CENTRAL STATES WATERWORKS ASSOCIATION CONVENTION
Special Stenographic Report of Fire and Water Engineering.
The thirteenth annual convention of the Central States Waterworks Association, was held at Columbus, Ohio, on September 28, 29 and 30, 1909, at the Southern Hotel.
There was a little more than average attendance of active members, and only a meagre number of associates present. The election of Mr. T. H. Verner, of McKeesport, Pa., as president, was considered satisfactory, as under his capable management it is confidently predicted that the association will take on a new lease of life and usefulness. Mr. Verner is a man of pleasing and magnetic address and full of vigor.
The first session of the convention was held on Tuesday afternoon, September 28. and was called to order by President William Schwertfeger, of Wheeling, W. Va.
Mr. Jerry O’Shaughnessy, of Columbus, O., made a few opening remarks, apologizing for the absence of Mayor Bond, who was to have delivered an address of welcome.
The following new members were then declared elected:
R. P. Bricker, superintendent waterworks, Shelby, O.; A. G. Sandblad, M. D., bacteriologist and chemist, water department, McKeesport, Pa.; Samuel j. Black, superintendent waterworks, Upper Sandusky, ().; S. Bent Russell, consulting civil engineer, St. Louis, Mo.; J. C. Schade, superintendent The Warren Electric Light and Water Company. Warsaw. Ind; Thomas Weston, East McKeesport, Pa.
The president then read the following address:
“For the past six years 1 have been a member of this association, and during that period have met a large number of cultured men from whom I have learned much in connection with the objects of the association. Many problems have been discussed and advancements created thereby, which have been to the betterment of many cities. Every meeting brings forth some good, and. no doubt, this present meeting will be very profitable to you all. I hope those who are in attendance here will add their continued presence at all the sessions of the convention and enter into the discussions in earnest. I am more than pleased to learn of the action taken by your committee to cut out all expensive entertainments that we may devote all our energies along interesting educational lines, and that some plan may be adopted to forward the purposes and objects of this institution along strictly scientific and progressive lines. In the early and formative period of many organizations the social element so far predominates that conventions are looked on as annual sprees, etc., but we have gotten beyond that, if we ever were in that condition. Let us go ahead firm in the belief that outassociation has a legitimate sphere of activity that cannot be elsewhere supplied in just the same way. A first necessity is that we attend all sessions promptly, get on the floor and contribute our experiences freely to our brothers, and help others as well as ourselves, for it is a law of mental growth that when we give forth effort we are strengthened, and that oftentimes the mere statement of a difficulty to other appreciative minds sheds instant light upon it to our own consciousness. One of the expressed objects of this association is to improve the conditions of our water supplies, not only commercially, but in a sanitary way, so as to benefit our respective communities; also incidentally to educate oitr selves in the calling we have chosen in life; and, undoubtedly, much of this is accomplished by attending the various sessions regularly and being able to compare notes, meet our colleagues and the supply men. and examine their wares which are constantly being improved upon and made more effective. The supply men do much to make these annual gatherings a success, and they are constantly displaying improved appliances and processes that are of great benefit to you all. Examine their displays carefully, consider them as you wish to be considered. You know we are all human. Much attention should be given to the meter question. consider this a very important matter, and am convinced that in time all water connections will be metered and the consumption measured instead of being paid for by fixture rate, which is only guesswork, and not as you buy other commodities. It costs^ money to pump and distribute water. Why not, then, sell it bv measurement through meters, say at minimum and sliding rates? The meter is intended as a means of checking waste as well as treating all consumers alike, for if each one pays his fair share of the water used the cost then will fall most lightly on all. I hope that pure water will be adopted as a slogan by this associa tion, and that the subject of the purity of water will be presented intelligently and thoroughly discussed.
“Pure water is the most important of all the necessities of life next to pure air, and more directly affects the health and even the lives of all communities; so that in my opinion any water department that is negligent in furnishing same to its consumers should be held criminally liable.
“In conclusion, I wish to extend my hearty thanks for the honor conferred on me at the annual convention held at the city of Pittsburg, Pa., last year in electing me to the office of president of this body, and I ask that the same cordial support that has been given me during my term of office be extended to my successor, as well as all others who follow.”
Report of Secretary.
The convention now adjourned until Wediies day morning. Upon reassembling the report of Secretary William Allen Veach, of Newark, Ohio, was read, which showed a balance on the right side of the ledger. Mr. Veach complimented Vice-President Verner on his work in securing new members, and urged others to do likewise, lie stated that the field of the asso eiation is more especially with the smaller plants throughout the populous States embracing its territory, whose owners and operators can at tend the conventions with less expense than they can the conventions of a purely national body, while the fact that exhibitors at these conventions may be sure of coming in contact with the actual purchasers and users of their supplies makes the conventions of the association worthy the attendance of supply men.
Mr. Alba L. Holmes, M.E., Grand Rapids, Mich., who was later at this meeting elected vicepresident of the association, read a paper entitled, “Some Random Suggestions from a Waterworks Engineer,” which will be printed in a subsequent issue of this journal.
Discussion on Rates and Meters.
in the discussion that followed Mr. John Langan, of Tipton, Ind., related some interesting experiences in connection with his endeavors to establish a water rate on a paying basis at bis city. ITe had succeeded in bringing this about after considerable effort, and had obtained rates from fifty-two cities in Indiana, and he had found that in none of them were they getting more than cost for the water supplied. In Tipton the rates had been advanced 50 per cent with very flattering results, greater success in making prompt collections, better satisfaction to consumers and less complaints than had been the case previous to advancing the rates. He con tended that water departments should receive a fair return for service rendered.
Mr. C. W. Wiles, Delaware, Ohio, thought that all were now willing to admit that water should be metered. As to rates he heartily agreed with the writer of the paper that they should be adapted to local conditions; for instance, a plant that pumps water twice must necesarily charge consumers more than where they pump direct. He took, for example, the city of Columbus, where the addition of a purification plant would necessarily add to the cost of the water supply, and where he understood they lately advanced the meter rates from eight to sixteen cents, and he doubted whether even under this advance the city would receive as near the cost of the supply as it formerly did, because the additional cost of purification and double pumping would more than equal the increase in rate. Every consumer should pay for what they use by meter, a method which has been generally adopted by electric light and gas companies, and there is no reason why water companies should not follow the same line.
