CLEVELAND’S PUMPING MACHINERY

CLEVELAND’S PUMPING MACHINERY

FAIRMOUNT PUMPING STATION, CLEVELAND.HOLLY ENGINES KIRTLAND STREET PUMPING STATION, CLEVELAND.

Cleveland’s low-service system is at Kirtland station; a first and second high-service system have been installed. The mode of supply is pumping, the types of the engines being Worthington, Knowles, Allis-Chalmers, Kilby and Holly. At Fairmount station the water is repumped from the reservoir into the first and second high-service stations. All the direct pumping from lake Erie, the source of supply, is concentrated at the Kirtland station. During the past fiscal year was installed a surface-condenser instead of a jet-condenser for the Worthington engine No. 3 at Fairmount station. The result of that installation was a saving of 574,(XK) gal. of water daily, which up to that time had been wasted. At Fairmount station, also, were installed two 2,000,000 gal. pumping engines for the second high-service system. The Division avenue pumping station has been abandoned. In it were installed the following engines: AllisChalmers, No. 1; Kilby, No. 1; Holly, No. 1; Worthington, No. 2, of these the last has been sold for scrap; the Allis-Chalmers and the K’lby have been laid up, so as to avoid corrosion of the working parts;, and the Holly engine is held in readiness in case of a breakdown of the Worthington No. 3 at the Fairmount pumping station. The total pumpage for the year at the different stations, without allowance for slip and including repumpage of 2,766,196,245 gal., was 24,257,524,072 gal. The average static head against which the pumps i: (a) ‘

(b) first high-service, 153.1 ft., (c) second highservice, average dynamic head against which pumps work, (a) low-service, 204,953 ft., (b) at Fairmount station into first high-service, 174.264 ft., (c) into second high-service, 392.212 ft., (d) into first and second high-service, 177.135 ft., (e) average of all water, including amount pumped, 201.872 ft., number of gal. pumped per lb. of equivalent coal, (a) low-service, 452.78, at Fairmount, (a) first high-service, (b) second high-service, 211.55, (c) total gal. pumped per lb. of coal, including amount repumped into the first and second high-service, 400.67 gal.; duty per 100 lb. coal, (a) at Kirkland (low-service) station, 77,392.871 ft. lb., (b) at Fairmount station, 31.393.706 ft. lb.,

(c) average at all stations, 67,458,112 ft. lb.; cost of pumpage, figured on pumping station expenses—namely, (a) at low-service station $93,806.46. (b) at first and second high-service station $20,985.33. (c) total of all stations, $114,791.19; per 1,000,000 gal. pumped, (a) at Kirkland station (low-service). $4,365. at Fairmount first and second high-service, $7,586, (c) average at all stations, $4,732; per 1,000,000 gal. raised 1 ft. (dynamic), (a) at Kirkland station, $0.02130, (b) at Fairmount station, $0.04263, (c) average at all stations, $0.02344, coal consumed for the year at Kirkland station, 47,466,000 lb., at Fairmount, 13,075,800— total, 60,541,800 lb.—no wood or other species of fuel used. During 1907 there were installed in the Fairmount pumping station for the second high-service system, two vertical, tripleexpansion crank and flywheel engines, built by the Holly Manufacturing company, of Buffalo, N. Y. Engine No. 4 was started for the first time on September 18, 1907, and engine No. 5 on October 1, 1907. Duty-trials made in December, 1907, showed that the engines exceeded their guarantees.

At the Kirkland pumping station—low-service, there are installed the following engines: Two Knowles; 2 Holly; and 1 Worthington. The total pumpage at that station was 21,491,327,827 gal. The details of the pumpage are as follows: Knowles engine No. 1 pumped 1,014,162,324 gal., 4.719 per cent, of the water pumped, average height pumped, 195.286; Knowles, No. 2, 563,922,444 gal., 2,624 per cent, of pumpage, average height pumped, 197.140; Holly, No. 2, 8,343,108,592 gal., 38,821 per cent, of pumpage, average height pumped, 194.696; Holly, No. 3, 7,975,596,707 gal., 37.111 per cent, of pumpage, average height pumped, 222.066; Worthington, No. 4, 3,594.537,760 gal., 16.725 per cent, of pumpage, average height pumped, 194.705. The total pumpage of these engines was 21,491,327,827 gal.; the average height pumped; 204.946. The pumps worked for a total of 1,217 days, of which Knowles, No. 1, worked 119; Knowles, No. 2, 64; Holly, No. 2, 359; Holly, No. 3, 356; Worthington, 319.

