Contemplated Inprovements in Water Works

Contemplated Inprovements in Water Works

Cities and Towns From All Over the Country Report on Coming Additions and Changes in Their Water Works — Some Extensive Work Planned

THE series of letters which follow were received by FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING in response to a questionnaire sent out broadcast as to the extent of improvements and additions which the various water works departments contemplated making and when these would be put into effect. The wide distribution of these replies as regards territory is noticeable and also the extent to which some of the departments are going into the matter of improvements and additions. For instance, one city of considerable size expects to spend $25,000,000 in this work. Another has a $5,000,000 project in view, while there are several other plans involving amounts of over $100,000. This would seem to show that the water departments intend to push the improvements to their plants in spite of the prevailing high prices of materials and labor, rather than allow the water service to suffer as regards its efficiency This is probably a wise move on the part of these departments as there does not seem to be much prospect of reduction of expenses in this regard for sometime to come. Where the efficiency of the department is in question, it would seem to be an act of wisdom to put through these improvements even at the expense of paying a little higher rate and incurring little heavier outlay than might be the case if the department waited one or two years before making these changes. In the mean time, however, the public and, in consequence, the city is the sufferer and such a policy of procrastination in the long run is far more injurious to the welfare of the water department than the spending of a few extra hundred dollars. The letters in regard to improvements follow:

Anaconda, Mont.—We are contemplating during the coming season the renewal of seven hundred feet of ten-inch kalomein pipe with ten-inch national coating pipe. This pipe is on one of our feeder lines which developed some bad leaks during the past winter. We are also figuring on the addition of four hundred feet of six-inch national coating pipe to supply a new city block.—Atnaconda Copper Mining Company, Water Works Department, H. M. Johnson, Superintendent.

Asheville, N. C.—The City of Asheville is now constructing an additional 16-inch gravity line from the head waters of Bee Tree creek, a distance of about 10 miles above which there is no habitation and about 6000 acres. We hope to get same completed this year. With this addition we will have a maximum supply of about 7,000,000 gallons every twenty-four hours.—R. J. Sherrill, Commissioner.

Baltimore, Md.—The Maryland State Legislature has recently approved a loan of $25,000,000 for improvements to the water supply, which will be voted on at the next November election. If ratified, improvements will begin in the spring of 1921. The immediate improvements embrace the raising of an existing dam at Loch Raven on the Gunpowder river to impound an additional 20,000,000,000 gallons, with the purchase of about 2,000 acres of land to be flooded and mill properties on the river, at an estimated cost of $4,000,000, an additional filtration plant at an estimated cost of $1,000,000, and large distributing mains at an estimated cost of $3,000,000. In 1918, the boundaries of Baltimore city were extended into the built-up portions of surrounding counties, increasing the area of the city to three times its former size. The Annexation Act covering this extension re-

quires the city to purchase private water companies located in the new annex. These, together with replacements to the properties of the water companies and extensions necessary to tie them into the city system, are estimated to cost $5,000,000. The private companies will probably be purchased and extensions made to them within the next few years. The $25,000,000 provided in the loan is based upon the city’s growth from its present population of about 700,000 to a population of 1,200,000. The more remote improvements to the supply include pumping station, filtration plant, impounding reservoir on the Patapsco river located about 4 miles southwesterly from the city to provide approximately 50,000,000 gallons per diem and distributing mains, at an estimated cost of $6,000,000. The Gunpowder river, above mentioned, with storage to be provided will supply about 140,000,000 gallons daily. Additional mains to strengthen the distributing system will be needed as the population increases and these are included in the $25,000,000 loan. All the improvements above mentioned are contingent upon the passage of the loan at the Novembr 1920 election.—William A. Megraw, Water Engineer.

