ARTESIAN WELLS.

ARTESIAN WELLS.

Many cities are so situated that the only or the most logical and best supply is obtained through the medium of artesian wells. This is often the case where a city is placed in flat or level country where there is no watershed of any extent, and where, if there be a stream or river to draw upon, its waters are in such a condition, through the deposit of sewage and waste from towns, farther up toward its source that they are practically useless for domestic purposes. In cases of this kind the deep-driven artesian well, with its almost invariably pure water, forms an admirable supply, and by the multiplication of the wells, an almost unlimited amount can be secured. One of the cities that has adopted artesian water as its form of supply is Savannah, Ga., and the system is described by E. R. Conant in a paper published in another column. One very interesting phase of this method of obtaining water is the fact that under certain conditions wells bored to the same depth* will interfere with each other. It was found that wells bored promiscuously, without reference to each other’s positions, interfered much more than those sunk in an axis perpendicular to the line of flow, which in this case is in a southeasterly direction, from the catchment area to the aquifer, or rocky bed of the supply. The Atlantic coastal plane reaches from New York to the Florida Straits, and the catchment area of this immense territory pours its waters into these aquifers through superficial deposits of gravel, sand, clay and loam, which act as natural filters for the water thus deposited. According to Mr. Conant’s figures, there are at least one thousand artesian wells drawing their supply from this aquifer in Georgia alone.

ARTESIAN WELLS.

ARTESIAN WELLS.

When artesian wells first tap into a stratum, for a time—perhaps several months—their output is much greater than it will eventually be, for the reason that what might be termed a “surcharge” must escape before the real “steady gait ot flow is readied. After this regular, steady flow has been reached, its only ariations will be caused by variations ot rainfall at the source, interference of other wells, or some clogging of the well itself which can generally be remedied. “Nearly everywhere, by properly damming streams, or even dry runs, water may be impounded during times of heavy rain in sufficient volume to furnish public water supplies during the most protracted dry seasons; and, where it is impossible to develop artesian water or sheet water, a surface supply can generally be had at reasonable cost. The fact is, that dams have occasionally failed; but failures have been due either to improper design or construction or iailure of owners to take proper care of the structure during its life.