Mr. W. A. Clark, Wyoming, Ohio, after thanking Mr. Holmes for his interesting paper, expressed his agreement with Mr. Langan and Mr. Wiles that water should be furnished by meter. His city had changed a flat rate to a strictly meter rate some years ago. He believed that the waterworks should own the meters. The rates charged at his place are 25 cents per 100 cubic feet up to 1,500 cubic feet per quarter; for the next 1,000 cubic feet, 20 cents; the next 1.000 cubic feet, 15 cents: all above 3,500 cubic feet per quarter, 8 cents. At first they had made a rate on *hc basis of a maximum use of a specified number of gallons per day. but in order to reach the maximum and obtain the rate consumers would let their hydrants flow unnecessarily, and that plan had to be abandoned.
Mr. S. Bent Russell, C. E., St. Louis, inquired what was the ratio of aggregate cost of meters installed to the cost of the whole waterworks?
Mr. Clark replied that that would depend on the number of consumers. The standard meter in use at Wyoming was the National Empire, which was furnished at a charge to consumers of $14 for a ⅝ inch meter to private consumers, which includes the installing of the meter.
Mr. C. W. Wiles, Delaware, Ohio, understood that in Cleveland they use a disc meter, and that their charge for the meter and installing same was about $12.50. Personally he was in favor of a water department or a water company owning the meters and having the sole control of them, and charging a reasonable and proper rental. I his had been his practice which he had found successful. When a meter was reported out of order he caused the same to he immediately re moved and another taken from stock and put in its place while the first meter was being repaired. lie1 was able to repair something like 10 per cent of the meters that required repairs and the hal ance were sent off in installments to the maim facturers for repair, thus saving cost in traits portation which the consumer would pay if he shipped his meter away separately. Referring to the question of rates he staled that after some study and experiment he had established a satisfactory discount system under a rate of 20 cents per 100 cubic feet, with 10 per cent discount if paid in ten days. This has worked like a charm
Mr. T. W. McNamec, Wabash, Ind., referred to the fact that those who are obtaining water from well supplies are finding it more difficult every year to get the necesary supply. In his case ground water which stood at a level of about 12 feet above the surface five years ago is to-day standing about 28 feet below the surface. Referring to repairs to meters, Mr. W. A. Clark stated that although his consumers paid for their own meters, the company saw that they were properly repaired when needed. As to rates, he hardly thought their rates were adequate, and believed they would show a balance on the wrong side of tile ledger, because they were distributing over a large territory. The only way that they kept even was because of the fact that they were supplying three other villages. If they had been supplying only their own village their loss last year would have been over $200, whereas in fact they were able to show a profit of $2,570.
Mr. Langan stated that while they formerly had had trouble with collections, they were now very succesMtil in having water rents paid promptly by offering the following discount: A discount of 5 per cent on all flat rates, except for building purposes or sprinkling, if paid on or before the 10th of the first month of each quarter; a discount of 5 per cent on all water rents by meter service if paid on or before the loth of the month following the close of the quarter. Their meter rates at Tipton are as follows: For the first 25,000 gallons or any part thereof used in any quarter, 15 cents per 1,000 gallons. For the second 25,000 gallons, or any part thereof, used in any one quarter, 12 cents per 1.000 gallons. For the third 25,000 gallons, or any part thereof used in any one quarter, 9 cents per 1,000 gallons. For all over 75,000 gallons used in any one quarter, 7 cents per 1.000 gallons. Provided. that the annual rental by meter rate shall in no case be less than $0,00 per annum, or $1.50 per quarter for a ⅝-inch meter; or $2 per quarter for a ¾-inch meter; or $4 per quarter for a 1-inch nicter; or $6 per quarter for IJ^-inch meter; or $8 per quarter for a 2-inch meter; or $10 per quarter for a 3-inch meter, and $15 per quarter for a 4-inch meter. Water for any and all purposes not listed to be assessed. Under these rates the revenue has been practically doubled.
Mr. C. F. Inman said that privately operated plants have been subjected to unfair comparisons oftentimes on account of some municipal plants covering up some of their operating expenses under another head, which was not possible in a privately owned plant where there is no other fund to draw from except the gross receipts. He hoped to see the day when municipal plants, would put each tub on its own hot ton, and then knock the hoops off if they have to.
Mr. Langan stated that last January there were installed in his city 200 meters which were bought and paid for by the city. Practically all of these are outside setting which are more expensive than when installed in basements. Consumers were required to put up a deposit covering actual cost of the meter, $8, but the city buys the meter boxes and installs the meters. This deposit is afterwards rebated by deducting from water rent each quarter .’>0 cents until such time as the amount of the deposit has been paid back to the consumer. It is understood, however, that the consumer has no ownership in or control of the meter, but this remains in the ownership and control of the city. The city also owns the electric plant, and in that case sells the electric light meter to the consumer direct at actual cost of about $11.50. If the consumer does not wish to buy the meter it is installed anyhow and a charge of 25 cents a month rent made. It was proposed to establish the meter rent system in the water department, but the speaker opposed it, believing that the man who furnishes the gas ought to furnish the yard stick.
Mr. C. YV. Wiles said that in a similar discussion before another association he had taken the grout’d that it did not make so much difference. because even if the grocer did furnish the scales the customer had to pay for them in the end. Mr. W iles added that he had been requested by Mr. Holmes to bring to the attention of the convention the subject of public utility commissions, such as have been established iti New York and VY isconsin. which have direct control and charge of all public abilities. He suggested that those who had not seen it look up an article appearing in the Saturday Evening Post, September 25 issue, entitled, “Safeguarding the Public Services: How the New’ York Commission is Working Out its Task.” in which is found a very clear and definite description of the New York Utility Commission. Mr. Wiles described the salient features of the powers and work of the Commission and referred to the able paper read on this subject at the last meeting of the American Water Works Association, which was held at Milwaukee. W is., last June. Mr. Wiles later on in the convention introduced a resolution upon the subject.
Mr. W. y Scroggins, in answer to the remarks of a previous speaker, stated that in Wheeling the municipal plant keeps a strict account of every item of expense, each of which is properly charged up. He believed that a municipal plant ought to be able to show its exact condition financially just the same as a private plant ; it ought to be run on a strictly business basis so that the taxpayers will know where the money is going to.
Mr. T. YY. McNamee stated that in a certain city in his State he asked the superintendent of the waterworks, a municipal plant, how much coal he was burning, and the reply was, “What is the difference? If we come out short we draw on the treasury.”
