AMSTERDAM RESERVOIR CONSTRUCTION
Description of the New Glenwild Storage Reservoir.
(Specially written for FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING)
The waterworks system of Amsterdam, N. Y., was built by the city in 1882, under the supervision and from the designs of Stephen E. Babcock, C. E., of Little Falls, N. Y. To convey the water by gravity to the 90,000,000-gallon reservoir salt-glazed, vitrified pipe conduits were used. During 1890 another conduit was constructed connecting Hans and Bunn creeks. The line consists of 128 miles of vitrified and iron pipe, eighteen inches and twenty inches in diameter, and a dam, five feet high, was built on Hans creek. The other reservoirs are as follows: Lower distribution reservoir; with an aerating fountain; the Kellogg reservoir; the Round Lake reservoir; and the Cook reservoir. Of dams there arc the Rogers and Mi. Queen dams, Hans conduit diverting dam; the Bunn creek diverting dam, with thirty-six-inch diverting conduit, and the Cook reservoir damThe board of water commissioners is as follows: “, S. Shuler (president!; W. A. Fisher: George W, West (secretary); Frank 11 McConnell; James Nichol; Theodore it. Van Derveer ; Charles C. Y und (treasurer); John 1. Christman; A. W. Breedon. The clerk is j. Spencer Fisher; and the superintendent, to whom is due the carrying out of the work on the Glenwild reservoir and the general efficiency of the system, is James R. Snell The waterworks board has been progressive, but its go-ahead spirit was never more dearly shown.or its wisdom more evidently demonstrated than when its members took in hand the construction of Glenwild storage reservoir, whose watershed has no habitation within its limits, and as, from the nature of its surroundings, which cannot be utilised for agriculture, lumber, or manufactures, it affords no possibilities for settlement, the water which How into the reservoir will always be free from contamination The source of supply is Steele creek, which empties into Hans creek. The tlow-line of the reservoir, which lies about twenty-one miles from Amsterdam, is at an elevation of 1,517.16 feet above mean tide at New York city, and is an addition to the Rodgers and McQueen dants, the Little Round lake, and the Cook dam and Hans creek. The Little Round lake was not drawn upon during the last year, as the last two sources of supply furnished all the water needed for the city, the system being gravity. The Glenwild reservoir is situated at about two miles from the junction of the Steele creek and Hans creek. The watershed of the former is 4.54 square miles, and is entirely second growth forest in which there is no human habitation. Above the Hans conduit diverting dam arc the watersheds of the Steele and the Hans creeks, iludrainage area of which, with that of Little Round lake, is 24.81 square miles. At the Hans conduit diverting dam the creek runs eastward, till it reaches Cook reservoir, whose watershed is 18.22 square miles, the reservoir being built at an elevation of 1,391 feet above tide level. Two miles and a half from Cook reservoir is the outlet front Little Round lake, at an elevation of 1,499 feet above tide, and with a drainage area of 0.95 square miles. Here is the beginning of the Ireland swamp, which extends for half a mile to a point at an elevation of 1,560 feet above tide where Hans and Little Hans creeks join, the drainage area of which is 15.48 square miles. The main Hans creek, after running east for four miles, reaches Mooley lake, whose elevation is 1.780 feet above tide, and drainage area, 2.19 square miles. At this point practically ends any considerable stream. Little Hans creek begins from the junction with the main Hans creek at the head of the Ireland swamp, and, after running easterly, ends in Little Hans lake, whose drainage area is about half a square mile, and elevation, 1,700 feet above tide In 1900 when surveys were being made for the Glenwild reservoir, there was an existing sawmill dam and pond, the former being so built (hat, while it could he drawn down, it left about forty acres flooded to a depth of over six feet. It was determined to build the new reservoir on the twenty-five-foot natural elevation above the dam. where the banks were steep all round it, and averaged a 3 to ( slope, while at ten, fifteen, or twenty-five feel quite large areas of shoal water would exist with full reservoir. The old dam, with its surroundings, was removed, and now admits of a depth of forty-one feet which may be drawn upon. The capacity of the reservoir is (,200,000,000 gallons, all of which may he drawn out. and the location of the dant insures its being filled every year. The average daily yield of Steele creek, one of its feeders, in 1900—a dry year—was 179.288 gallons a day, or 23.904 the square mile. Hans creek, at Ireland swamp, in the same dry year, a weir covering a watershed of 15.5 square miles, gave during August 24 to October 13 a dailydischarge of 223.089 gallons, or 14,392 gallons the square mile. The 4 54 square drainage area of Steele creek above Glenwild reservoir, will thus be sufficient every winter to fill it, and allow a surplus of from 200,000,000 to 250,000,000 gallons for evaporation and water to run to waste in ordinary years; thus it is not at all likely that the reservoir will be drawn dry in any year. The site of the new reservoir is an old natural lake, whose outlet was through another channel about 2,500 feet above the dam and above which ran the level of the twenty-five-foot flow-line. To prevent the impounded water from passing over the dam down to Hans creek at the Cook reservoir or some other point immediately below a dyke 460 feet has been built. A new masonry and earth dam to be built on the site of the old sawmill dam already referred to