AMONG THE WATER WORKS MEN.
Superintendent L. N. Case, writing to FIRE AND WATER from Duluth, Minn., says: “You are desirous of knowing what we are doing up here in the way of improvements. Well, we are climbing the hills, hills that are composed of more rock than earth. It isn’t much like making extensions in Detroit. The elevation of our main reservoir is 295 feet above the lake. This is the limit of our supply in what composes the lower system. Last year we established a middle system, pumping from the lower, 213 feet higher. Plans arc already made and contracts let for materials, to establish this season an upper system, pumping from the middle system, an additional lift of about 200 feet, making in all an elevation above the lake of over 700 feel These subsidiary pumping works arc equipped with gas engines that do the pumping, one a forty-four horsepower and the other a sixteen-horsepower. Duluth is not only clinging firmly to its rocky nest on the hillside, but it is growing and expanding and spreading out, and is every day becoming more worthy of its name: “The Zenith City of the Un salted Seas.”
BINGHAMTON, N. Y.
During 1901 the receipts of the water department of Binghamton, N. Y., amounted to $106,928.74. which, added to the balance on hand on January 1, 1901, made a total of $219,996.44. The disbursements were. $79,0754)6. There were pumped during the year 2.247,391,834 gallons of water—a daily average of 6.157,237 gallons, showing a per capita of 160 gallons. The waste of water increases each year regardless of what has been said in the past. There were pumped 117,239,185 gallons more than in 1900. and 2,390 tons of coal were used at the pumping station at a cost of $5,616.50. After a thorough investigation of purer water question, the city decided that under existing conditions the American or mechanical filtration system was best, and in June the city contracted with the Norwood Engineering company, of Florence. Mass., for the erection of a plant having a 10,000,000-gal Ion daily capacity, equipped for 8.000.000 gallons at present, to cost about $80,000,000. There were laid in 1901 7,657 feet of main, which gives seventy-five miles of water mains, with 734 fire hydrants. The department is having a direct connected electric dynamo installed at the pumping station, which will reduce the lighting account very considerably. The number of fire hydrants set in the city is 734: of meters installed 576, as follows: Thomson. 198: Crown, 162; Columbia, 106: Union rotary, thirty-three; Hersey. twentynine: Nash, eighteen; Gem, eleven: Westinghouse. seven: Buffalo, three; elevator indicators, nine. John Anderson, the secretary’ of the board, who is also th( very efficient superintendent of the system, recommends a new and larger feed-water pump, a further instalment of meters in places where water is allowed to run on account of poor plumbing and carelessness, and a “reduction of meter rates for domestic use, that is being done in nearly all cities, with satisfactory results.”
According to the fourteenth annual report of the water commissioners of Harrisburg, Pa., the total pumpage for 1901 was 3.200,060,300 gallons—an average of 8,767,280 gallons a day, and a daily per capita consumption of 153′ gallons. Of the per capita consumption eighty-three gallons were used daily for domestic purposes, and seventy for elevators, motors, fountains, fire, flushing sewers, etc. The cash receipts were as follows: Water rent, $108,-. 446.09; ferrules, $1,311.79; profit on meters, $725.65 —total, $110,483.53. The operating expenses, including improvements, betterments, and extraordinary expenses for Reservoir park, were $31,439.84, from which deduct the above extraordinary expenses, $5,724.29. and the net operating expense was $25,715.55. The increased pumpage during the year was 206,132,200 gallons, which, with the higher price of coal, made the coal bill alone $1,663.32 higher than it was in 1900. The pumpage in 1888 was 2.429,047,630 gallons. For 1901 it was 3.200,060,300 —an increase of 771,012,670 over that of 1888, and of 206,132,200 gallons over 1900, whose pumpage was the largest over any previous one; but that of 1901 exceeded it. This was doubtless caused by the large amount of business done by the railroads, the many large manufactories, and the addition of new ones. Since 1888 3,528 buildings for dwelling and other purposes have been erected, and of these 217 were built during 1901. These have also increased the consumption. The commissioners have contracted for a new pumping engine, because those already in use have been in continuous service for twenty seven years, and ran daily all during 1901. The failure of one of these pumps to work for a few days would compel the supply to be cut off the manufactories, railways, etc. There are 639 public fire hydrants in service, which are inspected every spring and fall, and those which are used at fires after each time of using. There are 1.073 valves in service, and 4.603 meters, of which fifty-five are owned and kept in repair by the city and meter water for manufactories and railways, and 4,548, by consumers, measuring water for 6,576 buildings, used for dwellings and other purposes, and kept in repair by the owners. The meters in use are of the following types: ’ Thomson. 1,872; Nash, 1.690; Crown. 728: Trident, 183; Hersey (rotary, thirtytwo, disk, seventy-four), 106; Gem. twenty-one; ole vr.tor indicators, nineteen: Union, two; Empire, one. Of mains forty-six and three-tenths miles 740 feet have been laid. Of these the thirty-inch force-main and the return main of the same diameter are 9,600 and 7.800 feet long respectively; of distributing main there is 229.620 feet, of which 6.014 feet was laid in 1901. The total rainfall for the year was 29.81 inches: average rainfall for thirteen years 37-77 inches each year. Under President Edmund Mather the waterworks system of Harrisburg continues to flourish and abound.