Mr. C. W. Wiles mentioned an instance where he had made similar inquiries of a city engineer. He asked. “How much coal arc you burning?” “Oh, well, 1 don’t know, we shovel it in by the carload, and when it is gone we get another carload.” “How much water do you pump?” “Oh. we never keep any track of that; we give them all they want, keep her pumping and shove it up to them.” Mr. Wiles commented that in the last five years the people in that community had been up against no water. Another case where he had made similar inquiries he was told that it did not make any difference because at the end of the year they always put in a deficiency bill of $5.ooo or $10,000. and that took care of it.
Mr. Crall, cashier of the Columbus City YY’aterworks. asked what the memberwould do in a ease where a service pipe bad burst and the water ran into the sewer after it was registered up on the meter While the water was running away in this fashion the house was closed and locked, and the owner absent from the city. The leak was not discovered until his return, by which time a bill of $44 had been run up. the payment of which he sought to avoid. The leak was not the fault of the consumer, although if he had been at home he could have discovered it, as he had a meter. >
Mr. Scroggins thought the bill should have been adjusted on the basis of the consumption for the previous period, providing the loss bad occurred before the owner was aware of it and providing that when notified he made prompt repairs to avoid a recurrence of the loss.
Mr. Crall stated that the meter was in the cellar and the leak occurred in a pipe between the meter and the hydrant. The meters are read every other month.
Mr. Scroggins thought they should be read every week.
Mr. T. 11. Verner, McKeesport, thought the consumer ought to look after the leaks and be responsible for tlnm. If tlie man was away be should have left some one in charge of bis premises. Everything passing through the meter should be paid for unless it was shown that the meter had over-registered.
Mr. Schofield contended that consumers should keep their fixtures in repair, and if a rebate is made on account of leaks it will encourage them to allow their fixtures to go without attention.
Mr. A. B. Young believed the consumer ought to pay for all water passing through the meter. YVhen installing a meter it was bis custom to have some member of the family present, who is instructed bow to read the meter and told that everything passing through it will have to be paid for. He thought that a leak could easily be discovered, as it could be heard anywhere in the pipe on the premises.
Mr. Veach stated that it was the general experience of waterworks men that a water line acts as a telephone, carrying the sound of a leak anywhere in the building.
Mr. Young corroborated this statement, and told bow he had discovered a leak by this means of 1 -1of an inch in diameter.
Mr. C. E. Inman counseled conservative action, and thought that inasmuch as if a meter were to under-register the water company would want some redress, they would find it equally good policy to make some kind of a compromise in cases 1 ik the one related, as extreme cases of 111is sort were not likely to happen often.
Mr. Scroggins asked how many men were in the habit of reading their meters in order to find out whether there was any leakage? He thought that not half a dozen did.
Mr. James YYilkerson stated they had 22 large meters iti position, and they do not allow any consumer or manufacturer to look at them, but the city reads and inspects and takes care of them. In a case similar to that mentioned by Mr. Crall they had made a settlement on the basis of the previous month’s use. Mr. T. YY. McNamee stated that they read their meters and made bills quarterly, but they found it good policy in the case of the larger consumer to have their meters read monthly just in order to furnish a memorandum of the consumption, but make no entryon the books until the end of the quarter.
Mr. Y A. Clark stated that they made bills quarterly, but read their meters monthly, for two reasons, first, to detect leaks: second, to detect whether the meter is runnig slow or fast. There is not a month but something of that kind is discovered that needs rectifying. All water passing through meters must be paid for, and the water company is not responsible for leaks in the consumer’s own pipe.
Mr. Young renders bills the first of every month. The meterman takes readings of the large meters on the 15th. which be leaves as a memorandum with the consumers, not taking any account of it. This is not done with the smaller consumers.
Mr. C*. Y Wiles referred to the equity of the matter, and took the ground that a compromise should be effected where possible in cases like that mentioned by Mr. Crall. unless the consumer bad failed to make repairs after being notified. Mr. M. Hetzler, Moundsville, YY. Va.. thought the water company ought not to stand all the losses and should n«»t be held responsible for the carelessness of the owner or tenant. In regard to empty houses he positively refuses to make any rebate whatever. If a house is about to become vacant he requires that the water company be notified of it. the water is then shut off and the meter taken out. When the house ito be occupied the meter is again placed in position. He had found when reading meters that lie could walk up to a spigot, put his car to it and detect even a *maU leak. If leaks occur and repairs are not made promptly he directs tlie water to be shut off until the pipe is repaired.
Mr. Veach asked what justice there is in lis counting a bill when there had been an execs sive amount of water used or leaked away without fault on the part of the water ct mpany? Would not such a practice be offering a reward for carelessness, and is it not an injustice to 00 per cent of the consumers who properly care for their fixtures? Ele had made inquiry regarding this subject from a number of waterworks managers, and found that the general practice was to require the payment of such bills, and he believed that any different policy would be offering a premium on wastage of water.
Mr. J. Langan stated that it was their custom where there was a leak in the fixtures unknown to the water department and unknown to the occupant or landlord, they split the difference and adjusted the claim in that way: taking the reading of the meter as soon as the discovery is made, notifying the owner, tenant or agent, whoever has charge of the property that if they do not take steps to make immediate repairs they will be charged for all that goes through after such notice. They’ found it difficult to detect leaks on the mains because in some cases they were laid in the same ditch with the sewer pipe, and a seepage of water to the surface would not necessarily mean a leak in the water pipe. In setting meters outside he makes it a point to set every meter as close to the service box as he can get it so as to have all the water pass through the consumer’s service line.
Mr. J. D. Berg, M E., contributed a paper on “The Development and Use of Centrifugal Pumps.” among the advantages of which he enumerated are smaller initial cost of installation than in other pumping machinery which is capable of the same economy: absence of large-size packing: less frequent packing necessary: small cost of lubrication: small cost of repair parts: minimum cost for attendance and repairs. Compound pumps have made it possible to obtain any pressure with a centrifugal pump that can he obtained with other types, and doing it efficiently. It is possible to get any characteristic which is desired, and the centrifugal pump has been so developed that it can he determined with exactness what capacity will he discharged at varying heads, and it can he definitely guaranteed that the driving apparatus will not he overloaded, regardless whether the discharge head is increased or decreased. Bronze instead of cast iron impellers are now used (and all points at which there is a possibility of wearing are protected by small removable parts, which make the up-keep small. The writer referred to various installations where centrifugal puinos are giving excellent service, economic and industrial plants. One field where motor-driven centrifugal pumps have been used to good advantage in waterworks for towns is that of Booster service for outlying districts. The writer concludes by stating that, along with other types of machinery. a marked development lias been made in centrifugal pumps, the best proof of which is the fact that they have been adopted almost ex clusivcly for a variety of conditions for mill ser vice, and their use by city waterworks is becoming more general every day.
