Issue 4 and Volume 145.

FIELD TRANSFERS: DRUMS Field transfers of drummed materials are one of the most common mitigating procedures used in hazardous-materials response. The transfers generally involve the use of pumps, hoses, and a subassembly that extends to the bottom of one container or both containers. This part of the transfer system is referred to in industry as a dip tube. Dip tubes, which are used daily in plants throughout the chemical industry, occasionally are referred to as stingers by cleanup contractors. Dip tubes are extensions of piping or hose systems that place the intake or discharge below the liquid level in a vessel. They are used to ensure that filming, vaporizing, or flammable liquids do not free-fall during filling operations. They also reduce air entrainment and foaming. All free-falling liquids, including water, develop static charges, which induce sparking. Sparging is another use for dip tubes when a gas such as air for…

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