Battle Creek, Mich.—We have let a contract for 500 tons of C I. water pipe and specials to the U. S. Cast Iron Pipe & Foundry Co. A very large portion of this pipe will be used to increase the force or large mains from our well-water station to the city. We have ordered several carloads of this material but so far have received none. We have drawn plans for a large extension to our well-water pumping station and propose to let a contract for the erection of the extension in the near future. This extension will give us a pumping capacity of two to three times that of the present station We need a larger amount of water than we have been getting front this station. Last July we pumped 20 times from our Goguac Lake pumping station—the water pumped amounting to 20 million gallons. As this was much larger than our previous demands, it convinced us that the water we could obtain at the well station must be at least doubled. We are about to make a test of some of our wells with a view to installing an air lift system, on about six of the wells we now have in use, and we will very soon begin the installation of a vertical centrifugal pump, operated by motor, which will pump from 3 other wells. We have 15 wells in all but will leave the ones not provided for, as above stated, until next year. Our present capacity of pumping at the well station is at a rate of 7 to 8 million gallons per day and we need a capacity of 15 million gallons. The installation of an air lift will call for the purchase of an air compressor and some other accessories. We also contemplate installing an oil engine to tide over emergencies when the electric current, by which our pumps are operated, is shut off, and to increase the quantity in case of emergencies. This oil engine may not be installed until next year, but we desire to have it in during 1920. Our expenditures in the water department will probably run from 100,000 to 140,000.—W. W. Brigden, Superintendent and Engineer.

Bayonne, N. J.—I am pleased to transmit herewith a brief description of improvements already made to the water supply system of Bayonne, and such other improvements as will soon be made. During the past year there has been constructed a booster pumping station, in which two 9-million gallon centrifugal pumps have been installed for the purpose of increasing the pressure in the distribution mains of the city. The pressure had fallen, and in many cases it was impossible, except during the night, to obtain water on the second and third floors of many buildings. This condition was caused by the inadequacy of the existing city mains to supply water in quantity adequate for the increased demands of the city. At the present time an additional fifteen million gallon pump is being installed at the pumping station for the purpose of giving greater assurance of the continuation of an adequate supply of water to the city. Should either of the present pumps fail to operate, it would cause a serious reduction of the pressure in the water mains of the city. The two 30-inch water lines supplying the city were, at the time they were purchased by the municipality, in very poor condition. It has, therefore, been necessary to protect and repair them for the purpose of obtaining a satisfac-

tory supply of water. Two of the most dangerous points on the pipe lines were on the Newark Meadows, where the pipe line crosses under the Lincoln Highway, and Newark Avenue. When originally laid there was no heavy load upon the pipe at these points, but with the increase of modern highway traffic, and the building up of the roadway, (for example on the Lincoln Highway, the road has been filled about ten feet above the original level,) caused many leaks to occur at these points, which interrupted traffic on the highway and were exceedingly expensive to repair. In order to properly protect the pipe, it was found necessary to construct reinforced concrete culverts over and about the pipe lines, this construction work being accomplished during the past year. It was found, in making the excavation for this work, that the pipe had been displaced and a very severe strain placed upon the joints. In one or two instances, the joints of the cast-iron pipe were almost open, the spigot end of the pipe extending into the bell on the lower side for only about one inch. The water distribution system in general was in a poor condition, and during the year there have been many repairs and replacements of hydrants and valves that were found defective. At the present time the city is constructing a 48-inch steel pipe line which will be about seven miles in length, as it is necessary to provide additional carrying capacity in view of the fact that one of the present supply mains is in such condition that it is liable to become unserviceable at any time. This pipe line will take water from the existing mains of the East Jersey Water Company in Kearny, New Jersey, and will supply it to the pumps at the Booster station as mentioned above.— J. William Griffin, Superintendent of Water Supply.

Bogalusa, La.—This city has contracted for the drilling of enough free-flowing artesian wells to furnish two thousand

(2.000) gallons of water per minute—this to increase our water supply to three million (.1,000,000) gallons per twenty-four hours. We have contracted with the United States Cast Iron Pipe & Foundry Company for the furnishing of approximately three hundred (.100) tons of eight and six-inch cast iron pipe for water extension, We have also contracted with the Southern Sewer Pipe Works for approximately fifteen thousand

(15.000) lineal feet of sewer pipe for sewer extensions in the residential sections. We have one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars ($125,000) to be used for street improvements, for installing storm sewers, curbs and graveling most of the streets in the residential sections of the city to connect with our paved streets in the business sections. We are just completing four modern school buildings in the different sections of the city, and are building one of the finest brick high school buildings in the state. Have just voted one hundred thousand dollars ($100,0000) to be used solely for the purpose of equipping this building with the most modern equipment to be had.— H. E. Willis, City Engineer.

