Complete References for ‘Questioning Spinal Stabilization’

by Rommie L. Duckworth, June 2014 issue of Fire Engineering


1.        American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Emergency Care and Transportation of the Sick and Injured. (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1971).

2.        Butman, A. M., Schelble, D. T. & Vomacka, R. W. The relevance of the occult cervical spine controversy and mechanism of injury to prehospital protocols: a review of the issues and literature. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 11, 228–233 (1996).

3.        McHugh, T. P. & Taylor, J. P. Unnecessary out-of-hospital use of full spinal immobilization. Acad Emerg Med 5, 278–280 (1998).

4.        Bandiera, G. et al. The Canadian C-spine rule performs better than unstructured physician judgment. Annals of Emergency Medicine 42, 395–402 (2003).

5.        Cassar-Pullicino, V. & Imhof, H. Spinal Trauma – An Imaging Approach. (TIS, 2006).

6.        Anderson, D. G. & Vaccaro, A. R. Decision Making in Spinal Care. (Thieme, 2012).

7.        Domeier, R. M. Indications for prehospital spinal immobilization. Prehosp Emerg Care 3, 251–253 (1999).

8.        Smith-Bindman, R. R. Environmental causes of breast cancer and radiation from medical imaging: findings from the institute of medicine report. Arch Intern Med 172, 1023–1027 (2012).

9.        Hoffman, J. R., Wolfson, A. B., Todd, K. & Mower, W. R. Selective cervical spine radiography in blunt trauma: methodology of the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS). Annals of Emergency Medicine 32, 461–469 (1998).

10.      Hoffman, J., Mower, W., Wolfson, A., Todd, K. & Zucker, M. Validity of a set of clinical criteria to rule out injury to the cervical spine in patients with blunt trauma. National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study Group. N Engl J Med 343, 94–99 (2000).

11.      Stiell, I. G. et al. The Canadian C-Spine Rule for Radiography in Alert and Stable Trauma Patients. JAMA 286, 1841–1848 (2001).

12.      Stiell, I. G. et al. The Canadian C-spine rule versus the NEXUS low-risk criteria in patients with trauma. N Engl J Med 349, 2510–2518 (2003).

13.      Brown, L. H., Gough, J. E. & Simonds, W. B. Can EMS providers adequately assess trauma patients for cervical spinal injury? Prehosp Emerg Care 2, 33–36 (1998).

14.      Domeier, R. M., Evans, R. W. & Swor, R. A. The reliability of prehospital clinical evaluation for potential spinal injury is not affected by the mechanism of injury. Prehospital … (1999).

15.      Stroh, G. & Braude, D. Can an out-of-hospital cervical spine clearance protocol identify all patients with injuries? An argument for selective immobilization. Annals of Emergency Medicine 37, 7–7 (2001).

16.      Burton, J. H., Dunn, M. G., Harmon, N. R., Hermanson, T. A. & Bradshaw, J. R. A statewide, prehospital emergency medical service selective patient spine immobilization protocol. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 61, 161–167 (2006).

17.      Myers, L. A., Russi, C. S., Hankins, D. G., Berns, K. S. & Zietlow, S. P. Efficacy and compliance of a prehospital spinal immobilization guideline. International Journal Of Emergency Medicine 2, 13–17 (2009).

18.      Vaillancourt, C. et al. The Out-of-Hospital Validation of the Canadian C-Spine Rule by Paramedics. Annals of Emergency Medicine 54, 0–0 (2009).

19.      Munk, M.-D. Ruling out C-spine injuries in the field. Maine taps medics’ spinal skills. JEMS 22, 76–80– 82–3 (1997).

20.      Muhr, M. D. & Seabrook, D. L. Paramedic use of a spinal injury clearance algorithm reduces spinal immobilization in the out-of-hospital setting. Prehospital Emergency … (1999).

21.      Brown, J. B. et al. Prehospital spinal immobilization does not appear to be beneficial and may complicate care following gunshot injury to the torso. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 67, 774–778 (2009).

22.      Stuke, L. E. et al. Prehospital spine immobilization for penetrating trauma–review and recommendations from the Prehospital Trauma Life Support Executive Committee. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 71, 763–770 (2011).

23.      Berg, R. A. et al. Part 5: adult basic life support: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 122, S685–S705 (2010).

24.      March, J. A. J., Ausband, S. C. S. & Brown, L. H. L. Changes in physical examination caused by use of spinal immobilization. Prehosp Emerg Care 6, 421–424 (2002).

25.      Chan, D., Goldberg, R., Tascone, A., Harmon, S. & Chan, L. The effect of spinal immobilization on healthy volunteers. Annals of Emergency Medicine 23, 48–51 (1994).

