Issue 4 and Volume 22.

USEFUL WATER INFORMATION Doubling the diameter of a pipe increases its capacity four times. Friction of liquids in pipes increases as the square of the velocity. The mean pressure of the atmosphere is usually estimated at 14.7 pounds per square inch, so that with a perfect vacuum it will sustain a column of mercury 29.9 inches or a column of water 33.9 feet high. ‘To find the pressure in pounds per square inch, in a column of water, multiply the height of the column in feet by .434. Approximately, we say that every foot elevation is equal to one-half pound pressure per square inch; this allows for ordinary friction. “To find the diameter of a pump cylinder to move a given quantity of water per minute (IOO feet of piston being the standard of speed), divide the number of gallons by 4, then extract the square root, and the product…

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