Bridgeton, N. J.—About 1000 feet of 14-inch pipe, KMX) feet of 10-inch pipe and 3000 feet of 6-inch pipe will be all we will be able to have done this year.—W. Dayton Frederick, Commissioner of Public Works.

Cambridge, Mass.—It is the hope of the Cambridge Water Board to install a new pumpng engine, a new boiler, to repair Payson Park Reservoir and build a filtration plant in the early future:—appropiations are pending.—Timothy W. Good, General Superintendent.

Charlevoix, Mich.—Our water works is to make only the necessary extension of mainT.to take care of urgent requests for service for new customers. Laying low on account of the high costs of material and labor.Clarence N. Bridge, Superintendent.

Cincinnati, Ohio.—850 H. P. boiler plant at river station, 3000 H. P. boiler plant at main Station with coal and ash handling machinery, 8 million gallon pumping engine at Western Hills pumping station.—J. A. Hiller, General Superintendent.

Council Bluffs, Iowa.—-I am enclosing a copy of a communication sent to our Mayor and City Council, which. I believe, will give you the information you desire.—S. L. Etnyre, Superintendent.

(Enclosure)

To the Honorable Mayor and City Council,

Gentlemen:—The Board of Water Works Trustees has requested me to lay before your Honorable Body, a statement of the improvements and the estimated cost of same, which, it deems necessary to meet the rapidly increasing water consumption of the city. The coagulation basins at the River Station •ere built in 1912 for a daily water consumption of four (4) million gallons, or double the water consumption at that time. It was anticipated by the Board that the usual drop or falling off in water consumption would follow the installation of meters, which has been the experience of most cities of the country: this, however, was not the case with Council Bluffs, due no doubt not only to the more generous use of water by our citizens but also to the fact that your water board has been also generous in the laying of water mains to meet the demand of our city for water service. A large increase to our present pumpage is expected as soon as the factories now in the course of construction are completed. Plans for one settling basin and two coagulation basins are now being prepared and although incomplete, yet far enough advanced to base an approximate estimate of the cost, which based on present prices

is as follow:

Grading, excavations and filling ………………..$ 6,800.00

Concrete for Basins and dosing chamber ………. 110,000.00

Piping system controlling valves & connections…… 17,200.00

Purification solution tanks and building ………… 16,000.00

Total …………………………………..$150,000.00

In order to deliver more water from the River Station to the Broadway Station, it will be necessary be either lay another pipe line or make the old pipe now in use do double duty, by means of pumping. The latter method is by far the cheapest at this time. It is planned to install a low lift centrifugal pump at Broadway and 37th Street in the basement of the proposed alum and lime warehouse which is so greatly needed on the railroad track for the economical handling of this material. This cost is estimated at $16,000.00. The cost of laying new mains in all parts of the city is estimated at $80,000.00. The cost of mains and High Service for the Harrison Street district isestimated at $54,000.00.

Danvers, Mass.—The only additions in sight at present are the relaying of 4-inch cement lined pipe with 2,600 feet of 12inch and 2000 feet of 6-inch Cast Iron. Also, laying 5500 feet of 12-inch additional main.—Harry Newhall, Superintendent.

Dayton, Ohio.—Improvements for inmediate future include r 1st. One 10 million gallon reservoir. 2nd. Necessory pipe lines for same. 3rd. Additional Distribution Mains. 4th. Some four miles of minor pipe lines to take care of normal development. 5th. Standpipe of 900,000 gallons capacity. 6th. Some pumping equipment, though actual sizes have not been decided upon.— H. C. Wight, General Superintendent

Des Moines, Iowa.—We are contemplating adding approximately eight miles of water mains to our distribution system. We are also building a new pumping station which will eventually handle the entire pumpage for the city. In this station we are installing at present two fifteen million gallon De Laval Turbo-Centrifugal High Duty Pumps, also the necessary boiler and stoker equipment to operate the same. A thirty inch main is being laid from the site of the new station across the Raccoon river to connect with the distribution system. The new station is being planned by Messrs. Alvord and Burdick, consulting engineers of Chicago, and the construction work done on a force account under the direction of the writer.— A. T. Luce, Engineer and Superintendent, Des Moines Water Department.

