BROOKLYN AND ITS WATER NEEDS.
The water shortage in Brooklyn, New York, during the past few months has hardly been sur passed in the history of any large American city. The consumption so outran the supply that there were hours in the day—even days at a time— when houses on upper levels were deprived of a public water supply. In the course of this shortage resorts was of necessity had to the throttling of gate-valves in street distributing pipes to lessen the pressure and choke the draft, so that in many parts of the city water could not he drawn in the upper stories of dwellings during the working hours of the day. This throttling of water-gates, of course, invited a conflagration hazard. From the investigations and report of the Burr-HcringFreeman commission, it appears plain that, if the present rate of increase in consumption continues. Brooklyn cannot properly he asked to wait for the new supply from the north. From the studies of the ground-water supply presented in the report of John R. Freeman, C. E., to Bird S. Color, comptroler, of the City of New York, in the year 1900, and particularly from the more elaborate investigation of the Long Island underground sources made by the Burr-Hering-Freeman commission, “it is plain (says Chief Engineer J. Waldo Smith, in his last report to the board of water supply) that the additional sources most quickly available for relieving the great need of Brooklyn for more water, are to be found on Long Island, and no effort should be spared to make all those sources available. Nevertheless, Brooklyn must also be in part supplied from the Catskill sources.” The engineering department has already begun studies directed towards the further exploration of the deep underground sources of Long Island, regardless of present legislative limitations, and the department feels it incumbent as a matter of engineering to record the fact that while Brooklyn should be given connections to the new supply from the north with all possible promptness, this relief is probably eight years off. and that its quickest and cheapest source of relief is in the ground waters of Long Island— particularly those of the region farther to the east than yet drawn upon for the city supply. From these more easterly sources a large stirnlus that now runs to waste into the sea could he taken for the use of the boroughs of Brooklyn, Otieens and Richmond, without real injury to the local communities, and it would for a long future remain one of the cheapest and purest sources, too valuable to be disregarded, even after water from the Catskill sources is delivered to Brooklyn and Queens. Fortunately the structures required for securing this ground water and delivering it into Brooklyn are of a simple character. permitting very rapid construction and, therefore, early relief.
Bonesteel. S. Dak., has organised a volunteer fire department