Issue 4 and Volume 154.

BY CHARLES ANGIONE It is a fairly common occurrence: The interior attack lines have been ordered outside. The big guns had previously been placed to protect the exposures. Soon, you are flowing thousands of gallons per minute via master streams. You have been forced to change from an aggressive attack on the seat of the fire to a less satisfying but sometimes necessary defensive (surround and drown) operation. The fireground is a dynamic place. It is important that you try to keep a couple of steps ahead of the red devil and that you make your countermoves in a timely manner. Staying with a failed tactic too long is as bad as not giving an approach a chance to work. One of the most important decisions made on the fireground is that of switching the strategic goal from an offensive operation to a defensive one. Such a change may, of…

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