At the Fairmount first high-service pumping station the different pumps during 1907 worked as follows: Worthington, No. 3, pumped 2,714,56)0,260 gal., per cent, of water pumped, 99.822, average height of water pumped, 174.275; Holly, No. 4, 2,383,849 gal., .088 per cent, of pumpage, average height of water pumped, 173.126; Holly, No. 5, 2,454,051, .090 per cent, of water pumped, average height of water pumped, 176.808. The total pumpage by these engines for 1907 was 2,719,398,160 gal.; the average height pumped, 174,276. The pumps worked for a total of 378 days, of which Worthington, No. 3, worked 365; Holly, No. 4, 7; Holly, No. 5, 6 (the last two mentioned being newly installed.

At the Fairmount second high-service station the different pumps during 1907 worked as follows: Snow, 31,181,287 gal., 66.915 per cent, of total pumpage, average height of water pumped, 382.514; Holly, No. 4. 8,728233 gal., 18.731 per cent, of total pumpage, average height of water pumped, 413.853; Holly, No. 5. 6,688.565, 14.354 per cent, of water pumped, average height of water pumped, 409.182. The total pumpage by these engines for 1907 was 46,598,085; the average height of water pumped, 392.212. The pumps (including the two new Hollys) worked for 376 days, of which the Snow (mine pump 14x 6xl2-in., borrowed and in continuous operation from January 1 to October 23) worked 290 days.

The totals of the pumpage of the first and second high – service pumping station for 1907 were as follows: Worthington, _ No. 3, 2,714,560,260 gal.; 98.141 per cent, of water pumped, average height of water pumped, 174.275; Snow, 31,181,287, 1.127 per cent, of water pumped, average height of water pumped, 382.514; Holly, No. 4, 11,112,082 gal., .402 per cent. of water pumped, average height of water pumped (first high-service), 173.126, (second high-service), 413.853; Holly, No. 5, 9,142,616 gal, .330 per cent, of total water pumped (first high-service), 176.808, (second high-service), 409.182. The total pumpage of the two services for 1907 was 2,765,996,245 gal., average height of water pumped (Holly, both services), 177.948. The total number of days the pumps were in servce was 754, of which Worthington, No. 3, worked 365, Snow, 290; Holly, No. 4, 55; Holly, No. 5, 44.

During 1907, in the Fairmount station during 1907 the Knowles engine (duplex) No. 1 worked as follows—totals and averages: Days operated, 119; time in operation, 55 days, 6 hrs. 50 min.; strokes, 1,088,157; pumpage, 1,014,162,324; height in feet and decimals, 195.286

Knowles engine (duplex) No. 2—totals and averages; days operated, 64; time in operation, 34 days, 18 hrs., 5 min.; strokes, 605,067; pumpage, 563,922,444 gal.; height in feet and decimals, 197.140.

In the Kirtland pumping station during 1907 the Holly engine No. 2 (vertical, expansion) worked as follows—totals and averages: Days operated, 359; time in operation, 354 days, 3 hrs., 55 min.; strokes, 10,520,944; pumpage, 8,343,108,592; height in ft. and decimals, 194.696.

Holly engine (vertical, triple-expansion) No. 3 worked as follows—totals and averages: Days operated, 356; time in operation, 350 days, 4 hrs., 30 min.; strokes, 10,057,499; pumpage, 7,975,596,707; height in ft. and decimals, 222,064.

Worthington engine (duplex) No. 4 worked as follows—totals and averages: Days operated, 319; time in operation, 244 days, 14 hrs., 15 min.; strokes, 4,084,702; pumpage, 3,594,537,760; height in ft. and decimals 19,4.748.

In the Fairmount first high-service station the Worthington engine (duplex) No. 3 worked as follows—totals and averages: Days operated, 365; time in operation, days, 283, hrs. 19, min. 15; strokes, 4,378,323; pumpage, 2,714,560,260 gal.; height in ft. and decimals, 174,275.

Holly engine (vertical, triple-expansion) No. 4. during 1907, worked as follows—totals and decimals: Days operated, 7; time in operation, day 1, hrs. 6, min. 50; strokes, 99,868; pumpage, 2,383,849 gal.; height in ft. and decimals, 173,126.

Holly engine (vertical, triple-expansion) No. 5, during 1907, worked as follows—totals and averages: Days operated, 6; times in operation, 1 day, 2 hrs., 25 min.; strokes, 102,809; pumpage, 2,454,051 gal.; height in ft. and decimals, 176.803.

