be able to identify those individuals and see how they're moving in and out to the community. What kind of identification they have and other types of issues. Another threat I wanted to address because there is some terroristic values involved in this,. Cuz what's going on in Mexico, the Narco-criminal insurgency that's taking place. There's a lot of issues on both sides of the border. Both the Mexican side of the border and the U.S border. So it's very important to keep an eye on the horizon and what's happening in the Mexico area. In Mexico, they've had complex ambushes. They've been murdering large numbers of police. They've had terrorist attacks. They're using homemade explosives and improvised explosive devices. There's been mass graves found. There's been over 45,000 people killed in Mexico due to this drug war. Also, there has been a security impact on the United site, United States side of the border. There's been kidnappings, there's been murders, there's been all kinds of threats involved with this issue going on down there. So it's important that we keep an eye on this threat. Also, organizations that are involved in the drug war in Mexico do have a presence in the United States, in all fifty states. Again, it's important to remember that the Mexican drug traffic organizations do have members in all fifty states, in numerous communities across United States, both large and small. At this time they are heavily involved in drug trafficking, gang violence, murders and other types of issues. But it's important to remember that in Mexico these same individuals are using terrorist type attacks to further their goals. Just an item for food for thought. There have been in Mexico, several smaller V beds. Our vehicle borne IEDs which is car bomb attacks. Some of these attacks have taken place just within 1 or 2 miles of the U.S. border so there is the potential in the future that our next car bombing incident in the U.S. may not be terrorism directly related but could be a terrorist attack related to drug trafficking organizations. We're going to talk about domestic groups. These are groups that are American citizens that are activated, operate, train, and operate within the United States borders. The first group we'll talk about, if you remember our threat matrix, is the left-wing extremist groups. There are several different type of groups, and activities that take place under this umbrella. The first one is pro-communist, pro-socialist. Some of the basic factors that these groups look at is seeking equality with no social classes, weaker central government. And the biggest thing right now, and we'll see as we enter the political year, the political election year, is these groups are transitioning into what's called anti-globalization type groups. They believe in protests and civil unrest. Also some of these groups can be those lone wolves, those insider threats, and those homegrown violent extremists. The potential for left wing political violence seems to be increasing and the potential is there as a growing threat. It's also important, take a look at Europe and what's happening there when it's related to the left wing domestic. Terrorism, this is also a serious issue there, so we need to keep an eye on that threat. The next domestic group we're gonna talk about is right wing extremist, under this umbrella of right wing extremism, there are multiple groups, multiple threats, and multiple hazards. These groups can consist of white supremest, gun control. New World Order, which is becoming very popular again amongst these groups, anti-government, anti-taxation, anti-abortion, militia and patriot movements, and a growing threat, which is identified as the sovereign citizens. And sovereign citizen groups it's very important to remember, these can be both White and Black individuals. Under the belief system of the right-wing extremists, again, there's moth ball varieties of these type of threats. Some oppose the current United States Government. Some believe the US Government has been taken over and it's their duty to try and reclaim it to the United States citizens. Some believe they are their own government. This is one of the factors that comes into play with the sovereign citizen movement. Some are driven by very, very extremist Christian belief and religious beliefs. Some still have a very strong Nazi and Fascist government type of ideology. Some are actually very patriotic, very have great national pride. Again those top three hazards we talked about, about. Your lone wolf, your insider threat, and your homegrown violent extremist. These are the type of individual that would conduct these right wing extremist operations. There are right wing extremists groups active in all 50 states in the United States. And this includes a lot of smaller communities. It's also important to remember that out of some of these groups, they may not seem to be violent, but there may be individuals that come out of these groups that believe that due to their ideology, they need to take the next step, which would be direct action or a terrorist attack of some form or fashion. Every year across United States, in smaller, mid-sized communities, there are extremist, right-wing attacks. They may not get a lot of national attention but these can include bomb threats, suspicious packages, phone threats, threatening letters, explosives being left in places, booby-traps for law enforcement, targeting judge officials. So these smaller incidents do take place on a national scale every day. You may just not hear about them. After our left-wing extremist groups and our right-wing extremist groups we now have our special interest, single-issue groups. These are groups of individuals or single individuals, your lone wolf threat, that are very focused on one specific type of issue or topic. This can include animal rights, environmental issues, genetics research,. Pro abortion, anti abortion, gun control, the IRS, corporations, a lot of the lone wolves, the insider threats in those homegrown violent extremists will come out of these special interest, single issue type of threats. These are different in every single community so it's important for you to know, what is the single issue, interest in your area. No matter how small your community is, there may be some controversial location, a controversial corporation, a controversial court case, that can lead to some type of extremist activity. It definitely appears that in today's world that the bad guys, which I'll use to represent both terrorist and criminal elements. Are more determined, violent and heavily armed than ever before. In a crisis situation such as extremist attacks, extremist threats, terrorist threats both within the United States and overseas continue to be a serious concern. It's also important to remember that no two terrorist incidents are every the same. We always tend to look at the past incident and are planning and preparing for the next one. Different factors come into play in a terrorist incident. What was the terrorist's motive? What kind of weapons did he have? How much funding did he have? What kind of group did he belong to? So all these factors can come into play so it's very important to look at each community and what kind of hazards that you face. If I was a terrorist I would actually look at smaller and mid-size communities. To try to operate and conduct my operations because I know in larger areas, in larger jurisdictions, they may have larger law enforcement resources and intelligence available. So as a terrorist, I may look in the future to smaller communities to conduct my operations in. It is important in smaller mid-sized communities, for our foreign EMS agencies. To network with their local law enforcement and conduct training and planning and exercises to prepare for these incidents, and just to do the networking which can solve a