Cost of Clearing Water in Settling Basins.
Mr. S. Bent Russell, St. Louis. Mo., consulting engineer, member American Society Civil Engineers, read a paper on the cost of clearing water in settling basins. This was accompanied by tables, and should prove a valuable contribution to the literature of the subject. The paper will be printed in a later issue of this journal.
Columbus Sewage Plant.
During the afternoon the members, in charge of Mr. Jerry O’Shaughnessy. visited the Colum bus sewage plant, and were taken over the grounds and given an explanation of the various interesting features of the plant. The sewage disposal plant was designed by John H. Gregory, of Columbus, with Messrs. Fuller and Hering, of New York City, consulting engineers. The contractors were Sullivan. Miles & Murphy, Colum hits. Ohio. A full description of the plant as to its features of construction and equipment vvapublished in the souvenir edition of FIRE* A NO WATER EXGIXEEKIXI;. Some reference, however, as to resultof present operation will he interesting at this time, having been obtained from an authoritative source.
The total bond issue authorized for the sewage pumping station, sewage force mains and sewage purification works, with the protective levies, railroad spur and bridge, and the extensions to the trunk sewers was $1,275,000. These are all practically completed and in full opera tion. An additional bond issue was authorized for the garbage disposal plant of $290,000, which is not completed. Before designs were started a testing station was operated under Mr. George A. Johnson, of the firm of Fuller & Bering, for nearly a year, and some $45,000 was spent in investigations preliminary to starting the design of the plant. The matter of sewage disposal had been considered at Columbus for several years. One of the first reports was made by Mr. Julian Griggs, former city engineer, with Mr. John \ . Alvord, consulting engineer, of Chicago. Another study and report was made by Mr. Rudolf Bering. A testing station was operated for a considerable jeriod of time in order to determine the exact conditions locally. A similar plan has been followed in a number of cities elsewhere, with good results. The same thing was done at Baltimore. and is being done at Philadelphia now. A former Columbus waterworks department man is now in charge of the investigations in the Chicago Sanitary district, where they are following the same plan. A great deal of money is thereby saved, and in the case of Columbus if such a testing station had not been operated they would have been forced to put in very expensive sand filters. A special feature in connection with the operation of the sewage plant is the chemical and bacteriological laboratory in charge of Mr. Clarence Boover, who is an expert chemst and bacteriologist. Together with his assistants in the laboratory they have carried out a very comprehensive sampling schedule. Mr. Boover made a very extensive trip recently through the eastern part of the United States, and upon his return reported that he did not find any place where they were nearly as severe in their examinations of the sewage as they are at Columbus. In giving the reporter the above details the informant stated that they did not gloss over any of their reports on such matters, but were as critical with themselves as if they were examining some other station. Unquestionably the work being done at Columbus will prove of an interesting character to other communities, who will have to solve similar problems. It is. besides, performing a sanitary benefit for the towns situated on the Scioto river below Columbus. If the Scioto river at Columbus was always at normal stage it would hardly be necessary to give the sewage any treat nient, but treatment is necessary because the quantity of water in the river falls low at certain seasons. During the spring the discharge of the river runs up to about 30,000 cubic feet per second, while during the dry spells it falls as low as 50 cubic feet per second. Sopie little of the solid matter is taken out through screens at the sewage pumping plant, but at the purification works proper there is at times as much as ten tons removed a day from the sewerage.
The sewage pumpage has averaged only 9,800,000 gallons daily for the month of August, a considerable amount below normal, because of the fact that the intercepting sewer having been choked with sand, it is now being cleaned and in the meantime ihe outflow from a number of cross sewers which drain into this intercepting sewer has been diverted into the river. Previous to the shutting off of this intercepting sewer the filtering of sewage was being done at the rate of 4,500,000 gallons per acre of filters per day. The stone filters in use have much greater capacity than sand filters, while they do not produce as clear an effluent. The sand filters would not run more than one-tenth of that rate, and instead of ten acres of stone filters and filters to take care of the same volume of sawage would occupy at least 100 acres. The suspended matter in the sewage coming to the plant in the month of August averaged 120 p. p. m. In the discharge to the river after filtration the same sewage averages 20 p. m., showing that five-sixths has been removed. As to bacteria, the month of August the screens showed an average of 930,000 per c. c. m., and the effluent from the filters averaged 115,000 bacteria per c. c. m. The quality of the sewage is determined by the putrescibility. It is expected to be after treatment non-putrescible. To test this, a sewerage sample is kept at blood heat temperature for forty hours, and one method of ascertaining that it is non-putrescible is in the matter of odor. If it does not show any offensive odor it is non-putrescible. Tn the month of August on one day the amount of effluent indicated that it was putrescible. On one day it was not determinable; during the remaining days it was non-putrescible. In the month of
June, 1909, before the intercepting sewer was choked, the average was 13,400,000 gallons per day, very nearly equal to the amount of water pumped from the pumping station in that time. In the wet weather the sewage is greater in volume than the amount of water pumped by the waterworks, and in very dry weather it is somewhat less.
Wilkinsburg Filtration Plant.
At the ednesday night session a paper was read by Mr. F. P. Leopold, of the Pittsburg Filter Manufacturing Company, Pittsburg, Pa., on “The New Filtration Plant for Wilkinsburg. Pa.,” as follows:
“The Pennsylvania Water Company which supplies water to the town of Wilkinsburg and a number of adjacent towns, secures its water from the Allegheny river from a series of gal leries located in the river bed. As it comes from the galleries it is practically clear and the water is of a rather unusual purity for a supply of this kind. After considerable litigation, however, on the part of the town of Wilkinsburg, in vhich it was claimed by the municipality that the water was not of the degree of purity that the water company, under its charter should furnish and could furnish with the proper equipment, it was decided that the water company should install a mechanical filtration plant. Owing to the arrangement of the water system and the limited space available at the pumping station some rather unusual conditions were required to be met.
The contract was entered into on May 11, 1909, with the Pittsburg Filter Mfg. Company, of Pittsburg, and the plant was designed by them in conjunction with the engineers of the water company, and is now under construction. While of the usual general type of mechanical filter design, there are a number of features that were developed owing to the peculiar conditions of its location, which may be of interest.
The plant as designed is for an ultimate capacity of 20,000,000 gallons per day. The titter beds at present are being installed, which when fully equipped will give a capacity of 12,500.000 gal Ions; only 10,000,000 gallon equipment is being placed, however, at the present time.
