Part 1 (March 1997) covered stretching handlines, including estimating the amount of hose needed for specific types of buildings and hose loading techniques to effect prompt handline placement under a variety of operating conditions. Part 2 describes procedures to help ensure a safe and efficient advance to the seat of the fire, with specific attention given to the first line, as it is responsible for saving most lives at structure fires.


In many cases, engine company staffing provides for only two firefighters (or one firefighter and an officer) to stretch and advance the first handline. Where most firefighting operations are performed in private dwellings using preconnected lines, two firefighters may be sufficient. In areas where longer, more difficult stretches are necessary, three or more firefighters will be needed. An incident commander should never hesitate to team together two, three, or even four engine companies to ensure prompt placement and operation of the first handline at a structure fire. In addition to the required number of firefighters, an officer should be assigned to direct the advance of the line. The benefits to be derived from having a supervising officer are described more fully below.

The first two firefighters on a handline (as well as the officer, if present) are commonly referred to as the “nozzle team.” One firefighter is assigned to operate the nozzle and the other (called the “backup” firefighter) helps resist the nozzle reaction so the nozzle firefighter can freely manipulate the nozzle. If a third firefighter is available, he is assigned the “door” position. Once the handline begins its attack on the fire, the “door” firefighter facilitates a smooth and rapid advance by feeding hose to the nozzle team.

In the City of New York (NY) Fire Department (FDNY), some engine companies have a fourth firefighter to assist in stretching and advancing the handline. This firefighter is assigned the “control” position, described in Part 1. In those engine companies without a separate and distinct “control” position, the door firefighter assumes responsibility for controlling the stretch. Once the line is charged, he moves into position at the door to the fire area and feeds hose to the nozzle team.

Let`s examine the specific responsibilities given to each firefighter during the handline advance, beginning with the engine company officer.


Many engine companies include an officer in their staffing levels, but all too often he is a “working” officer, forced to assist with both stretching and advancing the handline. In some fire departments, the engine company officer is actually the nozzleman or backup man. This detracts from his ability to observe conditions, communicate with the IC, and monitor the safety of the nozzle team. In addition to these important functions, what other advantages does a supervising officer provide?

At private-dwelling fires, the officer can often make a quick perimeter survey as the handline is being stretched. This will assist in determining the location of the fire and provide information on fire extension and rescue problems. An interior survey also should be attempted, including conducting a quick primary search in the immediate fire area and closing any doors that will help retard fire spread. This is especially important when no ladder company is on the scene or it is understaffed. At multiple-dwelling fires, the officer can assist in the hose estimate and should immediately announce the presence of a wellhole and report on any unusual conditions that will affect the handline stretch.

When there is no ladder company present, the officer should confirm the floor and number of the fire apartment and attempt to gain entry to locate the fire and search for any trapped occupants. If heat and fire conditions preclude a search, a glance below the smoke may prove helpful.

If a ladder company arrives along with the engine, an effective technique for the engine company officer is to drop down to the apartment below the fire apartment and attempt to gain entry. This will provide the officer with important information concerning the layout of the fire apartment, which can then be relayed to the nozzle team. If the fire apartment is in the rear of the building, there may be no indication of the fire`s location from the street.

To help pinpoint the fire room(s), the officer should look out any rear and side windows of the apartment below for signs of smoke and flame issuing from the fire apartment. Once the fire`s location is determined–either visually or from radio reports given by ladder company personnel searching the fire apartment–the officer should count the number of doors, the required number of left- and right-hand turns, and the approximate distance between the entrance door and the seat of the fire. On his return to the fire floor, it may also prove valuable to look out the stairway window at the half landing to obtain one more view of the fire apartment from the exterior. The same techniques can be used for second- and third-floor fires in garden apartment buildings. Even for a first-floor fire, the adjacent apartment is usually a mirror image of the fire apartment, and much information can be obtained by taking a quick look. Of course, no matter what the fire situation, information gathered from occupants, neighbors, and early arriving police officers may prove extremely valuable.


When possible, the firefighter assigned to the nozzle should be both aggressive and experienced. In the absence of an officer, the nozzleman establishes the pace of the handline advance and makes many decisions on which the outcome of the entire firefighting operation hinges. He chooses when to open and close the nozzle and where to direct the stream to confine and extinguish the fire as quickly as possible. Without an officer present, the nozzleman must be equipped with a portable radio to call for water, to report information on the progress of the fire attack operation, and to request help when necessary.