During 1907 in the Fairmount second highservice station the Snow engine (duplex) No. 1 worked as follows—totals and averages: Days operated, 290; time in operation, 286 days, 18 hrs., 55 min.; strokes, 5,538,417; pumpage, 31,181.287; height in ft. and decimals, 382,514. Holly engine (vertical, triple-expansion) No. 4 worked as follows—totals and averages: Days operated, 48: time in operation, days 5, hrs. 3. min. 45; strokes, 365,657; pumpage, 8,728,233 gal.; height in ft. and decimals, 413,853.

SUPT. E. W. BEMIS, CLEVELAND, OHIO.DIVISION STREET PUMPING STATION, CLEVELAND.

Holly engine (vertical, triple-expansion) No. 5 worked as follows—totals and averages: Days operated, 38; time in operation, 4 days, 6 hrs., 15 min.; strokes, 280,208; pumpage, 6,688,565 gal.; height in ft. and decimals, 404,182.

The two Holly vertical, triple-expansion engines were installed in 1907. No. 4 was started on September 18; No. 5 on October 1. The duty tests in December showed that the engine duties far exceeded the guarantee. Each engine has a capacity of 2,000,000 gal. in twnty-four hours, pumping into a water tower 200,000 gal., located on North Woodland road, and at an elevation of 400 ft. above the water in Fairmount reservoir.

TESTS OF HOLLY ENGINES NO. 5 AND 4.

The results of the duty trials are given below. Holly engine No. 5 was not subjected to two tests, as there was no doubt as to its being fully up to the mark, accordingly the figures as given must be read in the following order—Holly engine No. .5; Holly engine No. 4, full speed, half speed. Dimensions of Engines and Data.— Number of steam cylinders, 3, 3; diameter of H. P. cylinder (inches), 12.75; diameter of I. P. cylinder (inches), 24; diameter of L. P. cylinder (inches), 36; diameter of piston-rods (inches), 2.75; stroke of steam-pistons and water-plungers (inches), 24; net area of H. P. steam-piston (sq. in.), 449.42; net area of L. P. steam-piston (sq. in.), 124.71; net area I. P. steam-piston,

449.92; net area of L. P. steam-piston (sq. in.), 1,014.91, 1.014.91, 1,014.91; proportion of net area of pistons (full and half speed), 1:3.604:8.138; number of water-plungers (single acting, full and half open), 3: diameter of each plunger (full and half speed, inches), 9⅞ ; area of each plunger (full and half speed, sq. in.), 76.589; displacement of 1 plunger per revolution, i. 17 x i. 10 (full and half speed, cu. in.), 1.838.136: displacement of 3 plungers per revolution (full and half speed, cu. in.), 5,514.408; displacement of 3 plungers per revolution (full and half speed, cu. ft.), 3.1912; displacement of 3 plungers per revolution (full and half speed, gal.), 23.8719; displacement of 3 plungers per revolution at temperature of 42.6 deg. Fahr. (62.42-pounds), 199.1947; displacement of 3 plungers per revolution at temperature of 41.8 deg. Fahr. (62.42-pounds), 199.1947: displacement of plungers per revolution at 37.51 deg. Fahr. (62.42-pounds) 199.1947; number of valves in each deck, 37; diameter of valve-openings (inches), 2net area of water-way through one valve (sq. in.), 3.97: net area of water-way through one set of valves (sq. in.), 146.89; ratio of net valvearea to plunger-area, 1.918; diameter of air-pump (inches), 8; stroke of air-pump (inches), 24: type of condenser, surface; diameter of condenser (inside—inches), 30⅛ ; number of tubes in condenser, 135: outside diameter of tubes in condenser (inches), 1: length of tubes in condenser (feet), 7 ft. 3¼ in.; tubesurface in condenser (sq. ft.), 250: diameter of main shaft at bearings (inches), 7½; diameter of main shaft at flywheels (inches), 9; number of flywheels, 2; dtameter (feet) 8.5; dia. of suction-pipe (inches), 14; diameter of dischargepipe (inches), 12; diameter of steam pipe to engine (inches), 4; weight of one flywheel (pounds), 6,800; total weight of engine (pounds), 220.000.

