Superintendent L. N. Case, writing to FIRE AND WATER from Duluth, Minn., says: “You are desirous of knowing what we are doing up here in the way of improvements. Well, we are climbing the hills, hills that are composed of more rock than earth. It isn’t much like making extensions in Detroit. The elevation of our main reservoir is 295 feet above the lake. This is the limit of our supply in what composes the lower system. Last year we established a middle system, pumping from the lower, 213 feet higher. Plans arc already made and contracts let for materials, to establish this season an upper system, pumping from the middle system, an additional lift of about 200 feet, making in all an elevation above the lake of over 700 feel These subsidiary pumping works arc equipped with gas engines that do the pumping, one a forty-four horsepower and the other a sixteen-horsepower. Duluth is not only clinging firmly to its rocky nest on the hillside, but it is growing and expanding and spreading out, and is every day becoming more worthy of its name: “The Zenith City of the Un salted Seas.”


During 1901 the receipts of the water department of Binghamton, N. Y., amounted to $106,928.74. which, added to the balance on hand on January 1, 1901, made a total of $219,996.44. The disbursements were. $79,0754)6. There were pumped during the year 2.247,391,834 gallons of water—a daily average of 6.157,237 gallons, showing a per capita of 160 gallons. The waste of water increases each year regardless of what has been said in the past. There were pumped 117,239,185 gallons more than in 1900. and 2,390 tons of coal were used at the pumping station at a cost of $5,616.50. After a thorough investigation of purer water question, the city decided that under existing conditions the American or mechanical filtration system was best, and in June the city contracted with the Norwood Engineering company, of Florence. Mass., for the erection of a plant having a 10,000,000-gal Ion daily capacity, equipped for 8.000.000 gallons at present, to cost about $80,000,000. There were laid in 1901 7,657 feet of main, which gives seventy-five miles of water mains, with 734 fire hydrants. The department is having a direct connected electric dynamo installed at the pumping station, which will reduce the lighting account very considerably. The number of fire hydrants set in the city is 734: of meters installed 576, as follows: Thomson. 198: Crown, 162; Columbia, 106: Union rotary, thirty-three; Hersey. twentynine: Nash, eighteen; Gem, eleven: Westinghouse. seven: Buffalo, three; elevator indicators, nine. John Anderson, the secretary’ of the board, who is also th( very efficient superintendent of the system, recommends a new and larger feed-water pump, a further instalment of meters in places where water is allowed to run on account of poor plumbing and carelessness, and a “reduction of meter rates for domestic use, that is being done in nearly all cities, with satisfactory results.”



According to the fourteenth annual report of the water commissioners of Harrisburg, Pa., the total pumpage for 1901 was 3.200,060,300 gallons—an average of 8,767,280 gallons a day, and a daily per capita consumption of 153′ gallons. Of the per capita consumption eighty-three gallons were used daily for domestic purposes, and seventy for elevators, motors, fountains, fire, flushing sewers, etc. The cash receipts were as follows: Water rent, $108,-. 446.09; ferrules, $1,311.79; profit on meters, $725.65 —total, $110,483.53. The operating expenses, including improvements, betterments, and extraordinary expenses for Reservoir park, were $31,439.84, from which deduct the above extraordinary expenses, $5,724.29. and the net operating expense was $25,715.55. The increased pumpage during the year was 206,132,200 gallons, which, with the higher price of coal, made the coal bill alone $1,663.32 higher than it was in 1900. The pumpage in 1888 was 2.429,047,630 gallons. For 1901 it was 3.200,060,300 —an increase of 771,012,670 over that of 1888, and of 206,132,200 gallons over 1900, whose pumpage was the largest over any previous one; but that of 1901 exceeded it. This was doubtless caused by the large amount of business done by the railroads, the many large manufactories, and the addition of new ones. Since 1888 3,528 buildings for dwelling and other purposes have been erected, and of these 217 were built during 1901. These have also increased the consumption. The commissioners have contracted for a new pumping engine, because those already in use have been in continuous service for twenty seven years, and ran daily all during 1901. The failure of one of these pumps to work for a few days would compel the supply to be cut off the manufactories, railways, etc. There are 639 public fire hydrants in service, which are inspected every spring and fall, and those which are used at fires after each time of using. There are 1.073 valves in service, and 4.603 meters, of which fifty-five are owned and kept in repair by the city and meter water for manufactories and railways, and 4,548, by consumers, measuring water for 6,576 buildings, used for dwellings and other purposes, and kept in repair by the owners. The meters in use are of the following types: ’ Thomson. 1,872; Nash, 1.690; Crown. 728: Trident, 183; Hersey (rotary, thirtytwo, disk, seventy-four), 106; Gem. twenty-one; ole vr.tor indicators, nineteen: Union, two; Empire, one. Of mains forty-six and three-tenths miles 740 feet have been laid. Of these the thirty-inch force-main and the return main of the same diameter are 9,600 and 7.800 feet long respectively; of distributing main there is 229.620 feet, of which 6.014 feet was laid in 1901. The total rainfall for the year was 29.81 inches: average rainfall for thirteen years 37-77 inches each year. Under President Edmund Mather the waterworks system of Harrisburg continues to flourish and abound.