lot of issues and problems. It's important in our smaller midsized communities that our police chiefs, our EMS directors, our fire chiefs, our emergency management coordinators, meet prior to the incident. To talk about these issues and identify and threats and vulnerabilities in their community. The time of the incident is not the first time that you should have met your partners. I think it's important that fire departments should just invite their local law enforcement agencies into the station to have a cup of coffee. And from there you can identify these issues we've been talking about in this training. Identify where there could be problems, where there's hazards in the community, and how can we address the response if one occurs. Again, the time of the incident should not be the first time you've talked or discussed this issue. The question always comes up, why do these terrorist attacks occur? The attackers in these incidents have a lot of different reasons, again whether they're international terrorists, domestic terrorists, right wing extremists, left wing extremists. There's a lot of different reasons why these individuals conduct these attacks. And again, every community is different. They may do these out of senses of anger or revenge. For some, perceive persecution or slight that's occurred within their world or their community. Some have other more individualized motivation. Such as political reasons, religious reasons, notoriety, and other type of reasons. They key thing to remember is a lot of terrorist attacks, the majority of terrorist attacks are planned prior to the incident occurring. So that is our window of opportunity. And your window opportunity to maybe try to stop and prevent these attacks from occurring in your community. So again remember there's planning involved on the terrorist aspect so it's important for us to stop it prior to the attack. Terrorists and ex, extremist groups during their planning process for a terrorist attack, may conduct what's called preoperational surveillance, so they may be near their targets, they may need be near the individual that they want to hurt or the individuals they're targeting. Again, this is that window of opportunity, that time and distance correlation of these individuals being there, taking photographs, recording, making notes. This is that window of opportunity to try to prevent those attacks from occurring. In this age of YouTube and Facebook and the internet, it's important to remember that our insider threats. Are lone wolf's and a home grown violent extremists even though they may have never had any training or been involved in terror attacks over seas can very easily readily available access information that's available on the internet and actually communicate with the international terrorists to help them plan and prepare their attack. As I stated before, some of this steamiest groups may not appear to conduct violent operations. But out of those groups there may be an individual who's provided the motivation that the ideology by this group to go and conduct his own type with insider threat. Long wolf or homerun violent steamiest attack. Another way to look at these individuals. On the surface it appears that these are almost crazy acts or random acts of violence. It's very important to remember these individuals are very committed to conducting these operations and conducting these terrorist attacks. They are very, very deeply committed to their, again, whether it's personal, religious, political, or notoriety. So deep is these individuals' commitment, they feel that they're justified and willing to go to any extreme. And that includes killing people, blowing things up, burning buildings down and any other operation they call a direct action. Many terrorist incidents can be very sophisticated, as we saw with 9/11. Lots of money, lots of planning, years of planning efforts and preparing. Some attacks may not be very sophisticated. A lot of these individuals will train and prepare and arm themselves for their attacks. But in smaller mid-size communities, we may not be looking at the complex, lengthy planned out attack. We're looking at very simple attacks that can be carried out by individuals. With minimal planning minimal training minimal funding. Most of these attacks with the home grown vonex extremists the inside threats and the lone wolves are conducted with readily available weapons. Such as your pistols, shotguns, rifles and the home-made explosives they can make in their barn or their shed. This was again the most common type of attack for those three most common type of attackers: your lone wolf, your insider threat and your home grown violent extremist. It is important to remember that a terrorist attack can be planned in any community with the resources that are available there right now. You would not need to bring in any additional funding, any additional resources or even any additional people. Again these individuals, these extremist groups are using readily available products and weapons and explosives to conduct these attacks. So they can take place in a smaller, midsize communities with the resources that are already there available for them. One way for communities to prepare for terrorist attacks is look at your. For active shooter and school shooting type of incidents. One good thing that's happened in the past year is law enforcement agencies are conducting what's called rapid deployment training. This actually helps those law enforcement agencies prepare for a terrorist type of incident. So law enforcement is training for these mass violence, terrorist type incidents constantly. Fire and EMS agencies typically are not planning or preparing for these responses. In larger communities, larger jurisdictions, and larger departments they do train on a regular basis, and train with their law enforcement agencies. I believe in the smaller-mid size there is not enough preparedness taking place, enough training to prepare for these type of attacks. It's often times very difficult to find the time and the funding to conduct training for your department. But, when you conduct terrorism training, ev, even internally or externally with other agencies, I think that'll build the interest and the training, which will make your department maybe a little happier. As I mentioned before law enforcement is at the state, the local level, and at the federal level is conducting rapid deployment training for mass shooter, active shooter type of incidents. It's very important for our fire and EMS agencies to be familiar with that operation. What's gonna happen in a rapid deployment response for law enforcement. Their priority is not the injured and the wounded and the deceased. Their priority is to stop the attack. And it's important that Fire and EMS understand that. One way that Fire and EMS can prepare for that is if a response comes in, they do need to support the law enforcement response. This can include a lot of different things. And a lot of different tactics. One of is, the first Fire and EMS responders to go in with law enforcement don't need to worry about grabbing every single medical bag you have. Every single stretcher that you have. You need to talk to law enforcement about blow-out kits. And we'll talk about those in a bit. Fire and EMS grab blow-out kits and they can go in with law enforcement in the first wave. In the second wave, that's where you'll have your bags, your trauma bags, your oxygen tanks, all your resources, your stretchers. That is the second wave. So in these responses, look at a first wave and a second wave response. Active shooter incidents do have a lot in common with a terrorism response. So again, train with your law enforcement agencies and plan and prepare for that first wave and second wave response that any department large or small can conduct what they've planned and