The nozzleman must maintain control of the nozzle at all times. While waiting for the line to be charged, he should kneel on the hose immediately behind the nozzle and ensure it does not get kicked by a passing firefighter. He is also responsible for bleeding trapped air from the line prior to the advance.

Some nozzlemen prefer to crack the nozzle open as they await water. This provides immediate indication that the line is being charged and allows the air to bleed off as the hose fills with water. Others simply wait until the line stiffens and then bleed off the trapped air. In addition to exhausting trapped air, cracking open the nozzle provides the nozzleman with assurance that the engine apparatus is in pump gear.

Occasionally, an inexperienced chauffeur may forget to place the rig in “pumps.” Due to the “flow through” nature of centrifugal pumps, hydrant pressure will permit the handline to fill with water, but the pressure received at the nozzle may be inadequate to produce an effective fire stream. NEVER enter the fire area or suspected fire area with an uncharged handline.

Use straight or solid streams for the fire attack–as they are much less disruptive to the thermal balance than fog streams. As a result, they help maintain better visibility, produce less unwanted steam, and are less likely to “push” fire. They also have long reach, which is necessary when several rooms are involved or you encounter a long hallway.

If using a fog nozzle, the nozzleman must ensure that it is in straight-stream position. As the nozzleman holds the nozzle, straight-stream position requires that he rotate the pattern adjustment ring clockwise. It is a good idea to keep fog nozzles in straight-stream position at all times, but the nozzleman should still check while waiting for water.

As a general rule, do not open the nozzle on smoke. The nozzleman should wait until he encounters fire and direct the stream toward the ceiling while whipping the nozzle in a clockwise or side-to-side motion.

After the fire begins to “darken down,” the nozzleman can lower the angle of the nozzle and soak the smoldering solid fuels with water. If the fire is relatively small to begin with, deflecting the stream is not necessary. Once a fire has started to roll across the underside of the ceiling, he should direct the stream at an upward angle to allow droplets of water to rebound off the ceiling and upper walls, penetrate the thermal column of the fire, and cool the solid fuel materials below their vaporization temperatures. This will cause the flame front at the ceiling to diminish and permit a closer approach to the seat of the fire. (For more information on proper direct fire attack techniques and the use of solid-stream nozzles, see my article “Return of the Solid Stream,” Fire Engineering, September, 1995, pp. 44-56.)

It is also very important for the nozzleman to sweep the floor periodically with the stream as the team advances. This pushes aside and/or cools burning embers, scalding water, and molten plastics. Even while members are wearing bunker pants, knee burns are still possible. The protective layers of the bunker gear are stretched tight over the joint when kneeling, thus eliminating much of their insulating qualities. Sweeping the floor also “sounds” the floor to provide indication that a hole or other opening lies ahead. Still one more important reason for sweeping the floor is to push aside glass shards, nails, and hypodermic needles. Bunker pants will do little to prevent penetration by a needle positioned at just the right angle. Use extreme caution when advancing over carpeting, as “sharps” may be stuck in the pile at crazy angles and may not dislodge when you sweep the floor. It may be safest to “duck walk.”

I stated above that in most cases you should not open the nozzle on smoke. Recently, many veteran firefighters and officers have indicated that it may be necessary to rethink this approach. The fire environment has grown more dangerous and less predictable from the use of energy-efficient windows (not to be confused with simple, double-glazed windows), membrane roofs, and fuel materials that produce increasingly large quantities of dark flammable smoke. High heat conditions that force the nozzle team down to floor level with no visible fire may necessitate that the nozzle be opened on smoke, at least momentarily, to avoid burns from imminent rollover and flashover. I recently had such an experience with my local volunteer fire company at a cellar fire in an old, wood-frame, converted dwelling.

