Issue 12 and Volume 38.

BACTERIA IN WATER SUPPLIES. Specially written for FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING. Bacteria belong to the lowest order of plants and follow the algæ very closely. They are superficially divided into three classes, as follows: Micrcoccus; bacillus; spirillum. They are cells composed of a membranous cell-wall and cell-contents, with probably cell-nuclei. In shape they are round or cylindrical, of an average diameter or transverse section of 0.001 mm (— 1 micromillimetre). The cell-wall is of plant cellulose, with a firm membrane; the cell-contents are chiefly protoplasm, generally homogeneous, but sometimes finely granular, or holding pigment, composed chiefly of mycoprotein. The streptococci and staphylo-cocci are the result of the gelatinous membrane becoming water-soaked and forming either a small envelope or capsule round the bacterium, or handling the newlybranched germs from separating—thus, forming chains and bunches and sometimes long filaments. If this gelatinous mass is very thick, there will be formed irregular masses…

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