trained for it. One way that communities and public safety agencies can prepare for terrorist type of attacks is speak to military medics that have experience in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation During Freedom. Because a terrorist attack is a lot different than normal mass casualty incidents that communities will typically train for. Typically in communities we're looking at bus crashes, and plane crashes, as their mass casualty incident exercise. A mass shooting incident, or a terrorist attack, is a lot different due to the injuries, and the hazards, and what's happened. So, talk to military medics with combat experience about that. Because that's the type of medicine you may have to use in these responses. Also the bad guy shooters, both the criminals and terrorists. They are training on headshots and double-shots to the chest. So that's gonna be very important in your medical response to these incidents. This is how they're training and we need to be prepared for it. Another way that communities and agencies can prepare is moving victims. And mass shooting incidents, mass violence incidents, terrorists attacks, both those that have occurred in the United States and overseas, one of the biggest issues is moving victims. You may not be able to roll stretchers in and roll stretchers out. So you have to practice what's called rapid rescue removal techniques. This allows you to very rapidly move victims out of the danger area. Yep. This high threat rescue in an extractions training requires unconventional, not often trained techniques that law enforcement agencies, fire and EMS agencies are not very familiar with. What this requires is rapidly moving multiple victims to safe areas. Out of the danger areas, casualty collection points, triage locations, and others. But this is removing them very quickly from the danger area. Cuz remember in terrorist attacks, there is potential for secondary attacks, and secondary devices. You have to train on how to rapidly remove victims. Out of windows, down stairwells, over jersey barriers, through walls. Again, this a technique that agencies will have to train on, but law enforcement agencies, fire agencies and EMC agencies can all conduct this operation and may need to conduct these operations during a terrorist attack. Another tool that all public safety agencies can look at, that is readily available to them, is what's called a Blow Out Kit or a Downed Officer Kit. And these are special kits, as you can see in the picture on the slide, that have several items that we won't go into great detail, but they our readily available to all agencies. These are special kits, special items that are designed to stop bleeding from gunshots, stabbing or other type of victims and injuries that can be caused by terrorist incidents or mass shooting incidents. One good example of this is Pima County, Arizona, at the Tucson, Arizona shooting incident at the Safeway store. For the first six minutes of that instance, the only individuals on scene were sheriff's deputies, who had just been given these blow out kits. And it's been proven, with those blow out kits, those deputies were able to save lives very rapidly. So again, those first six minutes before the scene was secured, there was Fire and EMS on the scene, but were not able to make entry in. To that location which may happen in a terrorist attack. So a blowout kit is an excellent tool that even fire and EMS agencies need to be familiar with. As I stated earlier, with a terrorist or mass violence incident, you will have your first wave and your second wave of fire and EMS responders. Blow out kits are an excellent tool for that first wave to utilize. They are small, compact, and you can use them very quickly. These may be the best tools for both fire and EMS responders to utilize during a mass violence terrorism type of incident. So it is important to get with your local law enforcement agency and see what blow out kits they have so that you are familiar with using them. Because you may be having to use one at the last minute when you're not familiar with it. One excellent resource that's now available within the United States, is the Committee for Tactical Emergency Casual Care. This is called CTECC. What this is during, that's taking information that's being learn from operation Iraqi freedom, and operation during freedom in Afghanistan until you hear the medical response for those high risk, high threat locations that are applying those to the civilian medicine world. This is the top scenario that would be presented to your agency in case of the terrorist or mass fallen stack. Speaker 1: At this website, listed below, is the website for C-Tecc, which does provide training information, guidelines, and other information that fire, E.M.S. and law enforcement agencies can utilize. The Berlin, Russian, and Mumbai, India terrorist attacks were very large complex types of terrorist attacks. So it maybe unlikely that you would see this large scale type of attack in a smaller or midsize community, but these types of attacks can be motivation, and guidance for these local home grown extremists, the lone wolf on the inside threat, so you could see a smaller version of these attacks to take place in smaller jurisdictions. Sometimes the question will come up, how can smaller communities prepare for NBC, nuclear, biological, or weapons of mass destruction type of attacks? So what we say, it's important to always look at previous events because history may repeat itself. Also, you need to plan and train for what's most likely to occur in your jurisdiction then take some thought to possible events which may not be as probable. Example, I've been to communities that did exercises and had a 10,000 gallon anhydrous ammonia leak in their community. And then we come to find out they have no anhydrous ammonia in their community. So again let's look at realistic threats and apply those to our communities. So smaller communities may not see large scale type of weapon of mass destruction or NBC, nuclear biological type of attacks but in the United States, there has been a history of resin attacks. Ricin is the type of threat you could see in a smaller community because ricin comes from castor beans. And I can find castor beans in any type of community. Over the past 20 years we have dedicated a lot of training and funding to prepare first responders for WMD, NBC type of attacks. An important factor when it comes to an actual, realistic weapons of mass destruction attack. As a time factor. If it's a real nerve agent or some other similar type of product. Victims will immediately start showing signs within one to two minutes and will be deceased within four to eight minutes So time becomes an important factor for these type of events. The most realistic, the most common type of terrorist attacks that take place both within the United States and outside the United States. Is your shootings, and bombings. 