We advanced a handline down one of two interior stairways leading to the cellar. Initially, heat conditions were very tolerable at the top of the stairs, so a mad dash to the bottom was not necessary. A tenant insisted that the fire was “to the left” once we reached the bottom of the stairs. So at the bottom of the stairs, we made a left turn and advanced a little bit, but no fire was readily visible. It turns out we were not in the fire room but in a large utility room connected to the fire room by a doorway. The doorway itself was in the far corner of the room located behind two oversize water heaters. Unfortunately, almost as soon as our advance began, so did our problems. Three firefighters, including the nozzleman and me, stumbled into sump pits located around the boiler. A water pipe burst, spraying us with hot water; wires and plastic conduit dropped from the ceiling, producing an entanglement hazard; and all the while, heat conditions continued to intensify without any sign of fire rolling across the ceiling. Stone foundation walls, which radiated the heat in all directions, and a lack of available ventilation openings exacerbated our problems. Not knowing if fire was wrapping around behind us made me a bit leery of moving forward. After a firefighter descending the stairs said the venting smoke was now very hot, a decision was made to open the nozzle, even though no fire was visible. The nozzle was opened briefly and heat conditions did improve slightly, but I was still fearful of the worst. With our handlights shut off, we could finally see a glimpse of fire at ceiling level and quickly knocked it down. A handline had been stretched down the other stairway, and we soon heard the sound of its stream from our position in the utility room. Shortly thereafter, the doorway was discovered behind the water heaters. Opposing streams were never an issue, and fire venting up the other stairway made for a difficult push but also left no doubt as to the fire`s locati


Although lacking the glamour associated with the nozzle position, the backup firefighter plays a key role in handline advance. He must absorb as much of the nozzle reaction burden as possible. The nozzleman and backup man must work in unison, giving the appearance of a well-oiled machine. During most fire attack operations, the nozzleman will be directing the stream toward the ceiling. In this case, the backup man must maintain the line low behind the nozzleman and as straight as possible. If the nozzleman lowers the nozzle to sweep the floor, to hit a burning mattress, or to direct the stream down a cellar stairway, the backup man must elevate the line behind the nozzleman. If the nozzleman directs the stream to the left, the backup man must move the line to the right. Conversely, if the nozzleman swings the nozzle to the right, the backup man must move his part of the line to the left. When no officer is present, the backup man should constantly observe conditions. He becomes the “eyes” of the nozzle team, alert to such dangers as fire rolling overhead, fire wrapping around from behind, or side rooms involved in fire.

The backup man should be in physical contact with the nozzleman. If the nozzle firefighter is relatively inexperienced, a senior backup man can help talk him through the fire, providing encouragement as well as physical support. When the advance must be made by only two people, the backup firefighter will have to move between his position immediately behind the nozzleman and a point several feet behind the operating nozzle to pull hose around corners and keep the line moving. If the officer is the second person on the line, he may be forced to break off on forays to vent and search, leaving the nozzleman to resist the nozzle reaction alone. This fact speaks for the value of low-pressure fog nozzles or solid-stream tips, which produce less reaction force than 100-psi fog nozzles.


The presence of a third firefighter during handline advance increases efficiency immeasurably. Due to smoke and physical barriers such as walls, the doorman will seldom be able to observe the nozzle team as it is advancing. To permit an unhindered advance without pushing the nozzle team, use the “bow” technique. This requires the doorman to feed sufficient hose toward the nozzle team until he creates a bow in the line. This bow represents slack that the nozzle team can pull trim without undue effort as they advance. As the bow straightens out, the doorman simply feeds more line until the bow is restored. If the team must make many bends and turns, the doorman might consider making a large bow behind him before he moves up to feed hose around the next corner.

When staffing levels are light, an alternative to the bow method is to create a loop in the line and roll the loop of hose into position behind the nozzle team. This provides hose to keep the advance moving when a door firefighter is not available. Obviously, a fourth firefighter on the line will increase the speed and efficiency of the advance still further. He should be initially positioned on the half landing below the fire floor in multiple dwellings and outside on the front steps or porch in private dwellings.


After a difficult stretch, the opportunity to quickly regroup and catch your breath while waiting for the line to be charged can go a long way in reducing stress. My brother, an exercise physiologist and fitness specialist, told me that when a rest period (or “refractory” period) between stressful anaerobic activities is short, the ability to quickly recover your heart and breathing rate is vital. This will help ensure that sufficient oxygen is reaching muscle tissues and that performance at a high level can continue. Of course, rapid recovery depends on proper physical conditioning; an adequate hydration level; and experience that teaches you how to work smarter, not harder.