DOVER, N. J.
Smith and Jenkins, city engineers of Dover, N. J., write to FIRE AND WATER that the old works of that place, formerly owned by the Dover Water company, have just been purchased by the town, and transfer will be made in a few days, probably before April I. Two new reservoirs are in process of construction; one for high service and one for lew. Wells are being drilled for a pumping supply to furnish the new reservoirs: but one is still in the experimental stage. New reservoirs are located so as to supply all parts of the town.
Reading, Pa., has issued thirty-six annual reports of its waterworks department, each full of instruction and interest, and each showing the value of Emil Nuebling as a superintendent who not only knows, but does his business. The financial report for the year is very gratifying. The total revenue from all sources was $162,493.65, in addition to a balance from the preceding year, which brought it up to $195,934-34; total expenditure. $152,950.06. The total net cost of the system up to date, since 1865, when it was purchased, has been $1,879,832.90. A $50,000 filtration plant is to be. built, and the ini perative additions arc the completion of the additional pumping main from the Maidencreek and the building of a storage and distributing reservoir for the intermediate service, to be operated in con ncction with the Hampden reservoir to increase the reserve capacity from a three to a twelve days’ supply. The total mileage of pipe in the distribution system is 90 1798-5280; total miles of pipe outside the city limits. ro 1927-5280—total, too 8725-5280. The fire hydrants. 739 in number, are of the old and new Mellert. Corey. Tamaqua. Stillman, Galvin, Adams, and R. D. Wood & Co. types, with 556 six-inch and one four-inch gates on connections. Of gates and gate-boxes there are in the system. 2,213, thirty-six-inch to one and a quarter inch. The pumpage at the Maidencreek station was 1,292,755,426: cost of operating the plant, with interest, $24,735.63; cost of water at reservoir. 1 91-100 cents per 1,000 gallons. The following are the types of the 719 meters in use: Crown. 410; Hersey. ninety; Trident, eighty-five; Nash, thirtynine; Thomson (thirty-one. Bee, thirteen), fortyfour : Lambert, fourteen; Union, three; Gem and Pittsburg, one each. The total consumption of water by meter measurement and the average revenue per 1.000 gallons were as follows: Cubic feet, 120.618.300: gallons, 902,287,605; average revenue per 1,000 gallons, .016. During the year it cost the department for maintenance, including interest charges, $104.710.57 for supplying 2.663.206,591 gallons to the distributing reservoirs—an average of 3 93-100 cents per 1,000 gallons: the proportionate amount of maintenance to he added is 2135. Tt may he added that Reading does not compel the use of meters; it is left discretionary with the commissioners. To meter all the private houses would cost $200,000. No charge is made for the meters furnished.
The water commissioners of Cumberland, Md. congratulate the city on the greatly improved condi tions of the water since the closing down of the sulphite process at the Luke paper and pulp mills They recommend the installation of a filter plant as soon as possible, and of ample means of storage