Fire Prevention & Protection


Issue 9 and Volume 148.

METHODS OF FIRE ATTACK –ANDREW A. FREDERICKS Direct method: Involves direct water application on the burning fuel to cool it below its ignition temperature and eliminate production of vapors that burn. Indirect method: Developed during World War II as a means of combating fuel oil fires in the confined machinery spaces of large ships and later applied to structure firefighting. Lloyd Layman, the primary proponent of what he called the “indirect” method of structure fire attack, explained the theory and methodology in his book Attacking and Extinguishing Interior Fires.* In it, he identified the key requirements for a successful indirect attack, paraphrased as follows: Fog streams should be remotely injected into the fire area at the highest possible level from positions outside the involved building due to the danger of steam burns to nozzle crews. The fire should be sufficiently well-developed, as fires in the first phase or early second…

Subscribe to unlock this content

Subscribe Now