When donning your face piece or pulling up your protective hood, your helmet should be wedged firmly between your legs or under a bent knee so it doesn`t get lost. It is a good idea for all nozzle team members to become proficient in donning their SCBA face pieces, pulling up their protective hoods, and activating their PASS devices with gloves ON. Too many times, I have seen firefighters remove gloves to adjust SCBA straps or coat buckles, only to lose a glove in smoke or darkness or to have trouble getting it back on quickly, delaying the advance. Another reason for learning how to manipulate all your straps and buckles while wearing gloves is that during an SCBA emergency in a hot, smoky environment, there may not be time to remove and then redon gloves saturated with perspiration and water. In addition, it is simply too dangerous to expose your fingers and hands to possible burns and other injuries.

If an officer is present, he will call for water via his portable radio; otherwise, the nozzleman will have to do it. Once the line is bled, the officer (or nozzleman) must contact the ladder company firefighter(s) responsible for ventilation of the fire area. Timing the handline advance with ventilation is very important, and communication is the key. If ventilation is performed before a charged handline is in place, rapid fire growth and early flashover are real possibilities. If the ventilation comes too late or is not adequate to release the heat and expanding steam, the nozzle team will have a difficult advance and may be subject to burn injuries. The most common method of “venting for fire” is to simply remove the windows in the fire area opposite the advancing nozzle team. An exception might be a fire in a one-story “taxpayer” or strip mall. Extensive security measures may make horizontal ventilation at the rear of the building almost impossible. If ventilation is effected, it will be significantly delayed. In these cases, a large hole cut in the roof may be the only way to provide relief for the engine company advancing the handline and to help slow lateral fire spread. A top-floor fire in a multiple dwelling also requires a large roof hole in addition to extensive horizontal ventilation.

During the advance, all members of the nozzle team must be positioned on the same side of the handline. It is also very important that the nozzle team remain low and to one side of the opening to the fire area, using the door and wall as a shield against escaping heat and fire. If an officer is present, he may have to move to the other side of the door opening due to a narrow hallway or small landing. The officer must exercise extreme caution if this is required. Once the door is forced open, control of the door is vital to the success of the firefighting effort. (Some considerations in door control were discussed in Part 1.) Occasionally, by opening the entrance door to an apartment, the room or rooms involved in fire may be closed off by the open door–especially when you encounter “railroad flats.” This makes for some difficult bends and turns and causes a delay in getting water on the fire.

A fire in one such apartment near FDNY Engine 48`s quarters required the forcible entry team from Ladder Company 56 to remove the entrance door. The safety of the firefighters on the handline was a key factor in this decision. Although they could advance the line around the door with some difficulty, evacuating the fire apartment in a hurry would have been impossible. Consider removing an apartment door as a last resort because it violates the principle of door integrity. In this case, the door was not removed until all tenants evacuating down the stairs had descended below the fire floor and the handline had started its advance on the fire with a continuous water supply behind it.

You MUST chock open any door through which the handline passes. Closing a door on an uncharged handline is like placing a hose clamp on the line. For more on the importance of chocking doors, see the sidebar “The Door Chock” by Michael N. Ciampo above. Remove storm doors and screen doors that will not stay open or do not open very wide. The nozzle team (and other firefighters) should also keep doorways clear and unobstructed. This permits an inrush of cool, fresh air to replace the heated products of combustion being displaced by the stream. It also maintains open the means of egress for any remaining occupants, firefighters performing rescue and/or removal operations, and firefighters in distress.

The sound of the stream can also provide clues as to the presence of a window or doorway. A doorway may lead to another room involved in fire. A window opening may allow the stream to be operated across an alley, shaft, or driveway to extinguish the burning sheathing or window frames of an exposure building. In addition, the nozzle pattern can be ad-justed to ventilate the fire area. By changing a combination nozzle from straight stream to a fog pattern, effective negative-pressure ventilation is readily accomplished. In FDNY, some nozzlemen and engine officers carry a small, plastic, rotary fog tip (such as that found on standpipe “house line”), which can be quickly placed on the shutoff after removing the solid-stream tip. Even a solid stream, broken into coarse droplets by partially closing the nozzle shutoff, will move a substantial volume of air.