99% of terrorist attacks are shootings, and bombings. So, while we're saying this, it's important to look at WMD as a hazard. But we need to have a realistic approach how these threats could occur, and are smaller, in midsize communities. So, for smaller communities, it is important to be aware of WMD and NBC threats. But we need to have a realistic approach. If your community doesn't have an hydrous ammonia, chlorine or other type commonly available materials, then that may not be the biggest threat or hassle that you're going to face. So let's have a realistic approach when we're planning and preparing for these attacks. Again it's important to remember, 99% of terrorist attacks around the world are shootings and bombings. Some of the steps that local agencies and communities can do to prepare for the terrorist and [INAUDIBLE] type of threat is conduct what is called pre incident planning. This is where we bring our key agencies together no matter how large or small your community is. This can involve your law enforcement agencies, your volunteer fire departments. Your EMS, your Emergency Medical Services, maybe hospitals, critical infrastructure, emergency management, any variety, form, or fashion of these key agencies can come together just to talk about this prior to the incident occurring. Also at that point, let's try to identify targets. Any community big or small may have some type of a target. So let's go and identify that now. It could be critical infrastructure, could be government, local state or federal. Could be schools, high profile businesses, large crowd or venue events, which is a planned special event. Or you may have a special event come to your community, but every community may face some type of hazard so let's try to identify those now and plan for some type of incident at that location. If you're in a smaller community of five hundred, fifteen hundred, three thousand individuals, if this doesn't feel like the best way to address this then the next best approach is a regional approach. We strongly encourage from an emergency management perspective, to always conduct regional planning and approach to these type of hazards. So conduct regional approaches. You may have neighboring communities that they're the same size as you are. So join forces, join resources with those agencies and conduct planning and training for these type of resources. Even reach out to the state level, at, and see what type of planning and training is taking place there. But again we strongly encourage regional approach to these type of hazards. All public safety agencies and communities share the same priorities during a terrorism event or any type of large-kill incident. Life, safety, and incident stabilization. That is our focus on these type of events and we need to plan for that. That requires preplanning and inter-agency cooperation. Again, we can apply this to terrorism or any other type of disaster or large scale incident. Also, our planning efforts never end. If you conducted planning after 911, it's important to remember that's over 10 years ago. So it's important to readdress and come back to terrorism type of threats and hazards. It's also very important to remember, no matter what size community you're in, metro, urban, suburban or rural, these types of incidents can happen. The one example I'll point to is the Amish community school shooting. This was a very small community, and they had a terrible tragedy that took place that over in minutes. If that incident can happen there, these incidents can happen anywhere. Preparation is the key to terrorism and mass violence incidents preparation for communities. And number 1, that includes a clear idea of your actions before the incident occurs. Again, no matter what size community you're in, these incidents can occur so you need to have a general idea of what your response is going to be to this incident. Than what resources are available to you. The first step in this process to plan for these incidents is look at your SOGs or your SOPs for these type of responses. Or, do you even have an SOG or SOP for terrorism related incidents? If you don't, you need to try to develop those for your community. Also, once you have developed a plan, or you have a plan that your agency or jurisdiction is comfortable with. You need to conduct some type of exercise. These are, these either can be functional exercises, large scale exercises, or what I would strongly encourage, is a tabletop exercise. Tabletop exercises do not take a lot of resources. They don't take a lot of time, and they can allow any jurisdiction of any size to conduct an exercise. Again look at tabletop exercises. Once you have developed your plan, this is the best way that you can test one. Even the smallest agency or jurisdiction, conducting a very simple, or basic tabletop exercise, is better than doing nothing at all. That exercize will allow you to identify shortfalls and issues with your plan. So again, the tabletop exercise is the way to go. I cannot strongly encourage enough for agencies and jurisdictions to continue their ICS, or incident Command System training. But we have to have a realistic approach to ICS. ICS is a manageable tool that can be shaped to the size of your jurisdiction and your agency. Some key things that come into play with ICS is unified command. There is no one agency, big or small, that can handle a terrorism incident on their own, so we have to become used to establishing unified command and even practice and train that. Let's do that in our exercises. Unified command is where you will bring in your fire, your EMS, and your law enforcement agencies to respond to that incident. In smaller communities, the opportunity to actually utilize unified command may not be as readily available as we see in larger jurisdictions, where we have larger multi-agency incidents that occur on a more regular basis. So, this really stresses the need for us to train and practice utilizing our unified command. Some key functions with ICS is sharing information, networking information and communications. These are some of the key things that we need to address, but the answering command system and unified command, these are always are biggest weaknesses in every incident and every exercise that we conduct. [INAUDIBLE] It's important to remember that ICS is a tool that is readily available to any agency no matter their size, the type of response. ICS can expand or contrast as much as you need it. So it's very important when we see these organizational charts to not get totally wrapped around the axle about trying to fill every single position. That is not the goal of ICS. You take out of these organizational charts, the position and the resources that you need and apply them to your jurisdiction and your response. There may be some responses, there may be some jurisdictions that never get to the size, scope, or scale. What you see in the slide are much larger incidence with a lot more resources than a lot of smaller and midsize communities would ever be able to reach. It's important to remember that the instant command system is a God line that you can use for your agency, your response, your jurisdiction. Most of the large incidents training that we see is always focusing on multi-agency, large scale event with numerous resources for incidents that go on for large amount of times. 99% of incidents United States never get to this size, scope or scale. Even in a larger state that I'm in, in a larger county. We typically do not see this type of responses. So, it's more important to know the guidelines of the fundamentals devices, but let's take that information and apply it to your agency in your jurisdiction. They key concepts and principles that we all need to remember when it comes to ICS. Which again is an all hazard approach. A few key bullets that we can see here. Number one is common terminology. That all the different agencies and entities are speaking on the same sheet of music. A modular organization. You do not need to fill every single position in the ICS chart when you have a response. Just utilize, those positions that you need. Think of it as a tool box, where you take out the tools that you need. Integrated communications. Communications is always our biggest failure. On our day to day activities, in our critical incidence, and our responses. So,this allows us to have integrated communications, if we follow those ICS principles. Unity of command is very important. And that unified command structure. Which brings all the different agencies together under one umbrella. To make those command decisions. A consolidated incident plan that can be written or verbal. That just means that all the agencies responding come up together with the same plan and agree to that plan. Again, that