Smith and Jenkins, city engineers of Dover, N. J., write to FIRE AND WATER that the old works of that place, formerly owned by the Dover Water company, have just been purchased by the town, and transfer will be made in a few days, probably before April I. Two new reservoirs are in process of construction; one for high service and one for lew. Wells are being drilled for a pumping supply to furnish the new reservoirs: but one is still in the experimental stage. New reservoirs are located so as to supply all parts of the town.



Reading, Pa., has issued thirty-six annual reports of its waterworks department, each full of instruction and interest, and each showing the value of Emil Nuebling as a superintendent who not only knows, but does his business. The financial report for the year is very gratifying. The total revenue from all sources was $162,493.65, in addition to a balance from the preceding year, which brought it up to $195,934-34; total expenditure. $152,950.06. The total net cost of the system up to date, since 1865, when it was purchased, has been $1,879,832.90. A $50,000 filtration plant is to be. built, and the ini perative additions arc the completion of the additional pumping main from the Maidencreek and the building of a storage and distributing reservoir for the intermediate service, to be operated in con ncction with the Hampden reservoir to increase the reserve capacity from a three to a twelve days’ supply. The total mileage of pipe in the distribution system is 90 1798-5280; total miles of pipe outside the city limits. ro 1927-5280—total, too 8725-5280. The fire hydrants. 739 in number, are of the old and new Mellert. Corey. Tamaqua. Stillman, Galvin, Adams, and R. D. Wood & Co. types, with 556 six-inch and one four-inch gates on connections. Of gates and gate-boxes there are in the system. 2,213, thirty-six-inch to one and a quarter inch. The pumpage at the Maidencreek station was 1,292,755,426: cost of operating the plant, with interest, $24,735.63; cost of water at reservoir. 1 91-100 cents per 1,000 gallons. The following are the types of the 719 meters in use: Crown. 410; Hersey. ninety; Trident, eighty-five; Nash, thirtynine; Thomson (thirty-one. Bee, thirteen), fortyfour : Lambert, fourteen; Union, three; Gem and Pittsburg, one each. The total consumption of water by meter measurement and the average revenue per 1.000 gallons were as follows: Cubic feet, 120.618.300: gallons, 902,287,605; average revenue per 1,000 gallons, .016. During the year it cost the department for maintenance, including interest charges, $104.710.57 for supplying 2.663.206,591 gallons to the distributing reservoirs—an average of 3 93-100 cents per 1,000 gallons: the proportionate amount of maintenance to he added is 2135. Tt may he added that Reading does not compel the use of meters; it is left discretionary with the commissioners. To meter all the private houses would cost $200,000. No charge is made for the meters furnished.

The water commissioners of Cumberland, Md. congratulate the city on the greatly improved condi tions of the water since the closing down of the sulphite process at the Luke paper and pulp mills They recommend the installation of a filter plant as soon as possible, and of ample means of storage