26.      Chan, D., Goldberg, R. M., Mason, J. & Chan, L. Backboard versus mattress splint immobilization: a comparison of symptoms generated. J Emerg Med 14, 293–298 (1996).

27.      Kwan, I. & Bunn, F. Effects of prehospital spinal immobilization: a systematic review of randomized trials on healthy subjects. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 20, 47–53 (2005).

28.      JoyceTreseder. Efficacy of an inflatable spine-board padding device in relieving pain during simulated spinal immobilization. Annals of Emergency Medicine 44, 0–0 (2004).

29.      Cordell, W. H., Hollingsworth, J. C., Olinger, M. L., Stroman, S. J. & Nelson, D. R. Pain and tissue-interface pressures during spine-board immobilization. Annals of Emergency Medicine 26, 31–36 (1995).

30.      Lawner, B., Slovis, C. M., Fowler, R., Pepe, P. & Mattu, A. Avoiding Common Prehospital Errors. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012). at <>

31.      Scannell, G. G., Waxman, K. K., Tominaga, G. G., Barker, S. S. & Annas, C. C. Orotracheal intubation in trauma patients with cervical fractures. Arch Surg 128, 903–906 (1993).

32.      Bauer, D. & Kowalski, R. Effect of spinal immobilization devices on pulmonary function in the healthy, nonsmoking man. Annals of Emergency Medicine 17, 915–918 (1988).

33.      Schafermeyer, R. W. et al. Respiratory effects of spinal immobilization in children. Annals of Emergency Medicine 20, 1017–1019 (1991).

34.      Totten, V. Y. & Sugarman, D. B. Respiratory effects of spinal immobilization. Prehosp Emerg Care 3, 347–352 (1999).

35.      Thumbikat, P. P., Hariharan, R. P. R., Ravichandran, G. G., McClelland, M. R. M. & Mathew, K. M. K. Spinal cord injury in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a 10-year review. Spine 32, 2989–2995 (2007).

36.      Ben-Galim, P. et al. Extrication collars can result in abnormal separation between vertebrae in the presence of a dissociative injury. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 69, 447–450 (2010).

37.      Davies, G., Deakin, C. & Wilson, A. The effect of a rigid collar on intracranial pressure. Injury 27, 647–649 (1996).

38.      Kuhnigk, H., Bomke, S. & Sefrin, P. [Effect of external cervical spine immobilization on intracranial pressure]. Aktuelle Traumatol 23, 350–353 (1993).

39.      Kolb, J. C., Summers, R. L. & Galli, R. L. Cervical collar-induced changes in intracranial pressure. Am J Emerg Med 17, 135–137 (1999).

40.      Mobbs, R. J., Stoodley, M. A. & Fuller, J. Effect of cervical hard collar on intracranial pressure after head injury. ANZ J Surg 72, 389–391 (2002).

41.      Hunt, K., Hallworth, S. & Smith, M. The effects of rigid collar placement on intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures. Anaesthesia 56, 511–513 (2001).

42.      Ho, A. M.-H. A., Fung, K. Y. K., Joynt, G. M. G., Karmakar, M. K. M. & Peng, Z. Z. Rigid cervical collar and intracranial pressure of patients with severe head injury. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 53, 1185–1188 (2002).

43.      Lynch, J. K. J. Cerebrovascular disorders in children. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 4, 129–138 (2004).

44.      Perry, S. D. et al. The efficacy of head immobilization techniques during simulated vehicle motion. Spine 24, 1839–1844 (1999).

45.      Oteir, A. O., Jennings, P. A., Smith, K. & Stoelwinder, J. Should suspected cervical spinal cord injuries be immobilised? A systematic review protocol. Inj. Prev. (2013). doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2013-041080

46.      Haut, E. R. et al. Spine immobilization in penetrating trauma: more harm than good? The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 68, 115–111 (2010).

47.      Lustenberger, T. et al. Unstable cervical spine fracture after penetrating neck injury: a rare entity in an analysis of 1,069 patients. J Trauma 70, 870–872 (2011).

48.      Lanoix, R., Gupta, R., Leak, L. & Pierre, J. C-spine injury associated with gunshot wounds to the head: retrospective study and literature review. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 49, 860–863 (2000).

49.      Connell, R. A., Graham, C. A. & Munro, P. T. Is spinal immobilisation necessary for all patients sustaining isolated penetrating trauma? Injury 34, 912–914 (2003).

50.      Hauswald, M., Ong, G., Tandberg, D. & Omar, Z. Out-of-hospital Spinal Immobilization: Its Effect on Neurologic Injury. Academic Emergency Medicine 5, 214–219 (1998).

51.      Orledge, J. D. & Pepe, P. E. Out-of-hospital Spinal Immobilization: Is It Really Necessary? Academic Emergency Medicine 5, 203–204 (1998).