Elevations Referred to City Datum.—Elevation of water in lake Erie (approx.—feet), —2.8; elevation of ground about enginehouse (feet), -(-143.0; elevation of engine foundations (feet), +142.011; elevation of main floor of enginehouse (feet), +150.100; elevation of centre of suctionoipe (feet), +143.761; elevation of centre of discharge-pipe (feet), +143.761; elevation of top of highest valve-opening (feet), +144.844; elevation of centre of main shaft (feet), +151.511; elevation of centre of water pressure and suction gauges on engines (feet), +155.484.

Rated Speed and Velocity. — Revolutions per minute when pumping at rated capacity of 2,000,000 gal. in 24 hours, 58.181; pistonspeed at rated capacity per minute (feet), 232,724; piston-speed at rated capacity per second (feet), 3,879; velocity of flow per second through suction-valves (feet), 2,0224; velocity of flow per second through discharge-valves (feet), 2.0224; velocity of flow per second through suction-pipe (feet), 2,895; velocity of flow per second through discharge-pipe (feet), 8,940.

Pressures. The average results were : Amospheric pressure by barometer (pounds throughout), 14.199, 14.125 (full speed), 14.15 (half speed) ; steam-pressure at throttle-valve of engine, 149.673, 152.26, 152.24; in first receiver, 26.127, 26.14, 24.500; in second receiver, —3.746, —3.175, —3.279; vacuum in condenser, 13.006, 13.306, 13.016; water-pressure in discharge-chamber by gauge, 180.732, 182.98, 181.09; water-pressure in suction chamber. 5.632, 6.00, 6.00; net water-pressure, 175.100, 176.98, 175.09; head of water for 1-lb. pressure at temperature of water pumped (feet), 2.307, 2.307, 2.307; average net head on pump (feet), 403.95, 408.29, 403.933; average temperature of water pumped, 42.6°, 41.18, 2.874. 777.91 ; total plunger leakage during trial (pounds), 37.51 ; average temperature of airpump discharge, 88°, 70.73, 49.82; average temperature of air-pump discharge after passing through exhaust-heater, 112.6°, 103.87, 110.42; average temperature of steam-jacket discharge, 189.65°, 191.63. 195.12; average temperature of tail-trap discharge, 157.96°, 106.63 , 90.94; average temperature of exhaust steam, 124°, No. 4 (full speed), 116.43°, 117.55° (No. 4 half speed); average temperature of engineroom, 86.7°, No. 4 (full speed), 82.77°, 82.0°; average temperature of mper-heated steam in throttling calorimeter (T), 235.88°, 283.83°, 297.85° (No. 4, half speed).

Water Pumped by Engine.—Number of revolutions during trial. 44,865, 43,121, 14,432; per minute, 62.3125, 59.890, 30.066; piston-speed per minute during trial (feet), 249.249, 239.561, 120.266; total displacement of plungers during trial (pounds) 8,936,870.22, 8,589,474.66, 2.868, 2.139, 2.693: total plunger-leakage per hour (pounds), 239, 178.2, 336.6; total plunger-leakage per hour in gallons, 28.64, 21.35, 40.33; per-cent of plungerleakage, .0321, .025, .0937; total gallons pumped as per plunger-displacement, 1,070,924, 1,029, 295, 344,490.7; per 24 hours, 2,141,848, 2,058,590, 1,033.427.1; titol work done (ft.-lb.), 3,610,138,086, 3,505,995,625, 1,161,217,661.48.

Duty.—Duty of engine per 1.000,000 B. T. U. (ft.-lb.), 153,876,550, 139,962,990, 128,741,450; duty of engine per 1,000 lbs. dry steam (ft.-⅛.), 169,023,130, 155,299,360, 142,187,940.

Engine Horsepower.— Mean effective pressure H. P.-cylinder (pounds), 61.18, 60.165, 58.871; I. P.-cylinder (pounds), 15.738, 15.543, 15.647;

L. P.-cylinder (pounds), 6.225, 6.665, 6.614; indicated horsepower in H. P.-cylinder, 57.628, 54.4687, 26.756; in I. P.-cylinder (H. P.), 53.422, 50.7095, 25.6278; in L. P.-cylinder (H. P.), 47.718, 49.1054, 24.4636; total indicated horsepower, steam end (H. P.), 158.768, 154.2836, 76.8474; actual or effective horsepower calculated from work done (H. P.), 151.941, 147.601, 73.309. Efficiency.—Friction (indicated per-cent.), 4.300, 4.332, 4.605; mechanical efficiency (per-cent.), 95.700, 95.6686, 95.395; thermal efficiency of engine (per-cent.), 19.778, 17.990, 16.548.

