Issue 5 and Volume 30.

WATER RAM UTILIZED. It is well known that water ram is constant and severe in direct pumping systems, but it is not so generally known that in a gravity system water ram is often present to a serious extent. In the gravity system now under the writer’s care the reservoir is seven miles distant; the pipe line varies from thirty inches to twelve inches in diameter until it reaches the city limits. The mains in the corporate limits are variously twelve inches, ten inches, eight inches, and six inches in diameter (no pipe smaller than six inches being in use), arranged on the “gridiron” plan. The static head varies from 275 feet in the lower portions of the city to 190 feet in the higher parts. A pressure gauge which reads 265 feet (under the static head due to its position) frequently rises suddenly to 340 feet without any apparent…

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