can be verbal or written. A manageable span of control. This means one person is not in charge of sixty responders. We need to have a manageable span of control of the incident. ICS helps you develop that. Designated incident facility. If you have any incident, the key facility you need to have is one, the command post. We need to remember we need to have just one command post for every incident that all the agencies are sharing and utilizing. And the biggest thing in today's world of limited funding and limited resources is ICS allows us to have comprehensive resource management. That makes we're sharing, we're sharing funding, we're sharing resources, and we're ordering resources. So all these will help us have a safe and successful response. Two key facilities you need to consider and should be available in any community large and small is number one your Emergency Operation Center. No matter how big or small your community or ANC is there should be an Emergency Operation Center near your location. This is the secure location. Where all of the agencies come together for investigations, for response, for planning, for recovery from an incident. It's a secured location with phone lines, telephones, fax machines, computers, and other resources available to you. This is the location you'll need to come together if you have a terrorism incident or any other criminal incident. It could days and weeks and months to recover from it. So the EOC is the location where you'll conduct these operations. Also, you should plan for a JIC, or a joint information center. This is the location where the media will be briefed at daily. This is a secure location where the media is invited to, and you'll conduct those daily briefings, do your interviews and other things. Obviously the media will want to go the scene, but a JIC needs to be required for the incident and you need to establish that. So, prior to these incidents in your plans we need to identify number 1, where;s your EOC, your closest EOC. And if you had to establish a JIC, where would that Joint Information Center be? If your jurisdiction faces some type of large scale or even small scale terrorist incident, there will obviously be media attention on that event. Number one, if your agency, or your county, or your jurisdiction does not have a professionally trained public information officer or PIO. Then you need to know where we can find one. That could be readily available through a surrounding, neighboring jurisdiction, through the region or through the state. But know where we can find those, professionally trained public information officers, to talk to the media during this incident, because the media relations becomes a full time job, during the response. Also, the media is definitely gonna work very hard if you have terrorism incident. Just like responders are working hard, the media is gonna work just as hard. So we need to work hand in hand with them on this response. What I know from locations that have had incidents when you talk to them, even within the first 30 minutes of a response, they're getting requests for even dozens or hundreds of interviews. So how would your agency, your jurisdiction prepare for that and even manage that. Also under ICS it's important to remember that all press statements and media briefings are approved by the incident commander and that public information officer. So, again, this is another reason why utilizing ICS allows us all to operate on the same sheet of music. We need to remember in a terrorist incident, a mass-violence incident or any critical incident those initial reports from the media. Are typically going to be wrong, incorrect and farfetched. But we, as the response, in the command system, need to be prepared to address those questions when they come up. It's also important to remember in today's world, with the social media and the world wide web aspect, public information officers aren't only giving one or two briefings a day. PIO has now become a full time 24/7 job, so again it's important to be able to find those resources, if you don't have them in your community. If you have a terrorist attack in your community, some other considerations you need to look at. Number one is a family assistance center. This is a location that you need to establish near the incident site. This site needs to have security at it. And this site is not open to the public or the media. One of the things that'll happen at this location is where family members and friends are gonna be told that their family member was killed in the incident. So a Family Assistance Center, we establish those in plane crashes, and other high-impact incidents you also need to establish in a terrorist incident. This is where your counselors and your clergy will be available. So reach out to your local nongovernmental organizations such as the American Red Cross about this. Is there training and prepared to do this. So talk to them about family assistance centers. Also, a lesson learned from past incidents. Can your community even establish a help line phone number? Would you know how to do that? Would you be able to setup or establish, a 1 800 number? Cuz if you don't, all the family, all the community, all the media, will be calling your dispatch centers. In your fire stations and other locations. So talk to your emergency management. Find out, how can we establish a help line phone number if we have a serious incident impact our community. Also, another important consideration for a terrorist incident, cuz typically terrorist incidents are very high impact for a community. The CISM or Critical Incidents Stress Management also called peer counseling, stress debriefings. You really need to consider this for both victims and responders. Victims and responders should never go through debriefings together. Victim debriefing is different from responder debriefing, but it's very important to consider that CISM for your community and plan for that now. When it comes to these support operations for your incident, including the Family Assistance Center and CISM, if your agency has never heard of these topics, if you wouldn't know where to go now's the time to prepare. Because when you have a large scale incident, these operations are going to start taking place, whether you set it up or an outside entity sets it up. And these are very serious topics, that can lead to further problems and issues down the road for you. So, even if you've never done these before, at least know the right contacts, and the resources that you can get ahold of, to help you do this, or come in and do it for you. But the time before the incident, is the time you need to identify these resources. As I stated before 99% of terrorist attacks around the world are bombings and shooting. So we'll focus on bombings and explosive incidents. There's a couple reasons why bombings and explosive incidents are really the number one choice for terrorists. Number 1, explosives are very easy to make. They're very easy to make. They're low cost. They don't take a lot of funding to build these devices and these explosives. This is also serious threat in small and midsize communities. If you have pipe bombs and those type of devices, you have explosive threats. The plans to make these devices are all over the internet, they have available in books. If I go to my next gun show you can find resource materials that show you how to make these items. So we have to keep that in mind. All the components, the precursors, the parts, the materials, can readily be found in hardware stores, and other locations now. To make these explosive devices. Also, terrorism is all about the big picture. Getting attention. For your explosive incident you get more bang for your buck, and that's what they want. They want a lot of attention. An explosive incident, big or small is gonna get a lot of attention, and