The above tests were made at Fairmount pumping station, the stream being furnished by Babcock & Wilcox water-tube boilers.

Fuel Data.—Coal furnished by Youghiogheny & Ohio Coal Co., Monongahela River Consolidated Coal & Coke Co.; duration of trial (hours), 8, 8, 4; kind of coal, Pittsburg; size of coal, nut and slack, slack; weight of coal consumed during trial, 22,200, 24,780, 13,046; percent of moisture in coal, 2; weight of moisture in coal, 444, 495.6, 261; total weight of dry coal consumed during trial, i. 3 — i. 7, 21,756, 24,284.4, 12,785; total weight of ashes and refuse, 3,250, 3,518, 1,852 (proportion) ; total weight of combustible consumed i. 8 — i. 9, 18,506, 20,766.4, 10,933; per-cent of ash and refuse in dry coal, i. 9 divided by i. 8, 14.93, 14.48. 14.48. Proximate Analysis of Coal.—-Fixed carbon (per cent.), 53.93, 48.45, 48.45; volatile matter (per cent.), 36.43, 38.63; moisture (per cent.), .72, .55. .55; ash (per cent.), 8.87, 12.37—totals, ‘19.95, 100.00, 100.00; sulphur (per cent.), 1.35, 1.20, 1.20.

Analysis of Ash and Refuse.—Fixed carbon (per cent.), 33.85, 48.95, 48.95; ash (per cent.), 66.15, 41.05, 41.05; fixed carbon in ash and refuse, expressed in percentage of the fixed carbon in total coal consumed (i. 9 x i. 17) divided by (i. 8 x i. 12) (per cent.), 7.51, 14.64, 14.64.

Water.—Total water fed to boilers and evaporated (pounds), 167,787.5, 159,483.5, 87,665; equivalent weight of water evaporated from and at 212° Fahr., i. 33 by i. 32 (pounds), 216,905.61, 208.103.6, 114,635.1.

Horsepower.—Horsepower developed per boiler, 392.94, 377.0, 415.34; rated horsepower on basis of 10 sq. ft. tube-heating surface per H. P., 272.5, 272.5, 2/2.5; percentage of rated horsepower developed, i. 38 divided by i. 39 (per cent.), 144.19, 138.34, 152.42.

Efficiency.—Calorific value of dry coal per pound (B. T. U.), 13,624, 14,000; efficiency of boiler, including grates (based on dry coal), i. 47 divided by i. 50 (per cent.), 72.72, 59.11, 61.85.

Cost of Evaporation.—Cost of coal per ton of slack (2,000 lb.) f. o. b. cars at different stations, $1.79, $1.85, $1.85; cost of coal per ton of nut f. o. b. cars, $2, $2.15; cost of coal required for evaporating 1,000 lb. of water from and at 212° Fahr., based on dry coal (1,000 -4i. 44) (2,000) X i52 (cents.), 8.98, 10.79, 10.32; cost of coal required for evaporating 1,000 lb. of water from and at 212° Fahr. (wet coal), based on coal as fired (1,000 divided by i. 42) divided by (2,000) X i52 (cents), 9.16, 11.01, 10.53.

The above tests were made at Kirtland pumping station with Babcock & Wilcox water-tube boilers, each having 2,725 sq. ft. of tube-heating surface and 60 sq. ft. of grate surface.

NEW KIRTLAND STREET PUMPING STATION, CLEVELAND.

The total pumpage for the year, without allowance for slip, was 21,491,327,827 gal.; average daily consumption, 58,880,350 gal.; per-capita consumption to each inhabitant, 117.5; cost of supplying water per 1,000,000 gal. figured on total maintenance, $20.68; on total maintenance plus interest on bond, $29.25. The total amount expended on free water—1,’419,232,000 gal at 51.3 cents per 1,(XX),000 gal.—was $75,692.37.