Superintendent M. A. O’Connell, of the waterworks of St. Hyacinthe, Que., in reporting on the Jewell filters installed there, states that when these first began to operate all the mechanical and organic impurities of a size larger than the thousandth part of an inch were found in the water. After a few hours’ work the filters removed forty per cent, of the coloring matter of the water. From a bacteriological standpoint the water before filtration carried 285 bacteria to the cubic centimetre. At the end of five hours there were 253; ten hours, 185; fifteen hours, 186; twenty-four hours, 148; thirty-six, 108: forty-eight, ninety-eight. Granting the minimum result to be forty-three per cent., the result was very satisfactory, no alumina having been used. When alumina was used on the seventh of the same month, the Yamaska river became rapidly swollen on account the heavy rainfall at its source and those of its various tributaries. The water was so turbid that printed letters in size a quarter of an inch were not visible at a depth of eighteen inches. The river continued in that condition for four days running, during which the work done by the filters was carefully studied. By the addition of two and a half grains of sulphate of alumina to the gallon the water, on leaving the filters, when compared with distilled water of ioo° of purity, showed a purity of ninety-eight to ninetynine per cent—was virtually pure. On September 9. the bacteriological examintion showed the following figures: Before filtration, water, with sulphate of alumina added, showed 504 bacteria; the filtered water, after having been operated on for one hour and one-half, sowed 226 bacteria; after, four hours, 161; after eight, 110; after twelve, sixty-five, or a reduction of seventy-two per cent. It was expected that a reduction of ninety-five per cent, could be attained after the engineer had become more experienced, and had acquired the knack of so manipulating the water as to avoid all mixture of the filtered with the unfiltered water during the process of washing, which was rendered absolutely necessary for twelve hours after the filters had been in use for that length of time, so great was the amount of impurities of all sorts which the filters caught and kept back. The duty of the filters, with the water carrying coagulant to the amount of two and a half grains a gallon, and with the pump making from twenty-three to twenty-five revolutions a minute showed at 10 a. m. 278,943 revolutions; at 3 p. m. 286,067: total revolutions in five hours. 7,122; every hour, 1.424.50: every minute, 23.74; gallons per minute. 23.74×31.5. 747.81: hourly. 448.68; every twenty-four hours, 1.076.846. During the test the pressure on the filters went down two pounds; the water was always clear and pure. For these reasons, therefore, it is held that the two conditions as to the operation of the filters were fully satisfied. The total pumpage of the cityaccording to the last report was 275,367,803 gallons: the average amount pumped daily was 756,504 gallons; total amount of coal used, 971.753 pounds: daily average, 2,670: average pumpage to each pound of coal, 283 gallons. The source of supply is the Yamaska river: the pumping engines arc Blake, daily capacity 650,000 gallons; hydrants (Chapman), ninety; pipe (Scotch, Canadian), ten to four-inch, over thirty-six miles; meters, forty, as follows: Buffalo, twenty; Hersey, eighteen; National, two; valves, 120: taps, 1.436; pressure, domestic, fifty to sixty pounds; fire, sixty to no pounds. The works cost $30,000 to construct, and up to date have cost $130,000; annual expenses between $4,500 and $5,000.



Away up in the hills of North Whitehall, Montour county. Pa., the Clear Springs Water company has built a large water plant. Its system reaches out widely, even as far as Allentown, and its water is of the purest. Its mileage of mains was extended twelve miles last year. The whole system includes twenty-five miles of main, sixteen to four-inch, supplying 1,800 families, with a total of 11.000 people, and nearly all the large manufacturing establishments in that region.

The supply is gathered from eight large springs in the Peach Bottom watershed drained by Spring Mill creek. It is a slate region and the water is softer than cistern water, as is shown by a comparative analysis made by Albert R. Leeds, Ph. D.. professor of Chemistry at the Stevens Institute of Technology at Hoboken, N. J. Of Clear Springs water Prof. Leeds said that it was “pure and whole some, and suitable for potable, domestic, and manufacturing uses.” The water is collected in the Spring Mill dam, which has a capacity of 75,000.000 gallons, whence it is pumped into the 3,000,000 gallon reser voir on top of the ridge to the south. This reservoir, which is constructed entirely of cement, is 320 feet above the dam. whence is derived its enormous pres sure. Because of this high pressure all the main has been made extra heavy. At the highest point in the town of Fullerton, on the test being made, the pres sure was 102 pounds, and the stream from a three quarter-inch nozzle was thrown 85 feet vertically; at a somewhat lower level, where the pressure was 122 pounds, the stream was thrown ninety feet ver tieallv. The water is sent from dam to reservoir through a Jeanesville. compound duplex, condensing pump, with a capacity of 1,500,000 gallons in twentyfour hours. Altogether the system is capable of supplying 50.000 people. The amount supplied at present is about 7.000,000 gallons a month, but four times that amount does not represent the capacity of the system. During the summer of 1900, which was exceptionally dry, it was estimated that 90,000,000 gallons a month flowed over the spill-way of the dam, and last summer, which was less dry. 150.000.000 gallons a month was not utilised. The water is aerated not only by nature, but by a special standpipe fountain of concrete blocks in the centre of the reservoir, which is the outlet of the pipe from the dam. As it is pumped from the dam the water passes through three sets of fine-mesh screens, and before it leaves the reservoir to go to the. consumer it again passes through screens. The system now supplies nine towns. Siegfried. Cementon, Northampton. Egypt. West Coplav. Hokendauqua, West Catasauqua, Fullerton, and North Catasauqua.