was begun in 1901. It was furnished with suitable pipes and other devices for managing and controling the discharge of water; a masonry spillway was constructed, with a paved channel leading from it. O11 excavating some tefi feet for the masonry heart wall the bottom was found to be quicksand, and the excavation had to be continued down some twenty-two feet deeper. A stratum impervious to water was then found. This caused delay, and the work was abandoned till the spring of 1902. The dam is curved; the length of its chord is 408 feet; versed sine of curve thirty feet being the distance from the chord line to the centre of the curved dam. Including tangents, the dam is 450 feet long over all, and is thirteen feet wide on top, with rear slope 2½ to 1 and front slope 2 to 1. The water face of the dam is riprapped with stone pavement, hand laid, stone running front ten inches to twenty-four inches deep, and averaging eighteen inches thick. Ample allowance is made for wave action, owing to the fact that the top of the dam is seven feet above flow line. The rear slope is seeded. The width of the spillway is thirty feet; its length, forty feet; its bottom is paved with thin quarry stone set on edge and grouted. The abutments of the spillway are of firstclass rubble, and the copings of the wings are of Canajoharie limestone. Its bottom and sides, up four feet, are dry paved with large stone, averaging about two feet square on the top face. These cannot move, because a row of sheet piles sunk four feet lower than the channel has been placed crowning that channel, and up the sides at every twenty-five feet length of it. A rubble wall, in cement, four feet wide and extending eight feet down below the pavement secures the lower end of the spillway, while the pavement butts up and terminates at the rubble wall. The masonry heart wall, laid in cement, starts four feet above the flow-line, and batters three inches to the foot to a bottom width of fourteen feet six inches. Below that point it is hauled in to a width of six feet, and carried down this full width to the bottom. This wall, which is composed of broken boulders, no stone being of a greater area than half a cubic foot, each being hand laid in place, is 63.5 feet in depth, and is grouted with Glens Falls Portland cement and sand, manipulated in small boxes, holding only a wheelbarrow of mortar and water enough to make a proper thickness of grout, which, by being dumped over the wall, allowed all its contents to enter at once, so that cement and sand had no time to separate, but were placed in the wall in sixteen-inch courses, all thoroughly and properly mixed, the wall being absolutely filled in solid with Portland cement 3 to i. Through the centre of the dam at the level of the creek bed are carried three lines of cast iron pipe two-eighteenth and one-twelfth of an inch, laid side by side, at a distance of about twelve feet six inches for caulking room and to allow of masonry being built within. Rubble masonry completely surrounding the pipes and extending above and below them about eighteen inches and the same distance beyond them on each side, forms the bed of these three pipesBrick arches were sprung over each pipe, where it passed through the heart wall. In this way the difference in settlement between the solid high heart wall and the masonry surrounding the pipes is provided for In the centre of the heart wall three eighteen-inch pipes of wrought iron were carried up to the too, and on the completion cf the heart wall and embankment, and when these had got their final bearings, liquid grout was poured into the eighteen-inch pipes,and the arches below filled up with solid grout. At the base of the front em. bankment and rip rap wal1, to which the pipes are continued, a bulkhead and sidewalls are built. The twelveinch (the lower) pipe is carried and terminated at the elevation of forty-one feet below flowline,and by means of this pipe the elevation may be drawn so dry as to leave only a very thin strea running through the reservoir and insuring its thorough cleansing, when necessary. Thirty-six feet back from the front end of the twelve-inch pipe the two eighteen-inch pipes start, rising on so much sharper a grade that at their end their bottoms are about two feet above the level of the top of the termination of the twelve-inch pipe. The termination of these two eighteen-inch pipes is two right angles facing each other, and just there begins a twenty-five-inch riveted steel pipe, with a tee on its end entering both the eighteen-inch pipes and making a ball-bearing swivel joint (with fifty-six brass balls in each bearing end of the eighteen-inch bends). The twenty-five-inch steel pipe is extended out into the reservoir thirty-nine feet. It has a large ball screen at its end, and a chain is fixed to the outer end of the twentv-five-inch pipe and toggled in at the centre of a large float thirteen by thirteen feet by four feet, deep. The toggling of the chain in the centre is such as to leave the outer end of the pipe hanging eight feet below the surface of the water in the reservoir. The outer end of the pipe rises and falls with the rise and fall of the water, always falling to the depth at which it is toggled and swinging in the ball-bearings at its outer end. Five wire cables are securely anchored to boulders about too feet from the float. Of these guys four lead angling from each corner, the fifth leading directly ahead and at right angles with the dam. The intention of this swing pipe and float, by which the end of the pipe is held at just this elevation, so as to draw water out at a depth of about eight feet is to have it always free from impurities due to the action of the sun’s rays.
(To be continued.)
Springfield, Ohio, issues f!6o,ooo waterworks bonds-