The company have a reservoir at present holding about 16,000,000 gallons of water, from which the distribution to the system is made. This reservoir is on top of the highest hill in this vicinity, some 450 feet above the pumping station. Owing to the fact that it is not desired to lose any of the available head, it became necessary to so design the plant as to utilize the present reservoir as a clear water receiving basin; this necessitated the building of the filter plant practically all above ground. In general, the plant consists of two reinforced concrete sedimentation basins, each 150 feet long and 65 feet in width and 22½ feet in depth ; each holding some tiling in excess of 1,500.non gallons of water. These reservoirs are uncovered, and surrounded by vertical walls of heavily reinforced concrete, being 15 inches in width at the top and 30 inches at the bottom and 17 feet in width of base. As it is necessary for the How of water to be of sufficient elevation above the How line of the present reservoir to provide for the filter operating head, the question of foundation would ordinarily have been one of considerable expense; fortunately, however, the top of the hill on which it is located is composed of a shale, and after the surface removal of two or three feet of earth there was formed a most excellent and solid foundation.
The water is pumped direct from the pumping station into the end of each basin, being controlled by a valve to each, and a connection being made to the inlet to the present reservoir, so that the raw water from the pumping station may be supplied to either or both of the sedimentation basins or by-passed through the reservoir, also so arranged that it may be by-passed directly to the system. Water is distributed across the end of the basin through vertical risers, and will How horizontally to the opposite end of the basin, passing under a baffle located about in the center of the basin, and being gathered at the opposite end into a concrete overflow conduit, which discharges into a central chamber, from which point it is carried through a 36-inch cast-iron conduit into the filter-house and distrib uted to the filters. The basins are provided with an open overflow 12 inches below the top of the wall, the bottom being sloped with about an eight per cent slope to a central sump, from which a valve discharges into a 20-inch wash-out pipe in the bottom of each basin.
I he floors of the basins are covered with to-inch concrete, floor reinforced with triangular mesh reinforcement, and the walls on the outside banked up to within three feet of the top all around.
The main filter building consists of a “T” shaped brick structure 140 feet long and 40 feet wide, for the length covering the filters, which are partially covered with flat concrete covers and 66 feet long over the portion covering the operating room, machinery and laboratory; this building is one story in height over the filters, the “T” head is two stories above the filter, and has a basement floor on the level of the pipe gallery floor. The building is of light buff colored brick, covered with a Spanish tile roof, the interior finish being of natural wood. The office and laboratory will have metal ceiling and be lined with white glazed tile. The basement floor and all other floors are of concrete, and in this basement is installed the pumping machinery, heating plant and light apparatus. The first floor contains the concrete solution tanks with concrete orifice tanks for operating them, the office, general reception room and laboratory. The third floor is to be used as a storage room for the coagulants and dissolving tanks are also located here. Communication is had between the three floors by a circular iron stairway. The lower gallery floor is on the level of the ground on the outside of the building, a double door on one end, and the arrangement of the piping in the gallery gives a clear passage from this doorway tlnough the gallery into the basement. The ar raugement of the gallery is such that there is a clear space three or four feet wide, height sufti nit for a man to walk through without obstrue tion.
Ihe filter equipment is of the usual general standard type, using a separate water and air manifold system. The water manifold is entirely f cast iron with cast iron laterals and bronze screens; the air manifold of perforated brass tubing, above which is s inches of grave) and 36 inches of sand. The troughs are cast iron ilia mond-shaped troughs, so arranged that the flow of water does not exceed a travel of S/feet, and are designed to carry away not less than to gal Ions of water per square feet of area from the bed. The controllers are the closed type anil adjustable rate, arranged so that the rate of flow can be adjusted from the operating floor, sim ilar to those in use at Lorain, Ohio, and McKees port, Pa. The valves are all hydraulically operate! I and furnished by the Rensselaer Manufactur ing Company, and are controlled from marble operating tables with polished brass trimmings. On the operating table will be located the loss of head gauges. The type of gauge used at this plant will be entirely new in design. It will be of the recording type, with a rectangular chart of convenient form for binding; it will be arranged with double recording pens, one of which will record the actual water level on the filters, the other one recording the loss of head in the efflu ent, thus giving at a glance the absolute loss of head in each filter irrespective of any variation in the water level of the filter itself. This is a considerable improvement on the recording loss of head gauge previously in use, and has not been used heretofore in any plant, and is one of the new features of this plant.
The purified water is discharged through controllers into a concrete conduit below the gal lery floor, from which it flows to the present reservoir by gravity.
On account of the isolated position of the plant, the power conditions were a matter of considerable study. It was not desired to build an independent power station at this point, as it would necessitate the hauling of all fuel for three miles up a very steep hill, and in winter time over exceedingly bad roads. The conditions of the use ot power at the filter plant require a maximum of power in use a few minutes at a time periodically and would not be a very economical arrangement. After considerable study, it was determined to place a generating plant in the pumping station about a mile distant and carry an electric current over a transmission line to the nlant to operate the wash pump, blowers and other power requirements; and in order to secure the most economical installation of the plant, it was determined to so design it as to distribute the use of power over a considerable period of time. To do this necessitated the storage of both water and air. and to do this economically required the storage at a pressure or elevation of practically the same as would be used bv the larger machinery used in direct application. ft was finally determined to use a storage tank for water of considerable area so that the pumping head would he very little, if any, above that required in washing the filters by pumping direct.
In the matter of air storage, the previous methods of using this have been the use of pressure tanks, compressing the air under high pressure, and then reducing it to that required for use in the filters. This, of course, is an enormous waste of energy; and in studying this question, it was ascertained that a method had been devised and a patent application made for the very scheme that would accomplish that process. Arrangements were, therefore, made tor the use of this arrangement, which consists of an inverted tank on the order of a gasometer, weighted sufficiently to produce the pressure required in the filter beds, then building the tank of such volume as to give the required amount of air. A further study of this revealed the convenience of utilizing the water tank as a seal tank for the air tank. A combination was therefore designed, using an inverted air tank on top of the water storage tank.
A small generating plant is to be installed in duplicate at the pumping station, which will be sufficient to furnish power to operate all the motors at one time. This plant will be required to be only about one-third the size of a plant which would be required to operate wash pumps and blowers sufficient to apply direct, the result of this being a very uniform draft on the power station, a more economical use of power, and some economy in the cost of installation. The small pumps tor supplying the wash water to the wash water tank and the air to the air tank will l»c designed to operate about » to 7.’> per cent, of the time, and will be arranged to operate automatically, so that during the washing of a filter when the water level falls a few inches in the storage tank the motors supplying the wash water il they arc not running will be automatically started, and will continue to operate until the level is brought up to its normal, when the automatic switch will cut them out. The same arrangement will be applied to the sair storage tank, which is designed for volume and not pressure. The motors, therefore, require no care except to see that they are kept in proper trim.