52.      Hauswald, M. A re-conceptualisation of acute spinal care. Emergency Medicine Journal (2012). doi:10.1136/emermed-2012-201847

53.      Mawson, A. R. et al. Risk factors for early occurring pressure ulcers following spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 67, 123–127 (1988).

54.      Mazolewski, P. & Manix, T. H. The effectiveness of strapping techniques in spinal immobilization. Annals of Emergency Medicine 23, 1290–1295 (1994).

55.      De Lorenzo, R. A. A review of spinal immobilization techniques. J Emerg Med 14, 603–613 (1996).

56.      Johnson, D. R., Hauswald, M. & Stockhoff, C. Comparison of a vacuum splint device to a rigid backboard for spinal immobilization. Am J Emerg Med 14, 369–372 (1996).

57.      Hamilton, R. S. & Pons, P. T. The efficacy and comfort of full-body vacuum splints for cervical-spine immobilization. J Emerg Med 14, 553–559 (1996).

58.      Luscombe, M. D. & Williams, J. L. Comparison of a long spinal board and vacuum mattress for spinal immobilisation. Emergency Medicine Journal 20, 476–478 (2003).

59.      Mok, J. M., Jackson, K. L., Fang, R. & Freedman, B. A. Effect of vacuum spine board immobilization on incidence of pressure ulcers during evacuation of military casualties from theater. Spine J 13, 1801–1808 (2013).

60.      Howell, J. M., Burrow, R., Dumontier, C. & Hillyard, A. A practical radiographic comparison of short board technique and Kendrick extrication device. Annals of Emergency Medicine 18, 943–946 (1989).

61.      Markenson, D. et al. The kendrick extrication device used for pediatric spinal immobilization. 3, 66–69 (2009).

62.      Stone, M. B., Tubridy, C. M. & Curran, R. The effect of rigid cervical collars on internal jugular vein dimensions. Acad Emerg Med 17, 100–102 (2010).

63.      XCollar. (2013). at <>

64.      Krell, J. M. et al. Comparison of the Ferno Scoop Stretcher with the long backboard for spinal immobilization. Prehosp Emerg Care 10, 46–51 (2006).

65.      Del Rossi, G., Rechtine, G. R., Conrad, B. P. & Horodyski, M. Are scoop stretchers suitable for use on spine-injured patients? Am J Emerg Med 28, 6–6 (2010).

66.      McGuire, R. A., Neville, S., Green, B. A. & Watts, C. Spinal instability and the log-rolling maneuver. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 27, 525–531 (1987).

67.      Del Rossi, G. & Horodyski, M. B. A comparison of spine-board transfer techniques and the effect of training on performance. Journal of athletic training (2003).

68.      Del Rossi, G., Heffernan, T. P., Horodyski, M. & Rechtine, G. R. The effectiveness of extrication collars tested during the execution of spine-board transfer techniques. Spine J 4, 619–623 (2004).

69.      Del Rossi, G., Horodyski, M. & Conrad, B. P. The 6-plus–person lift transfer technique compared with other methods of spine boarding. Journal of athletic … (2008).

70.      Rechtine, G. R., Prasarn, M. & Del Rossi, G. Motion in the Unstable Cervical Spine When Transferring a Patient Positioned Prone to a Spine Board. Journal of athletic … (2013).

71.      Connor, D., Greaves, I., Porter, K., Bloch, M.consensus group, Faculty of Pre-Hospital Care. Pre-hospital spinal immobilisation: an initial consensus statement. Emergency Medicine Journal 30, 1067–1069 (2013).

72.      Shafer, J. S. & Naunheim, R. S. Cervical spine motion during extrication: a pilot study. West J Emerg Med 10, 74–78 (2009).

73.      Engsberg, J. R. et al. Cervical Spine Motion during Extrication. J Emerg Med – (2012). doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.02.082

74.      Dixon, M., O’Halloran, J. & Cummins, N. Biomechanical Analysis of Spinal Immobilisation during Prehospital Extrication: A Proof of Concept Study. in National Association of EMS Physicians NAEMSP (2013).

75.      Bernhard, M., Gries, A., Kremer, P. & Böttiger, B. W. Spinal cord injury (SCI)–prehospital management. Resuscitation 66, 127–139 (2005).

76.      Bouland, A. J., Jenkins, J. L. & Levy, M. J. Assessing attitudes toward spinal immobilization. J Emerg Med 45, e117–25 (2013).

77.      NHTSA. National EMS Scope of Practice Model. (2007). at <>

78.      Moffett, P. & Moore, G. The standard of care: legal history and definitions: the bad and good news. West J Emerg Med 12, 109–112 (2011).

79.      Theodore, N. et al. Prehospital Cervical Spinal Immobilization After Trauma. Neurosurgery 72, 22–34 (2013).


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