Elmira, N. Y.—We propose to lay about 600 feet of 20-inch pipe early this summer for the purpose of connecting up directly from our distributing reservoir, our city and suburban systems. The two distributing systems are, of course, connected together but at points remote from the filtration plant and by small 6-inch and 8-inch lines. The proposed change will work both ways in the matter of efficiency, that is to say, it will not only enable us to supply the suburban system at Elmira Heights from the city system without the loss by friction now encountered in the smaller lines but also in case of trouble with the city pumping distribution it will enable us to supply a large portion of the city through the Heights pumps. In addition to this 20-inch connecting link we shall also lay about one and half miles of 6-inch pipe in various locations as needed.— H. M. Beardsley, General Manager, Elmira Water Board.

Flint, Mich.—The following improvements and additions will be made to the Distribution System and Pumping Station: Approximately thirty-five miles of mains construction from six to twelve inch. Construction of additional clear well, capacity of eight million gallons, reinforced concrete. Contracts have been let for one twenty-five million high head pumping unit and one thirty million low head pumping unit. These are to replace obsolete equipment.—F. N. Baldwin, Superintendent.

Fremont, Ohio.—The city contemplates building a filtration and water softening plant in the very near future. Bonds havebeen authorized by vote of the people, to build and equip same. W. Clark engineer of Toledo, Ohio has contract to furnish plans.—W. A. Baker, Director of Service and Safety.

Grand Rapids, Mich.—Regarding the contemplated improvement in the water works of our city, must advise as follows: Contracts have already been let for the installation of 10,300 ft. of 6-inch pipe; 500 ft., of 8-inch pipe; 2200 ft., of 10-inch pipe and 2900 ft. of 12-inch pipe. Additional extensions contemplated are as follows: 350 ft. of 4-inch pipe; 3000 ft. of 6-inch pipe; and 700 ft. of 8-inch pipe. The above works will include all the necessary valves and hydrants.—C. A. Paige, City Engineer.

Hagerstown, Md—No improvements are contemplated by this department during the coming year except some few’ Pipe extensions in the city not exceeding 1000 feet. The future development of a larger water supply for this city is a huge proposition and will require a great deal of study and consideration and nothing will be done for some years under present financial conditions.—Board of Water Commissioners, Albert Heard, Secretary and Superintendent.

Hartford, Conn.—The work on Hartford’s additional water supply is approaching completion, although it will be a full year before all the w’orks are in commission. The principal work on hand at the present time is the construction of a slow sand filter plant at West Hartford. The contract for this work was let in the spring of last year to The Foundation Company of New York City for $627,500, and the work is now about one-third done. The plant consists of an aerator 40 feet in diameter and eight beds, each approximately acre in areas. It is designed to filter at the rate of from four to six million gallons per day per acre. This plant has several novel features including the piping system, the intention being to make this portion of the works as accessible and as easily operated as is the case in rapid sand plants. Hartford’s additional supply is costing upward of $4,000,000 and when completed will assure the city a supply of about 30,000,000 gallons per day in periods of lowest recorded stream flow. All the water is supplied by gravity from upland sources about 16 miles northwest of the city. The filtered water will be supplied with pressures of from 85 to 100 pounds in the business portion of the city.— Caleb Mills Saville, Manager and Chief Engineer.

Ironton, Ohio.—Expect to lay 300 feet 10-inch main and 3000 feet 6-inch main with necessary valves and fittings. Work will be done in about 90 days.—T. H. B. Jones, Service, Director.

Jackson, Mich.—We have outlined for 1920 the laying of

45.000 feet of 6-inch, 4000 feet of 8-inch, and 5000 feet of 12-inch water pipe. To insure the completion of above work, we have organized a labor camp capable of taking care of 150 laborers, these are obtained from outside labor markets and are shipped in as required to keep camp supplied to capacity.—Horace Bowen, Superintendent.

Jonesboro, Ark.—We are contemplating the construction of an additional reservoir of one-half million gallons capacity. Also additional 12 inch mains from Power House to the central and business district of about a half mile. There has already been purchased two Allis-Chalmer motor driven centrifugal pumps.—J. F. Christy, Manager.

