Issue 2 and Volume 20.

LONDON WATER SUPPLY-FILTRATION. LETTER VII. [Specially written for FIRE AND WATER). THE whole of London is built upon sands and gravels belonging to the drift period, which mark the ancient bed of a river or estuary of much greater magnitude than the Thames of to-day. The average breadth of this sand deposit may be taken as two miles, and it is superimposed directly upon the bed of London clay, which extends in a cup-like form beneath the whole London area from Willesden and Islington on the north, to Wandsworth, Camberwell, and Clapham on the south, and eastward and westward to Woolwich and Hammersmith respectively;or roughly, at an underestimate, 12×8 (96) square miles. This I .ondon clay covers varying deposits of sands and pebbles, which rest upon the chalk. For our purposes this latter may be considered the basic rock of the London district, as being the bed whence are derived…

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