that's what they want. There's a lot of delivery options. Suicide vests, cars, pipe bombs, explosive devices, booby traps, secondary devices, there's all kinds of options available to the bomb maker. I don't need a large cell. I don't need a large international terrorist group. You're an insider threat, you're a home grown violent extremist or you're a lone wolf, on their own can make and utilize these explosive devices. Also, forensically, after the incident occurs, it can be very difficult to gather evidence, identify perpetrators and facilitators. And all part of the investigations. So there's a lot of reasons why all the bad guys like explosive devices and bombs. It's important to remember as I stated before, a large majority of terrorist attacks around the world utilize explosives. This is right now, this is in the future, and this is in the past. Explosives have always been the number one choice of terrorists. Also, you have to remember with Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, the number one killer of our troops have been explosive devices and improvised explosive devices. Explosive devices can consist of a lot of different types of materials and devices, anywhere from very sophisticated military type ordinants. To the IED, the improvised explosive device, or homemade explosive. Typically responders in small and mid sized communities, that's what you're gonna encounter, that's what you're gonna respond to, is those improvised explosive devices and homemade explosives. So bottom line, our biggest hazard, our biggest threat in any community is explosives, and that's what we need to focus on when we're looking at a terrorist threat. Because as I stated before, our lone wolf, our insider threat and our home grown violent extremist, this is typically gonna be the most typical type of device or explosive or threat that they're gonna utilize for their attack. And so this is what you need to plan and prepare for. Since 2001, the FBI and the Department of Homeland Security has sent out several notices, bulletins and warnings. About being alert for the threat of explosives. Typically, these bulletins do state there is no specific or credible intelligence indicating that there is a specific or credible threat at this time, utilizing explosives against the United States. However, the continuing and growing use of explosives overseas does define the need that we need to be prepared for these. And as I've stated numerous times before, explosives are the number one choice for terrorists. Right now, the number one choice of explosive threat in the United States is what is called peroxide based explosives. Two common ones you may have heard about is called TATP and HMTD. Their actual chemical names are on there. On the slide, but we don't want to worry about those too much. Just remember, number one, these are the improvised explosive materials of choice now. These devices and these materials can be made from readily over the counter products. They are readily available in any community. They are very inexpensive to purchase the items. Also in, homemade explosive than an improvised explosive device. Just so we have our terminology down. But these devices, these peroxide based materials are very unstable and very dangerous, but are becoming more common in the United States. One of the serious issues and public safety concerns with homemade explosives... Especially peroxide based explosives is they are very dangerous and unstable. You may not even have a terrorist incident. If you have a response to a location, a residence or any other type of location where someone is making these items. Whether they're making them it for terrorist purposes or not, these materials are very unstable and dangerous. In these labs, these homemade explosive labs, you have a lot of serious in, issues. You have harmful chemicals in there, chemicals that are reactive and do not need to be mixed together. You have the explosives. Once those explosives have been made they are dangerous to even be around. They are very unstable. They're not even really supposed to be made. So they're just very dangerous. In North Carolina we had several fire fighters injured in the homemade explosives that's a just several years ago, and this was just responding to a location where homemade explosives are being made. These locations can have booby traps in them, you can have secondary explosive devices, you can have the individuals whether they're terrorist or criminal nature, who could be the most serious threat. But if you have a home made explosive lab this will require specialized resources and teams to manage that incident. If you have an actual or suspected explosives incident your first consideration needs to be a secondary device. A secondary device is a device that's been placed to target first responders in case of an incident. So if you have a device that's been found. If you actually have an actual incident, a terrorist attack or any type of scenario involving explosives that are being used for criminal or terrorist purposes, your first thought needs to be a secondary device cuz those are designed to target first responders. As with any type of response, and especially a terrorist type of attack, responder safety is our number one priority. There's a couple ways that we can do that. Number one we need to remember that responders can and will be targeted in a terrorist attack. Also all responders need to maintain situational awareness during this incident. As you're responding to, while you're at the scene and you're recovering from the incident. This means that we're aware. What's going on around us, 360 degrees aware of the environment and activities that are taking place. Also we then talk, we have talked about secondary devices. We need to look for secondary devices where we are parking our vehicles and just being aware of that threat. Again, establish that one single ICS location, the command post. Every terrorist incident or every suspected terrorist incident you need to have a command post where you establish your unified command at. Again, check all your command post areas, your staging, for secondary devices. Also, depending on the type of incident, any type of personal protective equipment, PPE. That any agency has, you may need to utilize that PB. Remember, ten years after 9/11, responders are still dying because they responded to the 9/11 attack. Some of this may seem as it's very technical and beyond the scope and scale of a smaller or midsize response agency or jurisdiction. But another factor you have to consider. Even if this does not occur in your immediate jurisdiction. You may be near a neighboring jurisdiction that's much larger. That could have this type of incident occur. So you will have to respond under mutual aid to these other jurisdictions. And support these other agencies. Because there again, there's no one agency that can handle a terrorist response on its own. As we said earlier, all resources are already available for terrorists to conduct a terrorist attack even in small communities. Example, the most common explosive still utilized in the United States are your most common materials such as black powder, smokeless powder, and fireworks powders. The most common explosive device still found in the United States is a pipe bomb. So it's important to remember that these factors come into play when you're planning for these incidences. These materials are readily available in your community. In fact, half of the residences in your community may already have these materials or access to these materials. Some other considerations that agencies need to look at when responding and planning and training for these instances is the very simple way to remember time, distance, and shielding. This normally is applied to radiation incidences, but we can also apply it to explosive incidences. Number