A recent series of tests conducted by FDNY Battalion Chief Peter Rice and involving engine companies 5, 14, and 33 sought to quantify the reduction in water flow caused by kinks. In each test, kinks were introduced into a 134-inch handline flowing 180 gpm. No more than one kink was placed in any single length of hose, and the changes in flow were noted using LED readout flowmeters, which had recently been recalibrated. Each kink was formed by making a bend in the hose of approximately 90 degrees. What Chief Rice found is that a single kink will reduce the flow by about 20 gpm. When a second kink was placed in the line, the flow dropped another 30 gpm for a total decrease in flow of 50 gpm. A third kink reduced the flow by another 40 gpm or so. As a result of three kinks, what is believed to be a 180-gpm fire stream may only be half that, and the potential for burn injuries is greatly increased. In addition to the loss of flow volume, the excessive turbulence also reduces the reach of the stream and causes premature stream disintegration when solid-bore tips are used. In a smoke-filled fire area, however, stream impact noise alone may not be sufficient to tell the nozzleman or officer that there is one or more kinks in the line.

It is very important that the backup firefighter (and the door firefighter, if available) “chase the kinks.” The engine company chauffeur can certainly chase kinks in the vicinity of his apparatus; ladder company personnel, on entering the fire building and walking up the stairs, should not hesitate to remove kinks as they encounter them as well. After all, ladder company firefighters assigned to operate on the floor above the fire will be in the most severely exposed position if the flow from the handline is compromised by kinks.


Here are additional thoughts on improving the safety and effectiveness of any handline advance.

Many times, a fire is self-vented on arrival and any prevailing wind is in the nozzle team`s favor. If only one or two rooms are involved, these conditions may permit use of so-called “hit and move” tactics: hit the fire, shut down, advance a little bit, and hit the fire again. Other situations require that the nozzle be kept open throughout the advance. This might be necessary when several rooms are involved in fire; if ventilation is inadequate; when the fire involves a large, open area with high ceilings; when battling a wind-driven fire; and when heat conditions are severe, such as during a fire in a high-rise residential or office building with concrete floors. Advancing a charged line with the nozzle open can be very difficult, particularly 212-inch hose. Additional personnel will be required to ensure that the handline keeps moving.

Oftentimes, simply finding the seat of the fire in a dense smoke condition can be a challenge. I discussed the necessary operation of the nozzle on smoke earlier, but in most cases, you should not open the nozzle until you locate the fire. While searching for the seat of the fire, move in the direction of greatest heat (which itself can be deceiving, especially in cellars or fire-resistive buildings). Look for the orange glow in the smoke near the ceiling. As mentioned earlier, shutting off handlights or turning them behind you is a good idea. Handlight beams reflected and scattered by opaque smoke particles may help hide the fire. Constantly monitor radio reports from other firefighters, those operating inside as well as outside the fire building. Always be alert to fire below you, especially in houses with balloon framing. What appears to be an upper-floor or attic fire may have originated in the basement or cellar. Use the same precautions at commercial building fires and check the cellar for fire early in the operation.

After you have darkened down the fire, shut down the nozzle so any remaining pockets of fire can “light up” for final extinguishment. Shutting down after knockdown also permits the smoke and steam to lift, improving visibility. Sometimes, you may have to keep the nozzle open to cool a superheated fire area after a post-flashover fire has been controlled. Especially when walls and ceilings are constructed of concrete, gypsum block, or gypsum board, additional cooling of the area to reduce reradiated heat may be required.

The use of a 100-foot lead length in the handline stretch may prove advantageous. By using a 100-foot length as opposed to the standard 50-foot length, the one coupling that always seems to get caught on stair treads, door jambs, and newel posts is eliminated, easing the burden when only two firefighters are advancing the handline.

If you are using nozzles with pistol grip shutoffs, be careful not to let the pistol grip slide back so that it ends up alongside your body. This interferes with nozzle movement and reduces efficiency. Try to keep the nozzle about an arm`s length reach out in front.

One more point concerning nozzles: A nozzle is one of the two or three most important tools used by an engine company. At the start of every tour (or at least weekly), members should remove each nozzle from the hose and examine its condition. Pay specific attention to proper operation of the bail and the condition of the gaskets. In addition, perform any required lubrication, set fog nozzles to straight-stream position, and restore each nozzle to the hose hand tight.

During overhaul, you can reduce nozzle pressures. You might also consider using a 12-inch outer stream or “overhaul tip” when using solid-stream nozzles. If the initial nozzle team is fatigued, relief personnel must be available to prevent needless injuries. An incident commander should never hesitate to call an additional alarm, summon off-duty personnel, or request mutual aid in anticipation of needed relief at a difficult fire.