During 1901 (report D. W. Robb, C. A. Lusby, and J. N. Page, water committee) Amherst. N. S., expended $4,207.29, of which $1,060.74 was on capital account for pipe line extensions, and the remainder for maintenance. The amount received for water rates was $5,148.71, leaving a balance of $1,813.41 to meet debentures. The total increase in revenue is nearly $700. due to the fact that fifty new services were put in during the year. The water department supplies a population of a little over 5,000. Its source is the river: the system is pumping to reservoir direct. The capacity of the reservoir is 3.000,000 gallons: pumping engines Northey & Co., daily capacity t.000.000 gallons each: hydrants (Charles Smith & Co.. Mathewson & Co.), forty-five; pipe (Londonderry Iron Co.), fifteen miles’ twelve to four-inch: first cost of construction, $80,000; cost to date. $1)2,000: annual expenses about $1,500.


Morris R. Sherrerd. engineer and superintendent of the department of water of Newark, N. J., in his report for the past year adverts to the settlement of the new water supply contract, as a result of which the city now owns and controls the Pequannock plant, besides additional land and water rights bv means of which the city can now not only protect the present supply, but also possesses a valuable property to be utilised when the plant needs enlarging^ and for building additional reservoirs. The city’s gravity supply Engineer Sherrerd declares the “best of any city of its size in the world.” When the Cedar Grove reservoir is completed and is connected with the city mains and smaller reservoirs, the gravity system will be supplemented by a complete distributing system. All these water facilities have been secured at a very low cost, and today the water department is paying off present expenses from receipts as well as the water debt of thirty years ago. Since no sinking fund provision was made for the early bond issue, these bonds have to be refunded as they become due. They can now be issued at a much lower rate of interest, and the present interest and sinking fund charges about equal the old interest rate. The ordinary receipts to December 1, 1900, were $657,305.06; to December 1. 1901, $730,824.75 a gain of $73,519.69; expenditures and fixed charges to December 1, 1900, $771,076.34; to December 1, 1901, $752,619.96—a decrease of $18,456.38.

“The large increase in ordinary receipts for the year 190T (says the report), as compared with 1900. is due to the revenue from metered accounts again becoming normal. The revenues were seriously affected during the years 1899 and 1900 by the chang ing of many accounts from advance to metered col lections, occasioned by the large number of meters introduced in those years. The expenditures of 1901, include an additional payment of $120,000, being interest and sinking fund on the last $2,000,000 of new water supply bonds, not an obligation during 1900. The amount expended for meters was, however, much less than during 1900. During eleven months of 1901, the following work was done: 856 new services made; about four and one-half miles street main laid, about two miles of pipe relaid and lowered; 130 new hydrants set, and 1,450 meters sold and placed in service. The daily average consumption of water was 24.800,000 gallons. This is less than that of four years ago. The reduction is the result of redistricting waste by the use of meters. Approximately 12.500 meters are now in use in the city, on a total of nearly 35.000 taps. Until all the consumers are supplied through meters, some form of minimum meter rate should be adopted. The present method places more than a fair proportion of the burden upon assessed consumers. The duplicate thirty-six-inch high-service supply main from Belleville to the South Orange avenue reservoir was completed and placed in service in August, 1901.” For increased fire protection in the centre of the city the recommendation is made by Chief Engineer Sherrerd—that an independent fire service line of pipe be laid from the South Orange avenue reservoir down South Orange avenue and Market street to the Pennsylvania railroad, with branches north and south on Broad street, north to Central avenue and south to Marshall street. Such a line laid of twentyinch pipe to Broad street, with sixteen-inch branches, would cost about $60,000. Tt would give a serviceable pressure of about 100 pounds from eight to ten streams without the use of fire engines. Direct fire service for property within half a mile of the corner of Broad and Market streets, would be provided. Also, connections could be made with the present street mains to he opened in the event of large fires in the districts not directly reached by the suggested main. At six per cent, for interest and sinking fund the annual cost would be $5,600. In no w-ay could the fire department give an equivalent service for the expenditure of this amount.