As E. W. Bemis, superintendent, says:

Put concisely, it may be stated that all the water used by the city is pumped at the Kirtland pumping station, where there is the following machinery: Two 25,000,000-gal. Holly, triple-expansion pumps, which have been forced up to nearly 30,000,000 gals; also, a horizontal Worthington pump of 18,000,000-gal. capacity, which during a few hours of the day supplements the work of the other two pumps when necessary. In reserve there are two old, but still useful horizontal Knowles pumps of 15,000,000-gal. capacity each. It has been said, some of this water is repumped at the Fairmount pumping station to the first high-service by a horizontal Worthington pump of 10,(XX),000 gal. capacity. All the above pumps work against a dynamic head of about 190 ft. One of the Hollys’ at Kirtland works against a head of 200 ft. At the Fairmount station, there are two triple-expansion Holly pumps of 2,(XX),000 gal. capacity a day each, pumping against 250 ft. head. There are also at the Division station three pumps that have not been in use for three years, because the dept, has not yet extended the supply-tunnel to the region of pure water in the lake. These pumps, however, will be put back in use in time. All three of them are of the triple-expansion type. One is an Allis of 20,(XX),000-gal. capacity; another, a Kilby of 20,000,000 gal., pumping against a head of about 190 ft.; the third is a 10,000,000-gal. Holly, pumping against about .180 ft. head for the first high-service.

MET (CRACK IN CLEVELAND.

Within at most two years Cleveland will be an altogether metered city. The number set increases every year, and the difference in waste as well as in rates is most appreciable. On December 31, 1906, there were in use 56,168. By December 31, 1907, there had been installed 63.372. Of private meters there were in service 490. On December 31, 1907, of 16itt. there was installed 1: of 6-in. there were 38; of 4 in., 177; of 3-in., 240; of 2-in., 591; of l!4-in., 583: of 1½-⅛„ 23; of 1 in., 2,075; of •⅝-in., 58,926—total. 63,862. The makes were as follows: Trident, 42,968; Lambert, 13,495; American, 3,568; Worthington (disk. 95, class 2, 32, class 3, 1,951, class 4, 20), 2,098; Empire, 918; Hersey (224. disk. 243), 427; King. 123: Crest, 78; Keystone, 41; Torrent, 39; Crown, 26; Nash, 15; Pittsburg, 7; other makes, 19. The metered services, including the metered branch connections, or “letter” boxes, at the end of 1907 were 64,177—89.9 per cent, of the 72,225 then in use, as against 82.3 per cent, in 1906. The department has now metered all free concessions, all connections larger than ⅝-in. and all the smaller connections in the older parts of the city, where there was any evidence of waste, and is now making less haste over metering the remaining 8,048 services in use at the close of 1907 and the 3,(XX) to 4,000 new ones that will be added by the

growth of the city in 1908. All meters larger than 1-in. are now tested, and, as values have been so placed as to admit of the testing of large meters in place, that will be done every six months. The department employs between forty and fifty men in the work of reading the meters—the large ones, monthly; the smaller, from two to four times a year, the total number of readings was 8,920. Owing in great measure to the diligent supervision of the authorities and the extensive use of meters, during the past twenty years Cleveland has never wasted so little water as now, and few large cities can account, as this Ohio city can, for the legitimate use of so large a percentage of their pumpage. From October 1, 1906, to September 30, 1907. out of a pumpage—without allowance for slip—of 21,491,327,827 gal., the amount of water nassing through meters was 14,741,349,320 gal.—68.6 per cent, of pumpage; unmetered water used for public purposes, 635,617,000—2.9 per cent.; estimated used by 9,992 unmetered services, 906,897,101 gal.; total accounted for, as above, 16,283,863,421 gal.— 75.77 per cent. Since 24 per cent, of the pumpage is from horizontal, direct-acting pumps, the total slip is probably’ 4.25 per cent.—-leaving only 20 per cent, of the nominal pumpage as probable loss through leakage, and even this excellent showing may be improved -upon within the next year or two. Through the introduction of meters, with the low rates for metered water, there has been a large reduction in water rates. It has amounted to $245,160.98, and the city’s water department has turned over to the consumer not only the -profit resulting from the use of meters, but, also, all the additional profit that, in the ordinary course of business, would have come from the growth of the city and of the large use of water for manufacturing purposes during the last seven years. The large meters and business blocks, under the meter system, pay less than if they were operated in most of the large cities of the United States. The net proceeds of the sale of water on assessment and meter accounts and for building accounts, etc., during the year 1907 (the last reported on) were $1,052,558.44, to which should be added interest on balances, $12,(‘86.08, and, as the hills receivable for water declined from $156,740.16 to $70,282.99, the real proceeds, as adjusted by the above items, were $978,187.35. The operating expenses were as follows: Pumping, $111,288.56; general, $148,068.06; repairs and maintenance, $146,411.75— total, $405,768.37. After paying interest of $184,200 and sinking-fund charges of $7,927, there was available for construction $380,291.98. The estimated population of the city is 501,000, including 25,000 using city water in the suburbs.

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