one is time. We want to minimize the time that we are in that area wherever the hazard or incidence occurred. We wanna put distance between ourselves and the site when we need to. Or if it's an explode, unexploded device or material, we wanna put distance between ourselves and that device or material. Shielding, if it's an actual explosive device you need be, be behind shielding. This can be other buildings, can be firetrucks. But always remember your time, distance, and shielding when you're responding to these incidents. Even if it's not confirmed or actual, if it's a suspected incident, you may need to utilize time, distance and shielding. Unfortunately, every year there are cases of responders responding to some type of explosive threat or item or material that has been discovered. And time after time, responders are picking these items up. They're moving these items. They're taking pictures of these items. We should never, ever do that. We need to remember that responders should never touch, handle, move, or disarm these items or these materials when you find them. This requires a specialized response by specialized bomb squads and EOD teams. It's very easy in today's world with handheld cameras to wanna take pictures of an actual device. On material. This is dangerous for a few reasons. Number one, it's putting you near the device, we have to remember our time distance and tuning, this will put you near that material or that device. Once you observe the material, you need to get away from it and observe it from a different, distance. So, again, no pictures. Another reason with the peroxide based explosives that we discussed. Just you getting near them, the temperature change of your body nee, being near this product. If you bump the table, the flash off your camera, if you key your mic. Any of these activities can set off these home made explosives, especially the peroxide-based explosives due to the fact that they are so unstable, and dangerous. Again remember our time, distance and shielding. We're now gonna discuss v-beds, vehicle born IEDs are better known as car bombs. V-beds can come in all sizes, shapes, types and different colors. Any type of vehicle can be used as a v-bed, as we've seen in Operation Iraqi Freedom and in Operation Enduring Freedom and in other locations in the Far East and Middle East. Every type of vehicle can be used. A fire truck, a police car, even a donkey drawn cart has been used before. So remember a V bed can be any size or shape if you've given information, that there may be one in your community. V beds have been used increasingly larger amount of explosives. Both military ordinance, and homemade explosives. Anywhere from 100 pounds to a 1,000 pounds or larger. Also, v-beds can add additional materials to the v-bed. This can include military rounds, rockets, or shrapnel, fragmentation, flammable materials like gasoline, white phosphorous. Chemical hazards like chlorine, again, this could be a threat, with a v-bed. So any material can be added to the v-bed to make it more lethal and dangerous. A v-bed is a very convenient way for a terrorist or terrorist organization to bring explosives to an area and target a specific location or a special event. This also allows them to increase the payload by adding readily available materials in your community to the V bin. So these can appear in any sized jurisdiction. So these can show up in small and midsized jurisdictions and if your ever given information that there is one. You need to treat as a very dangerous situation. It's very important that responders be very cautious of any vehicle that arouses your curiosity or if you are dispatched to that vehicle. Again we need to approach that with extreme caution. Now there is a couple other factors that come into play if you have a suspicious vehicle. You could have a vehicle parked suspiciously for a prolonged amount of time at a very central or strategic location, or a place where a vehicle should not be. The vehicle could be weighted down. Some of these vehicles may have hundreds or even thousands of pounds of material. This may be your only indicator that it is a suspicious vehicle or a possible veebin. You could have stolen non-matching plates or no plates at all. All these factors could come in to play to identify it as a possible vbed when you're looking at this vehicle from a distance I don't even need to be close to see these items. I can see this from a distance. And remember our time, distance and shielding. You may also find yourself responding to a possible vbed for other reasons. A traffic accident, a low enforcement call, a medical call or you may approach the vehicle others, other indicators you'll see now that you're close enough to the vehicle, inside the vehicle. This gotta include wires, bundle, circuit boards other type of materials, propane tanks other devices. You gotta have military ordinance inside the vehicle, it's obviously is a clue. You could have unknown liquid materials leaking from the vehicle, leaking inside the vehicle, containers holding these materials in the vehicle. Unusual attachments or body works. Or any combination of the above devices. If you find this vehicle with any one or two of these type of indicators in the vehicle, we need to get away from that vehicle, secure the area as quick as we can, and consider our time, distance and shielding. A call to the appropriate resources. So let's say you or someone from your agency has discovered this vehicle with the suspicious indicators inside of it. What are some of the first things we need to do. The first thing we need to do obviously is to get away from that area. Secure the area, get away from that area and inform all other personnel in the area. So number one get away, number two we don't utilize our cellphones, our radios, our mobile computer terminals in our vehicles. All these could possibly trigger some type of item or device related into this v bed. So we get away from the vehicle, we make our notifications, and then once we are some distance away we definitely need to call for help, but we don't do that while we are still standing right next to the vehicle. The distance that you may want to start thinking about utilizing your radio and cell phone is at least get three or 500 meters away from that vehicle. At that point, you need to start communicating and that's when you can start utilizing your phones and radios. So we found this device, the suspicious items, the first thing we need to do is notify all other person. We do this by voice verbal command. This includes the other responders, other agencies and citizens that may be in the area. We tell them what we found and we get out of the immediate area. You may have nothing that looks exactly like a device, it may only look suspicious or some unknown type of device, wiring or containers, but that if obviously a big indicator. We don't touch or move anything. If you're in the vehicle and you've opened the door or the trunk. Because it's a fire call, a medical call or vehicle stop, once you find those suspicious material items you don't shut the trunk, you don't shut the door, you don't do anything else to the point you let that vehicle freeze in time and you get away from it. You don't open or close doors. You don't turn the vehicle off. You don't take keys out. You don't do anything. Also if you're inside a vehicle like a van, an RV, or a bus and you find something you exit the same way you entered. Think of yourself as being in a land mined field. You back out the same way you came in even if you're next to a door or exit. So, move yourself and other responders and the public away from the suspicious item and away from the vehicle. Again, time, distance and shielding. Once that device has been found, you also have to consider those secondary devices. So, key thing: let's notify everybody what we found and get away