The first handline is, without question, the most important lifesaving tool at a structure fire. Controlling fire spread and stopping smoke production save an untold number of lives every year. While smoke has its greatest impact on civilians, it is the fire itself that most threatens firefighter safety. Stopping the generation of smoke and toxic gases–especially asphyxiating carbon monoxide–is the best means of safeguarding civilian lives. Firefighters, equipped with SCBA and able to operate in smoke, are more concerned with rollover and flashover. Controlling fire growth to reduce the potential for burn injuries is how the first line best protects firefighters. n

Advancing the initial handline at a structure fire is the best means of protecting civilian and firefighter lives. At an absolute minimum, every handline should be advanced by two firefighters–one assigned to operate the nozzle and the other (called the “backup” firefighter) to help resist the nozzle reaction. Ideally, a supervising officer will also be available. The officer and the nozzle and backup firefighters form what is commonly referred to as the “nozzle team.” (Photo by Kenny Flynn.)

At fires involving one-story “taxpayers” and strip malls, vertical ventilation must be performed to relieve conditions for the advancing nozzle team and to slow fire spread throughout the common cockloft. Horizontal ventilation is usually very difficult, if not almost impossible, due to the extreme security measures taken by business owners to prevent illegal entry through the rear of their stores. (Photo by Bob Pressler.)

Horizontal ventilation opposite the advancing handline is critical to the success of the fire attack effort. The ventilation must be properly timed; this requires communication between the nozzle team and ladder company firefighters assigned outside ventilation duties. At top-floor fires in multiple dwellings, a large hole cut in the roof over the main body of fire is also required to provide necessary relief for the nozzle team and to help slow lateral fire spread in the cockloft. (Photo by author.)

(Left) A recent fire in the Bronx, New York, involved two rooms. The first room was knocked down quickly, but fire continued to vent from the fire escape window of the second room. The engine company chauffeur, observing the fire building, alertly informed his officer of this fact and that a right-hand turn was necessary. After this communication, a doorway was located and the aggressive nozzle team made short work of the fire in the second room. Information provided by firefighters operating both inside and outside the fire building can be invaluable. (Photo by Matt Daly.) (Above) Fire venting from a window on arrival is a good sign for the nozzle team. It means a close approach to the fire should be possible without firefighters being subjected to severe punishment. All too often, however, energy-efficient windows (also called thermal pane windows) mask interior conditions and no fire and/or smoke is visible on arrival. These windows remain intact longer, make it difficult for outside ventilation firefighters to find the fire, and require more time and effort to break. They also cause the buildup of large quantities of blinding, flammable smoke within the fire area and dramatically increase the punishment the nozzle team takes. (Photo by Matt Daly.)

Billowing steam issuing from a window means the nozzle team has done its job. Overhaul operations can now begin, and the firefighters assigned to the first line may require relief. Use fresh personnel whenever possible to reduce the injury potential. As ladder company firefighters open up walls and ceilings checking for extension, the stream will be used to wash down the bays and thoroughly soak the smoldering contents. You can reduce nozzle pressures at this point to make handling of the line a little easier. (Photo by author.)

The incident commander should anticipate the need to relieve the first nozzle team. Sufficient relief personnel should be on hand throughout the operation to quickly replace firefighters suffering from fatigue or injury and to ensure continuity of the fire attack operation. (Photo by Keith D. Cullom, IFPA.)

MICHAEL N. CIAMPO is a firefighter with the City of New York (NY) Fire Department. He previously was a firefighter with the District of Columbia Fire Department (DCFD). Ciampo received a B.A. in fire science from John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York City.

ANDREW A. FREDERICKS is a 17-year veteran of the fire service; a firefighter with the City of New York (NY) Fire Department, assigned to Engine Company 48 in the Bronx; and an engine company chauffeur. He is a New York State-certified fire instructor at the Rockland County Fire Training Center in Pomona, New York, and an adjunct instructor at the New York State Academy of Fire Science. He has two bachelor`s degrees, one in political science and the other in public safety, with a specialization in fire science, and a master`s degree in fire protection management from John Jay College of Criminal Justice.

Ran in Issue 4, Volume 150.

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