As the plant is located aboue the point from which water pressure is secured and hydraulic valves are in use, it of course becomes necessary to provide pressure for the hydraulic valves; this is done by a small automatic control pressure pump, and a surge tank which automatically controls the pressure of the operating cylinders of the valves. These features as far as the writer’s experience or knowledge goes are unique, and it is believed that it is their first application.
The reagents or chemicals will be stored in the second floor of the building above the office; this storage room will be equipped with an electric hoist for unloading from the wagons and conveying to the storage room. Inside the storage room there will be baskets and a track for delivering the chemicals from the storage space to the dissolving boxes above the solution boxes, which arc also located in this room, so that the labor of handling is reduced to a minimum.
The building will be arranged to be lighted by both gas and electricity. For heating there will be used a low pressure cast-iron heating boiler, located in the basement, which will supply beat for the building and such steam as may be necessary for use in the laboratory or other purposes; this will be arranged to use natural gas as fuel.
In connection with the plant and located immediately beyond it. there will be built n round reinforced concrete basin, into which the water front the washing of the filters will be drained. This basin is of such capacity as to provide several hours sedimentation so that after washing the filters, the wash water carried into this basin will have an opportunity to settle, the heavy accumulations going to the bottom. The bottom of this tank slopes to the center, and an outlet standpipe is placed near the centre, so arranged as to drain down to within four feet of the bottom; to this will be connected an electric pump which will take the settled water and pump it back into the sedimentation basin. In this manner it is ex pected to give the highest economy in the use of the wash water. The location, of course, of this plant, and the high head against which all the water is pumped is the only condition which would make for economy in an arrangement of this character, but it is believed that the saving that will be accomplished in this manner will more than justify the expense of the necessarystructures for accomplishing it. This again is a novel and new feature, and we do not know that it has been attempted on any other plant.
There will also be built a small sewage disposal plant to take care of the sewage waste from the lavatory and laboratory, the outlet of which will be connected to the main sewerage connection, which will carry the waste from the wash tank, sedimentation basin, etc., to the river a mile or more distant.
It is believed that these various new and unique features will render the plant most interesting and that there may be other conditions where some of them might be applicable and economical, and on the completion of this plant, and the placing of it in operation, a more complete detailed description with illustrations will be published, which will clearly and fully cover all these new features in a more satisfactory manner than can be done at this time. To any one interested, however, a visit to the plant on completion will be the most comprehensive manner of analyzing their full value.
Dr. Sandblad’s Paper.
Dr. A. G. Sandblad, chemist and bacteriologist of the McKeesport, Pa., water softening and filtration plant, read a paper on an exceedingly timely topic: “Is softened water a desirable municipal supply?” which will be printed in another issue of FJKE AND W ATER ENGINEERING.
Before taking up the discussion of Dr. Sandblad’s paper, the following resolutions were offered by Mr. C. VV. Wiles, Delaware, Ohio, and their adoption being moved by Mr. A. G. Holmes, of Grand Rapids, Mich., they were adopted unanimously, viz.:
Public Utility Commissions.
Whereas, The establishment of public utility commissions in the states of New York and Wisconsin has been found beneficial to the public in insuring efficiency of service for water, gas, electric and other public supplies, and is performing a necessary work for the conservation of industrial effort ; and,
W hereas, This Central States W aterworks Association is composed of representatives of both privately owned and municipal waterworks, having as a common object the furnishing of a sufficient and potable supply of water for consumption and for the protection of property from tire in the various communities in its territory, to do which fair and equitable rates must be charged to maintain the quality of the service; and as the public utility commissions where they have been tried have operated to the benefit of all classes of the community, and with justice to all; therefore, be it
Resolved, That this association commend to the legislatures of Ohio and all other states within its territory statutory enactment establishing like commissions; and, further
Resolved, That a standing committee be named by the president of the Central States Waterworks Association to inquire into the workings of the public utility commissions where established with a view to still further perfecting the plan of same if possible and suggesting such legislation as may make them effective in all states not now existing within our territory.
The matter of appointing the committee constituted under the above resolutions was referred by President Schwertsbeyer to the incoming president.
State Control of Public Water Supplies.
Mr. Paul Hansen, associate member American Society Mechanical Engineers, acting chief engineer of the Ohio State Board of Health, Columbus, Ohio, read a paper on “State control of public water supplies,” in which he maintained that the state should have authority over such governmental functions relatitve to the municipalities as have an inter-municipal bearing and which in their nature cannot be fully controlled by the municipalities themselves. He embraced under these, among other matters, the purity of streams ami dairy supplies. He held that mal-administratioti of city governments leads to state control: but even though the cities were more efficiently governed there would still remain to the state hoards an advisory function. He said that the advisability of state control applies particularly to the sanitary quality of the water supplies, which should be under the supervision of the state board of health, the members of which should be appointed and not elected, and which board should maintain an engineering department and laboratories.
The Ohio law at present provides no penalty for non-conformity with the requirements of the State board of health as to conditions and changes in water supplies. This defect, he urged, should lie remedied especially with regard to purification plants. He referred to the Bense act of April 7. 1908, which authorizes the State board of health to require purification of sewage and public water supplies and protection of tlie streams against pollution. The Ohio State Board of Health has recently instituted an investigation into water and sewage purification works in the state, which is expected to be of great practical value, but which is now languishing because of lack of funds.
In conclusion the writer said that the several states through their boards of health or through proper bodies should exercise such control over municipal water supplies which shall insure to the entire population safe and potable water, and to conduct such investigations of a scientific natupre as will enable them to guide municipalities in an advisory way to the best and most economical means of securing and maintaining water supplies.
Mr. W. A. Clark asked how large a proportion of waterworks of Ohio had been examined by the state board of health? To which Mr. Hansen replied that analyses of all of the water supplies of the state have not as yet been made, and that it is not possible to perfectly and intelligently interpret the analyses until more detailed data is obtained as to the sources of supplies. t the present time perhaps half of the supplies in the state have been examined. Mr. Clark further inquired as to what proportion of those examined had been found unsatisfactory, stating that the samples he had himself sent in had always been reported as entirely satisfactory..
Mr. Hansen said that he was at present not prepared to answer the question fully, but bis impression was that very few had been found unsatisfactory.