from the suspicious item. A v-bed will be designed to be concealed and blend in to whatever environment or community it's in. If someone's actually making a [UNKNOWN], their goal is to get a camouflage to look like other vehicles in that area and that can be a big danger. So if you're responding to an actual or suspected [UNKNOWN] type of incident, you need to get all your dispatch information via cell phone or the MDT. Obviously, communications about this type of incident or threat, we probably want, do not want to do over the radio because you never know who's listening in. Especially, when it comes to a high profile incident. Now, if an actual explosion takes place, our guidelines that say do not use radios for suspicious packages and items, you will need to utilize communications. If you've had an actual terrorist attack or some explosion of some form or fashion because you will have a rapid overriding need for communications. So whether you're responding to an actual incident or a suspected vbet has been found, the first thing you need to do is we talked about secondary devices, scan the area where you're parking and staging your vehicles. That's very important. Do not stack up resources in one area. That doesn't mean park every single fire truck and what's a police car in one parking lot. Let's spread our resources out. Your minimum stand office at this point is one thousand to two thousand feet from that vehicle if possible. Because it can be the danger area for a V van. Again, this'll be a consideration for the size of the community, the terrain, the jurisdiction, and the resources available. But we wanna put as much distance between ourselves and that V bed as we can. Again, key component, we need to rapidly implement the incident command system, establish our command post, and establish unified command with fire, EMS. In law enforcement. Stressed it already, we'll stress it again. If you actually have an actual incident or actual device that's been found, you've got to consider secondary devices and attacks. During the response to an actual or suspected VBED we do not want to use our 2 way radios, our cell phones and our computer terminals if possible with one, within one thousand feet of that vehicle. If possible we need to consider that. Once you've established your staging area you command, your zones of control, we've set up your perimeter. You can observe that vehicle with binoculars or spotting scopes. And this is where we can start looking for other indicators and hazards that may be associated with this threat. Also, we need to clear and control the area of operations, or the AO, just like a Hazmat zone. Even the smallest agency should be familiar with normal Hazmat response operations and those zones of control. Think of your hot zone, your warm zone and your cold zone. The hot zone is where the suspicious material, or item, or activity is taking place. The warm zone is that 500 meters, that 1000 feet, whatever perimeter you set up. And the cold zone is where our command post, our staging, and other operations are taking place. But we all should be able to remember, just like time, distance and shielding, we also apply our zones of control. For those that were in the military, you may recognize the old five and 25 cards. And I thought these were very applicable to first responder and public safety operations. The first one, don't cut wires that's EOD job.First responders as we've said before should not touch these devices, unscrew endcaps, pull fuses, smell things, taste things, move things around. If you have an actual incident or a material or an actual device, you need to be considered secondary devices, and that's what one of our 525 cards advises us. Also, the last card, minimize your distance and exposure. This is what we talked about with time distance and shielding. If this works for the military, it can work for responders. Another tool that may help public safety agencies and first responders is what's called the military five C's. Confirm, clear, core, control, and check. What this means, number one confirm that there is a device or suspicious material. We don't do that by getting close. We do that from a great distance. Clear the area. What we already talked about. Clear the area, set up your perimeters and your zones of control. Cordon the area off, 1,000 to 2,000 feet. This will take law enforcement to control all the access to the area. Perimeters, traffic control points. It may take a lot of resources to do this. And then where your command post and staging area is, you check that for possible secondary device. So let's remember confirm, clear, [UNKNOWN], control, and check. Again, if it works for the military it can work for responders. Our chances of detecting or learning about a terrorist attack once the terrorists are actually on their way to their target and successfully stopping them are very slim to none. So, prevention is the key tool to when it comes to preventing terrorism is being aware. In any community large or small being aware when you're doing inspections when you're on other types of calls being aware of the individuals that you're responding to and you're around can all go a long way towards preventing these attacks. And that's what we wanna do, preventing them. We don't want to respond to them. In fact smaller communities you may be more familiar with your infrastructure. The people that are there, the community, and this may help you actually identify these threats long before they ever become a serious threat. So final planning notice that we can look at, and ways that your community, large or small, can prepare for these incidents. Number one: contact, locate and find your local emergency management office or emergency services office. They may actually already be engaged in terrorism planning and response efforts. So it's a good idea to network and work with these individuals. Every region of the country has a federal joint terrorism task force called the JTTF which is run by the FBI. Your local law enforcement agencies may have participants on this joint terrorism task force. So reach out to this resource that is available in all parts of the country. Also every region in the country has what's called a fusion center. This is a location where intelligence and information is shared, co-located and distributed. You can reach out to your local or regional fusion center and they can provide you additional information on training and preparing for terrorism. Plus information that may be on any local threats that you have to manage or deal with. Also, each county and community should have what's called an all hazards disaster plan. This is your local disaster plan. Within that plan, there should be a section, an annex on terrorism. It might be a good idea to be familiar with that annex. And if one doesn't exist in your local plan, it's probably a good idea that you design and develop a terrorism annex. I can't stress it enough, we need to be familiar with the internet command system, but remember it's a tool. You need to utilize the proper tools on the internet command system. Only the ones that you need. There are table talks and drills and exercises taking place out there, it's a good idea to participate in those. It's even better, as I said before, a bus crash or a plane crash mass-casualty exercise is a good training effort, but it may not cover all the aspects of a terrorism incident. So any jurisdiction ought to consider a terrorism response. All this information can be applied to what's called the all-hazards approach. Some of the same methodologies and planning we're using, we can use in plane crashes, ice storms, floods, nuclear power plants, even in a podunk community. So, a trained and experience team works better than the best written plans. So the time to prepare is now.

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