CALIFORNIAN WATER POWERS.

CALIFORNIAN WATER POWERS.

In California is accomplished the transmission of electrical power to greater distances than anywhere else in the world. This is owing to its peculiar type of waterpower possibilities, and the secret of the efficiency of Californian water powers lies in the excessive grades of the mountain streams rather than in an unusual volume of flow, the near proximity of the high Sierras to the populated valleys and their quick descent, giving the streams unusual advantage in this regard. The chief controling factor in planning for power plants is the question of minimum water supply. The United States Geological Survey, therefore, through its Hydrographic bureau, is making a system of low-water measurements of all the principal streams in the State from Mount Shasta south to San Bernardino valley, on many of which continuous records have been kept on the trunk system at points where they issue from the mountains. Few accurate data, however, have been available as to the flow on the higher portions of the stream and its tributaries where the grades are particularly steep. The method pursued during the present season is to place one gauging narty on the trunk stream at the regular gauging station where records have been kept, and by means of an automatic register obtain a record hourly flow at this point for a period of about a week. The lower hydrographer also travels up and down the trunk stream for distances of ten to fifteen miles, making measurements at numerous important points. At the same time a second gauging party is making a circuit of the upper portion of the basin at elevations of approximately 3.000 feet, gauging all the tributaries as well as the trunk streams at these upoer stations. As a result of these observations, comparative volumes on each of the streams observed will be made available. Another feature of interest in the work which is being carried on in southern California during the present summer consists of making determinations of the underflow through the gravel beds which frequently occur in this locality. This is done by the electric method which has been invented bv Professor Charles S. Slichter, of Wisconsin university. Observations have been made at the Victor Narrows, the San Gabriel Narrows, and the Narrows of the Los Angeles river, for the purpose of determining the underflow.

At a regular meeting of the board of trustees of the Volunteer Firemen’s home held at Hudson. N. Y., a resolution was passed that the thanks of the association be tendered to the publishers of FTRE AND WATER for th ir kindness in sending a complimentary conv of their oaner to the Firemen’s home at Hudson, N. Y., for 1902,

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