The discussion of Dr. Sandblad’s paper was now taken up. Mr. Thomas West on. of East McKeesport. Pa., asked Dr. Sandblad what proportion of lime in water he would consider would unfit it for domestic use?
The doctor replied that if he referred to calcium carbonate there is no given amount of lime in solution that will make a water necessarily injurious for drinking purposes; but of course the quality of hardness makes the water unfit for laundry and cooking purposes when the hardness exceeds 15 parts per 100,000. It has been claimed that lime salt water produces certain diseases. Dr. Kocher, of Berne, Switzerland, claims that certain lime-charged waters were the cause of goitre; but the wells that he considered as not producing goitre were very often found to contain 40 per cent, more calcium salts than those which be claimed caused the disease, and this refutes that theory.
Mr. V. A. Clark stated that in water drawn from two wells, the water drawn from the lower depth, some 200 feet deep, shows by analysis only 1-3 as much carbonate of lime as is found in the surface well water. The water from this deep well comes from below 60 feet of blue clay. Mr. Clark wished to know whether the deep well water in this instance was not the better. Dr. Sandblad replied that the softer water was. of course, the better, and as an explanation for the less degree of hardness in the deep well water suggested the possibility that they had struck a bed of sodium which would prevent the water having a permanent hardness.
Mr. Veach asked Dr. Sandblad to define temporary and fixed or permanent hardness in water where the element of suspended matter does not enter into the calculation. Dr. Sandblad replied that temporary hardness is due to calcium or magnesium carbonate which, though insoluble in water of a neutral reaction, are held in solution in many natural waters hv means of free or halfcombined carbon dioxid. or carbonic acid gas, as it is commonly known. Upon boiling such waters the carbon dioxid is expelled by heat, and the calcium magnesium carbonates become insoluble, and the water is softened.
Permanent hardness is due to calcium and magnesium sulphates which exist in solution owing to their own solubility, which is very considerable : such waters cannot be softened by mere boiling, and therefore their hardness is called permanent.
In reply to a further inquiry Dr. Sandblad stated that the Clarke scale of hardness is in use only in England and is being abandoned elsewhere and the decimal scale employed. In order to translate grains per gallon of hardness into parts per 100,000. you have to define how much hardness the water holds, but any expression of grams per gallon can be employed. The rate per gallon is very seldom used technically, and when used can be converted into parts per 100,000 by multiplying by the decimal .583; or vice versa parts per 100,000 can be converted into grains per gallon by using the same decimal as a divisor.
Mr. Veach inquired whether water containing from 6 to 20 grains per gallon of mineral matter would be ordinarily termed hard water: The speaker replied that it would not unless the mineral content was calcium and magnesium salts. 1 f it contained 20 to 40 grains of sodium per gallon it could not be hard. The Loch Katrine water that supplies the city of Glasgow, Scotland, is considered one of the purest waters obtainable in Europe. Its purity is proverbial. That water has hardly ever been known to show any evidence of albuminoid ammonia or sewage.
Mr. S. Bent Russell inquired whether at McKeesport they ever get an excess of caustic alkalinity or sodium carbonate in the water; and if so what effect this would have upon the health of consumers? Dr. Sandblad replied that at McKeesport they do not allow any excess of the chemicals used, the proportion of which he had already mentioned in his paper. The softening is carried on under the constant supervision of chemists and test are made from hour to hour to control the chemicals used in softening.
Mr. Russell further asked whether in the event that there was evidence of causticity what remedy would he applied. Dr. Sandblad replied that the lime treatment would be cut down, or the soda treatment increased. Excess of lime is neutralized by soda, but that would he a poor economy from an operative standpoint, the better plan being to diminish the lime to meet the soda treatment. The small amount of causticity resulting would hardly have any effect unless in the extreme case of a reckless operator. Pushing his questions still further Mr. Russell asked whether in the possible event of any excess of causticity it would do any harm to the health of the community, and the doctor again repeated that it would do very little if any harm.
Mr. A. M. Fisher, of Coshocton, Ohio, inquired whether the softening of the water did not greatly lessen the necessity of soap and the use of boiler compounds? To which Dr. Sandblad replied in the affirmative, and that the saving of soap would more than pay for the chemicals; that the taxpayer is better off to pay for results in the shape of water softening than in the form of soap.
Mr. William Evans, of Cambridge City, Ind., corroborated this statement, saying that although he had removed from McKeesport he was still a stockholder in a laundry there and, therefore, knew whereof he spoke.
Mr. Thomas Weston, of East McKeesport, Pa., stated that up until two years ago they got their supply of water from the Allegheny river, which was rather soft. Since that time they have been getting their supply from the lime-stone springs containing 32 parts lime per 100,000, the water being extremely hard. Since using this hard water the meters take on a coating which is veryhard to remove from the brass parts. In fact, it is almost impossible to remove it unless the coating is still in a rather softened condition, when it can he scraped off with a putty knife, chisel or emery paper. If once allowed to harden it is like grinding up so much emery. Me asked what the nature of this deposit was, which he stated was of a yellowish red tinge. Dr. Sandblad replied that it was probably iron. Very many waters that contain lime and iron after standing a while will deposit a yellowish precipitate which will attach itself to the edges of a containing vessel. When this is aerated it will cventually become hydrated oxide.
Mr. W. A. Clyark stated that during the last two years they have pumped some 200,000,000 to 250,000,000 gallons of water which is as clear as possible, containing no mud whatever. During that length of time a sediment about 1 inch in depth has accumulated in the bottom of the reservoir. which is of rusty red color. He desired to know its nature. Dr. Sandblad stated that very likely it was iron and magnesia. Magnesia has the property” of becoming a hydroxide.
Mr. John Langan related an interesting experience he had with one of their deep wells, front which they pumped water by air pressure. The supply from this well having greatly diminished, his engineer informed him that the well was giving out. The supply being quite necessary to their service the question arose as to what to do, and while this was being considered Mr. Langan had an inspiration, and in following out his idea he discovered that the pipe was almost filled with incrustation from this absolutely pure water. W hen the well was started it produced 215 to 218 gallons per minute on 45 pounds air pressure, but within the last eighteen months even with 70 pounds air pressure it only produced 60 gallons per minute. Mr. Langan showed a sample *of the pipe containing the incrustation, which had reduced the inside diameter available for the passage of air and water to 1 inch. Upon going down into the well it showed that the water stood within 18 inches of where it did five years ago when the pump was first installed.
Mr. Langan gave an interesting description of the mode he adopted for removing the incrustation in this pipe.
