A NEW CONCRETE STEEL REINFORCED STANDPIPE
The Fine Structure Just Completed at Attleboro.
Specially written for FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING
The past year has been the most important of any in the history of the waterworks plant of Atttleboro, Mass., which owns the waterworks system. It has been a year of improvements all round, in the source of supply (begun the year before and completed in 1905) and the substantial betterment of the distribution service and that for fire protection. The works, which were constructed in 1873, serve to supply a population of 13,500, with 13,(XX) on the lines of pipe. 1 he source of water supply is a circular well near the Seven-Mile river into a standpipe thirty feet in diameter and 175 feet high. The betterment of the supply for fire service involved laying an additional main between the source of supply and the town, so as to obviate the risky necessity of being dependent upon one pipe-line. Large storage capacity was also provided at such an elevation that the water necessary for a conflagration is always available, with pressure sufficient to satisfy even the most exacting demands of the insurance people. So far as concerns Attleboro’s lire protection in the way of adequate water sup ply, the town is placed far beyond the reach of criticism. Before this improvement was effected, it was necessary, in case of fire, to start the pumps, cutting out the old standpipe by closing a valve, so that it should not overflow under the higher lire pressurea clumsy and slow operation at a critical time. Now, with duplicate mains in use, and 1,500,000 gallons of water stored above the elevation of the old standpipe, any number of fire streams, with pressure enough for all purposes, can instantly be brought to bear upon an incipient fire. The new standpipe stands on lde’s hill, at an elevation of 252 feet above tidelevel, It is fifty feet in diameter and too feet high. Its capacity is 1,500,000 gallons. It is built of reinforced concrete. Its concrete base is carried below frost to a foundation of hard-pan; the walls, which arc eighteen inches thick tit the bottom and eight inches tit the top. are of Portland cement, mixed in the proportion of one part cement, two parts sand and four parts stone, and reinforced with circular steel bars, generally one and a half inches in diameter, spaced in one or twy rows and as close together vertically as the bursting stress at different heights makes necessary A temporary hard pine tower was built, after placing the foundation, the object of which was to support the derricks and working platforms. The walls were then carried up by movable inside and outside forms in two sets, the lower being loosened and moved up above the upper set. as the work progressed. The concrete mixing was done by a machine, and the concrete was raised by a derrick to the platforms carried on the interior tower, from which it was shoveled into the space between the inner and outer forms and thoroughly spaded and rammed. The tank is covered by a Gustavino tile dome, and may be said to he a masonry structure throughout. When it has received its interior coat of plaster, it is anticipated that whatever trifling leakage has appeared will he stopped. The credit for the designing and erection of the standpipe is deservedly awarded to City Engineer F. A. Barbour. A twcntv-four-inch main has also been laid, connecting to the old fourteen-inch force-main on Thacher street, so as to furnish water for the construction of the standpipe. On its completion, the twenty-four-inch main was laid on Thacher street, and, lastly, the twenty-inch on County street. Work was then started on the sixteeninch force-main from station to standpipe, a distance of 7.300 feet, and, as this line of pipe was across country, a road had to be built the entire distance. There were several cuts and tills, also a swamp to pass through of 1,200 feet, with abutments to build at Tiffany street, where the pipe carried the stream. The pipe is laid nearly in a straight line between the standpipe and the station, and, in laying it, Thacher street had to be widened. A ledge of rotten stone had also to be blasted— a difficult work; the rest of the way was hard-pan. The grade had frequently to be raised, and the water department made the fill with chip stones from the ledge that was blasted out to widen the street, and these were covered with gravel—making a very good street. On Tiffany street, where the pipe crosses the street there was a low place; the street was, therefore, brought up to grade for about 300 feet, the deepest fill being three feet. After this sixteen-inch force-main had been completed, the Lona Cutt extension was started, and then the twelve-inch main on Dennis street, which was completed on December 30. During the time these long lines were being laid there was another force of men laying short extensions of six-inch pipe and smaller sizes. Nearly all of the pipe laid was through very hard digging and ledge, nearly 200 tons of dynamite having been used in blasting. Much more preliminary work bad to be done before laying the pipe than was expected, yet the whole cost was $6,400 less than estimated. But, then, the department did all its own work. To make the connection to the new sixteen-inch main at the pumping station it was necessary to put in a gate-chamber for the hydraulic gates, which are nine feet long. It was deemed advisable to build a basement and foundation for the future extension of the pumping station, which will be necessarv when a new pump is installed—possibly within ten years. A foundation was built of concrete walls twenty-four inches thick, extending out 111 front of the present station fifteen feet, and thirty-three feet four inches long, with the length the same as the present pump room. This basement is covered with a concrete floor that is on a level with the present floor in the station and is now covered with loam, which will be left so until built upon. During the summer the stream from the bridge to the pond was straightened, the banks sloped and riprapped—greatly improving the looks, besides making an unobstructed watercourse. During the year, 100 new service connections were made and thirty others were replaced by cement-lined pipe. The total amount of pipe laid—wrought iron, cast iron and cement-lined, twenty-four-inch to one inch, in use is 49.3 miles; hydrants set (seventeen new ones during the past season), 352, with gates 011 six for the use of the sprinkling carts. The range of pressure on the mains at Park square for twentyfour hours is fifty-four to sixty-two pounds; direct pressure for fires, no pounds. There were added to the system 104 meters—making the whole number in use, besides two motors—1,770 of which 1,561 are owned by the town, and 209 by individuals. The meters are classified as follows: Union (rotary, 450, “A” Union rotary, 231), 681; Nash, 556; Hersey (disk, thirty-eight), 162; Crown. 158; Lambert, fifty-seven; Thomson, forty-one; Empire, thirty-eight; King, twentynine: Trident, twenty-six; Columbia, twenty-one; Ball & Kitts, one. The builders of the pumping machinery arc the Deane Steam Pump company and the Barr Pumping Engine company, the for mcr working against an average dynamic head of 188 feet; the latter, of 225 feet: duty, including banking, 61,640,000 pounds; witnout banking, 87,996.000 pounds: aggregate capacity, 5,500,000 gallons. The total pumpage for the year amounted to 200,752,628 gallons; average daily consumption. 551,383 gallons; per-capita consumption for each inhabitant, forty-three gallons, for each consumer forty-two gallonsThe large per capita consumption is set down as “due to the unavoidable waste during the construction of the new standpipe.” Superintendent G. H. Snell, who has so ably, strenuously and economically carried out these important improvements, recommends the installation of standpipes to supply the sprinkling carts. He notes that the citizens labor under the delusion that the hydrants may be opened, closed, or treated in anyway they choose that they are set for that purpose, and reminds them that the law will take cognisance of any such tampering with the hydrants.