Issue 9 and Volume 148.

RETURN OF THE SOLID STREAM BY ANDREW A. FREDERICKS A growing number of fire departments large and small are returning to the use of solid-stream nozzles (also called “smooth-bore” or “solid-bore” nozzles) for interior structure firefighting. They are realizing success in directly attacking interior fires using the long reach afforded by the compact solid stream and fire-quenching power of its high-volume flow. This article is intended to describe some of the many benefits provided by solid streams and to contrast the safety and efficiency of the direct method of fire attack with both the indirect method and the so-called “combination” attack. When I first entered the fire service in the late 1970s, many of my instructors taught both the indirect and combination methods of fire attack with little or no mention of the direct method. Training films of the period demonstrated the supposed efficiency of using 30- and 60-degree fog…

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