Mr. T. H. Verner stated that they had removed some 3,500 tons of a similar substance out of their reservoir, and he was satisfied that they had only captured about 25 per cent, of it in the reservoir, the balance going into the mains, and he had taken up hundreds of service pipes in his town in a worse condition than the sample shown.
Mr. Langan said that their ordinary pressure tfas 30 to 35 pounds, which was ample for domestic service. Upon increasing this pressure to 120 pounds it stirred up a great amount of sediment in the mains and produced a very disagreeable color in the water which caused consumers to complain and demand that the mains be Hushed; but so long as the source of supply remained the same it would be impossible to avoid this trouble. The well is supposed to be a rock well 280 feet in the limestone, but Mr. Tifton was of the opinion that the casing must be porous and he did not believe that anything of the kind could come out of rock.
Dr. Sandblad stated that it might, as some lime stone contains about 45 per cent, of magnesia.
Mr. W. A. Clark suggested that if the trouble occurred again it could be remedied by shutting off the air, opening the top of the well and turning a hose in under 140 pounds pressure, and in a day’s time the pipe will be cleaned out thoroughly.
Mr. Langan stated that if he could only shut the well down long enough to allow the casing to thoroughly cool he believed that the sediment would all drop out of the pipe back into the well again; but on account of the necessity of using the supply he could not shut down long enough to allow the casing to cool sufficiently.
Mr. Verner thought that the incrustation would not let go of its own accord unless it was steamed.
The convention then adjourned until Thursday morning.
The first order of business Thursday morning was the reading of a paper by Mr. C. Arthur Brown, sanitary engineer, American Steel and Wire Company, Lorain, Ohio, who presented an elaborate paper, which he modestly entitled, “Suggestions on the use of the iron and lime process of water purification.” The paper will lie published in a later issue of this journal.
Mr. A. M. Fisher, superintendent and city en gineer, Coshocton, Ohio, read a paper entitled, “Description of an infiltration well at Coshocton, Ohio,” as follows:
The Question Box.
Under head of “Question Box” the following inquiry was propounded: “What arrangement have members for keeping an accurate account of motor washing machines when a flat rate is in use and where the seller of such machine refuses to give the water department a list of purchasers?”
Mr. Clark asked what the consumption of an ordinary washing machine water motor was.
Mr. A. W. Inman replied that having a little curiosity on that score himself he had made an experiment in his own home, his family consisting of two or three adults and three children. He had found that the amount of water consumed bv the motor was between $9 and $10 a year at the 25-cent rate. If a flat rate is in use considerable wastage of water may be expected, as the motor is often allowed to run unnecessarily. He himself believed that a properly regulated machine with economy in use ought not to consume over $5 worth of water a year at the 25 cent rate.
Mr. M. Hetzer reported that they had about forty washing machine motors in use and had made a Hat rate on them of $9 a year, with the option of putting on a meter at 50 cents a thousand. A few have put on meters but report that they find it cheaper under the flat rate. He had himself taken one on trial, but was ashamed to use it. because it seemed to him a waste of water. He believed that if a Hat rate of less than $9 a year is offered it will be to the loss of the waterworks. The other questions from the box were read as follows, but enlisted no discussion except the one referring to electrolysis:
“Assuming that your district is strictly a metered one with no Hat rates, what means can be profitably used to develop a greater consumption of water, with an increased revenue to the station ?”
“In small waterworks plants what other side lines can be added that may be carried on in connection with and without impairing the efficiency of the waterworks?”
“\ ill it pay to combine an ice and refrigeration plant with a small waterworks?”
“Do you experience any trouble with short weights in your coal supply, and do you give attention to the routing ot coal shipments so as to avoid points enroute where cars are likely to be pilfered from while lying on sidetracks or in train yards?”
“Where coal can be bought in larger quantities to better advantage will it pay to sell coal in connection with a waterworks m a small town?”
“Has trouble been experienced in your locality with electrolysis?”
Mr. VV. A. Clark, Wyoming, Ohio, reported four cases of trouble from electrolysis during the last five years, which cost them about $125. They rendered a bill to the railroad company which had not yet been paid. The trouble was in the lead pipe services. The electrolysis came from an electric street railway single trolley line.
Mr. C. Arthur Brown reported that he had found several cases of electrolysis occurring in various parts of the country, and lie had some lantern slides illustrating the same. One was a 0-inch water main containing holes, the largest of them about 4 incites in diameter. The pipes affected were located directly under the crossing of an electric line. In another plant in northern Ohio the injury developed from about 300 feet trom any apparent source of electricity. It was found that this was caused by an old pipe line that had been disconnected and was lying in the ground and carrying the electric current to the close proximity of the water mains. In regard to the lead services referred to by a former speaker, the difficulty will sometimes lie caused with them by a chemical action which very closely resembles electrical action. At Oberlin, Ohio, a large number of lead services were destroyed, and the trouble was attributed to electrolysis until it was discovered that the gypsum in the soil seemed to have a direct connection with the trouble, and when the pockets of gypsum were eliminated the trouble ceased.
Mr. W. A. Clark was confident that in his case the difficulty was due to electrolysis, the effect extending upon one side of the track about 6 feet, and on the other side of the track clear to the property line. The affected pipe was replaced by new piper which, inside of two years, was again destroyed at the same place. When the trolley line was laid every joint was bonded on both tracks.
Mr. M. Hetzler, Moundsvillc, W. Va., reported that he had had a little trouble with lead services of the kind referred to while other services in close proximity were not affected. Had the same trouble with a 6-inch cast iron main. He was inclined to believe that the explanation offered by Mr. Brown might apply in his case. It broke out in spots all along the line, pitted as in the illustrations he had seen of electrolysis.
Mr. Herman Carter, president Mt. Sterling, Ohio, board of public affairs, distributed some cards showing an original design for outside meter box setting.
Mr. Scroggings thought that device was similar to the Clark meter box, and stated that in Wheeling they had some of the Clark meter boxes in position and had never had any trouble with them at all. He did not believe they would
Mr. Thomas Weston, East McKeesport, Pa., said that twelve years ago, when they first started, they placed all meters inside, hut they found they were too much meddled with there, and they now set them in boxes outside. He recommended that the meters be not allowed to rest solid on the ground hut that they be placed one or two inches from tlie ground. They use the Empire meter and also some manufactured by the Pittsburg Meter Company.
(To lie concluded next week.)
The water supply at East Syracuse. X. Y.. is so lowthat the commissioners threaten to curtail the hours of daily supply, unless the strictest economy in consumption is practiced.