CHIEF TRAUTWINE, of the water department of Philadelphia, Pa., in his report on filtration just presented to councils, confines himself to the two styles of filter—(1) the old-fashioned English, or slow sand filter bed, and (2) the American rapid, or so-called mechanical filter. He has adhered to the former system, and points out that the East Park, Roxborough, and Belmont reservoirs “afford admirable sedimentation basins, ready to hand.” The Queen Lane reservoir can also be similarly utilized; but the rapid filters contemplated for that system, he insists, “ have their own sedimentation basins built in connection with them.” He has, therefore, adopted elevated sites for the slow filter beds of the first three systems, “ chiefly to utilize the facilities for sedimentation afforded by the existing reservoirs.” The Frankford filter he would build at a low elevation near the pumping station, with a special sedimentation basin,adjoining the filters. The site of the proposed Cambria reservoir is utilized for the filtration plant of the East Park station. This will involve laying four forty-eight-inch mains between that site and the reservoir; but by so doing there will be no encroachment upon one of the finest plateaus in Fairmount park. A daily maximum amount of 100 gallons per head for the year 1900 will amply cover not only the freest possible use of water, but also all unavoidable—permissible—waste—a total of 130,000,000 gallons a day. But if the word “used” means “used and wasted ” then three times that quantity must be allowed. The average cost would be $12,500 per million gallons of maximum daily capacity, without providing ior sedimentation or repumping—only for all necessary connections and buildings. The several plants would, therefore, be as follows: Spring Garden, 55,000,000 gallons daily maximum supply—cost of construction, $r, 184 500; Queen Lane. 30,000,000 gallons daily, $3qo,ooo; Roxborough, 10,000,000 gallons daily. $211,000; Belmont, 15,000,000 gallons daily, $249,500; Frankford, 20.000,000 gallons daily, $363,500—total daily maximum supply, 130,000,000 gallons, total cost of co struction, $2,398,500. For water wasted, add plants’ sufficient for 260,000,000 gallons maximum daily supply, located along the Delaware, $4,797,000—total for water used and wasted, $7>!95.500. The cost of real estate would probably amount to about $£00,000 for water used, and $200,000 additional for water wasted. During every year there are many days when the Fairmount works, owing to the low water, cannot run. Hence the plans must provide for the filtration of the entire 130,000,000 gallons daily at the other stations. The cost of a filtration plant at Fairmount would,therefore, bring with it no commensurate benefit. For this reason Chief Trautwine makes no provision for filtration at that station.

If mechanical filtration should be decided upon, the New York Filter Manufacturing Company can supply filters for all the water used in 1900, at the following cost for construction: Spring Garden, 55,000,000 gallons, $963,609; Queen Lane, 30,000,000 gallons, $4i5332; Roxborough, 10,000 000 gallons, $130,039; Belmont, 15,000,000 gallonr, $24,875; Frankford, 20,000,000, $276,532—total, 130,000,000 gallons; total cost of construction, $2,052,367. For all the water used and wasted daily in i890,the above]named company will charge as follows: Spring Garden, gallons, $3,556 974; Queen Lane, 80,000,000 gallons, $1,027,356; Roxborough, 25,000,000 gallons, $369,358; Belmont, 38,000,000 gallons, $609,341; Frankford. 42,000 000 gallons, $587,920—total, 388,000,000 gallons; total cost of construction, $6,149849. These figure include filter plants complete, buildings, extensions of mains, connections, drains, etc. To prevent outrageous waste, while encouraging the freest use of water and permitting only such waste as is inseparable from use, all manufacturing concerns and other large consumers, and all dwellings where reckless waste has been the rule, must be metered at a cost of not less than $500/00 nor mere than $100,000. To be on the safe side Chief Trautwine uses the higher figures. To make the works “adequate to keeping up the farce of handling all the water wasted and used, there must be spent immediately, apart from the cost of filtration, over $5,000,000 in extensions and improvements—for water used, only $1,107,000,” with the existing plant, if thus completed, “ more than ample for twice fthe city’s] needs.”


From these data. Chief Trautwine arrives at the following estimates of cost, including (1) cost of installation, (2) of water used in 1900, (3) of water used and wasted in 1900. Filtration plants at $12,500 per million gallons daily capacity. $2,398,500, $7 195,500; real estate, $100,000. $300000; meters, $500,000 to $t,—total incidental to filtration, $3,498,500, $7,495,500; immediate requirements for other extensions and improvements. $1,107,000, $5,014,000 — grand total, $4 605,500, $12,509 500. The annual expense of operation, which, in the case of water used, would be more than covered by the reduction due to restriction of waste would be as follows: Filtration plant, at $5 per million gallons (1) for water used (2) for water used and wasted, $200,000. $600,000; meters, at $2 per annum per meter, $90,000—total additional annual expenses, $290,000, $600,000 —in the one case, for a maximum supply of loo gallons per day; in the other, of 300 gallons. In the first case an ample supply of filtered water would be afforded to the whole city in 1900, and a surplus of pumping capacity of about 100 per cent.; in the second, would be furnished enough of filtered water to meet the demands of 1900, but without surplus capacity. As things are now in Philadelphia, one-fifth of the people are wasting the water for which the other four-fifths pay. Chief 1 rautwine thus concludes his report:

No measures should be adopted for the filtration of our entire supply, until after experience has been gamed with an experimental plant of sufficient dimensions to filter the water of some district. Let $300,000 be appropriated for the re striclion of waste and for filtration in the Roxborough district, let experts be appointed to confer with the department as to the location and design of a plant for the filtration of the water furnished to that district, and let that plant be built and put in operation as quickly as possible. With the experience gained from such a plant, we shall be in positio.. “.o reply intelligently to inquiries like the present one and to proceed advisedly with the improvement of the rest of the city’s supply. Certainly, with one such model plant in operation, the public would promptly insist upon the extension of the meter system and of filtration to the rest of the city—and the water – problem would be solved.

H. A. Lyman has been unanimously chosen chief of the fire department of Southport, Conn.

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