Babcock Patent Ground Water Conduit.
FIGS. 5, 6 AND 7.
The object of this invention is to provide a cheap, positive device, by which the sub-soil or ground water may be drained away in connection with an ordinary sewer, either pipe or brick or a system of sub drains separate from main sewer, and of either the separate domestic or combined surface and domestic systems. The ordinary plan or device is or has been, either, in case of a brick sewer, to lay the bottom invert open, i. e., without mortar, or in case of pipe sewer, leave joints open, or to lay one or two lines of drain tile, separate and along side or under main sewer, or to pack around the sewer, day or impervious material, and then on top of the same provide a porous layer of gravel or other pervious material, through which the ground water may drain away along sewer trench. The influence of geological strata upon health is now generally conceded, and either a high or a very low stage of the ground water is always coincident with epidemics ; f zoomatic diseases, and any plan or device by which the ground water is held at or below a positive level, at about the depth of the top of an ordinary pipe sewer, is conceded to be the best sanitary condition, and it follows that any device that allows the sewage water to escape is defective and a menace to the public health. All the above named devices, plans or expedients are really only make-shifts, and may in time be detrimental to health. Where the bo tom invert in brick sewers is left with open joints in the brick work, the sub-soil becomes impregnated with sewage matter, as also the open joints in pipe sewers. Lines of tile drain depend upon the joints between the consecutive pipe being laid open so that the ground water may enter between the tiles at the joints, and on being kept open and not allowing any earth to get in, accumulate and form dams in the tile ; in practice three or four years is the lifetime of effective working of this device under the most painstaking care in laying this style of drain ; again, the other device, a bed of gravel in about the same time becomes filled up in the interstices between the gravel with earthy matter and this plan fails. My plan consists in wrapping around, in case of a pipe sewer, of a smaller size of pipes of the same or other material, joining one end to the pipe sewer, with an opening leading into the sewer at the lower part of the pipe sewer below the surface of How of sewage water, being just above the inside bottom. Tho water passing through the sewer raising above the top of this hole, forms a water seal or sewer gas trap. The wrapped pipe, after passing over the top of the sewer pipe terminates within open end at about half way of the vertical height of the sewer on the side opposite to the inlet hole. It is a free end for the ground water to enter and pass up over and thence into the sewerat the other end of the wrapped pipe. The ground water here forms another water seal and is provided with shoulder and a hinged or loose lid inside the wrapped pipe and near the open end. to prevent the sewage passing over and into the surrounding ground or sub soil, thus making provision for any possible overflow due to a sudden increase in volume or temjwirary stoppage in the flow through the main sewer pipe. The plan is to insert a length of pipe with this device attached at intervals of ten, twenty or twenty-five feet, or thereabouts, placing them rights and lefts alternately so as to drain both sides in the line of an ordinary sewer pji>e or trench ; the spacing apart depending upon the probable amount of ground water ex|>ected to be present.
The device, in case of a brick or stone sewer is to bed the small pipe in the side of the sewer, alternate rights and lefts, running one end down to or near the bottom of the invert and opening into the bottom at this point. The opening into the sewer forming with the sewage water, a water seal or sewer gas trap. The small pi|»e is carried up to past the top flow line of the sewer or at any point it may be desired. The upper end of this small pipe turns out witli a sharp bend at this point and is carried down a sufficient length to look down vertically, leaving an open end for groundwater to enter and pass up through the small pipe into the brick or stone sewer, forming another water seal ; it is also provided with a shoulder and stop gate, or loose lid to shut hack an overflow of sewage, if by an accident it should raise to this height. This device’ is intended to be built into the side of a brick or stone sewer rights and lefts, at intervals of ten, twenty or twenty-five feet or thereabouts, as volume of ground water may require.
The merit of the invention or device consists in the fact that it can never be clogged up or cease to he operative ; it is of necessity, by its form of construction, provided with two water ’-cals or «ewer gas taps, one inside of sewer, sealed with the sewage water, the other at end of inlet, the seal being the ground water ; also an automatic overflow or check valve to prevent any surplus or surcharge of sewage passing over and pi rmeating the surrounding land. It is simple and easily applied anil fills all the requirements of a perfect device, carrying off all the sub-surface or ground water, yet not allowing any contamination of the sub-soil by sewage water, and always operative.