Lansing, Mich.—-We are proceeding with the following improvements in our water works department. Emergency water supply: Equipment of 20 6-inch wells with eduction and air pumping, air pumps, well heads, etc., estimated $14,000.00. Addition to sub station, Pennsylvania Ave., $8,000.00. One 250,000 gallon suction reservoir, $8,000.00. Two 900 cu. ft. motor driven, air compressors, $16,000.00 One motor driven centrifugal pump, 2100 G. P. M. $3,000.00. Wiring, station piping, valves, engineering and contingencies $10,500.00. Total $59,500.00. Water main installations as follows: 16-inch main 3.070 ft.; 6-inch main

30,000 to 40,000 ft.—Oscar E. Buckley, Superintendent.

La Porte, Ind.—The only contemplated improvements this year will be extension of mains; we will lay about 4,000 feet of 10 inch and 2400 feet of 6-inch class “C” C. I. Pipe with necessary valves and hydrants. The material has been purchased and will be put in place as soon as received.—J. H. Harding, Superintendent.

McAlester, Okla.—The city of McAlester has issued and sold municipal bonds for $125,000, to be used for the purpose of purchasing land and constructing a dam which will create an artificial lake covering about 1,200 acres. There is no immediate provision made for connecting this lake with the present water

supply, but it is contemplated that this will be done at some future time.—E. M. Fry, City Manager.

Manhattan, Kan.—Immediate water works improvements contemplated and now under construction: 4,500 ft. 4-inch main extensions. Improvements just completed: one 1.500 G. P. M., 24-inch 70-foot gravel wall well with Layne-Bowler submerged centrifugal low service pumping unit, remote control motor driven. One 2,000,000 gallon Worthington centrifugal high service motor driven pumping unit. This city is also considering the possible installation of a two-million gallon iron removal and water softening plant. This project will probably be voted upon in the near future.—B. L. Ulrich, Superintendent.

Mahoning Valley Sanitary District.—Relative to the matter of the formation of the Mahoning Valley Sanitary District: This is a project which it is proposed to organize under an Act passed by the Ohio Legislature at its 1918-19 Session and which is of general application throughout the State. The matter was orginally advocated, however, by W. H. Dittoe, engineer of the State Department of Health, by reason of the necessity of relief for the Mahoning Valley, due to the excessive pollution of the Mahoning River through industrial and other sewerage wastes, which greatly contaminated the river. The act provides that a municipality, either singly or in combination with other municipalities, may organize, under certain regulations, for the formation of a Sanitary District, which is to be conducted by a Commission to be appointed by the Common Pleas Judges. The powers granted such commissions are rather broad and extend to the control of water sheds and streams, sewage disposal, domestic water supply, etc. The main object so far as this district is concerned is to clean up the Mahoning River so as to improve its sanitary condition to the extent that it will not be a menace in flowing through the municipalities adjacent. However, it is not unlikely that the matter of a domestic water supply for the various cities within the district will also be taken up. The proposition is now going through the formation stage in this district, although the organization has by no means been gotten into tangible shape. —H. F. Kaercher, Superintendent.

Marietta, Ohio—We are not contemplating any extensive improvements this year. Last fall we just finished a new 4,000,000-gallon reinforced concrete reservoir which we are now using and this spring we have just finished overhauling our pumps at the pump station which are now in splendid condition. Just as soon as the money market gets in a little better condition and we are able to sell some bonds, we hope to make some extensive repairs and improvements, but at this time will not go into details.—J. Harry McClure, Acting Superintendent and Cashier, Department of Water Works.

Middletown, N. Y.—Plans and specifications for the following improvements and additions to the water works are now being made. An additional clear-well of reinforced concrete construction for storage of filtered water. This well to be 71/2 feet deep and 75 feet square inside, to have a normal capacity of about 250,000 gallons. The removal of the four existing wooden gravity filters and replace the same with six new concrete filters of 500,000 gallons capacity each. The addition of two steel pressure filters of 250,000 gallons capacity each. The installation of a mechanical device for the addition of coagulating chemicals to the raw water before filtration.—John A. Korschen, Commissioner of Public Works.

Monmouth, Ill.—The only improvements we will add to our department is to install two 200 H. P. boilers and heater within the next three months.—George M. Crow, Superintendent of Water Works.

New York City—The Board of Estimate and Apportionment has recently appropriated the sum of $571,000 to be utilized for making extensions to the distribution systems in all the boroughs, consisting largely of new 8-inch and 12-inch mains; from this appropriation a contract in the amount of $145,000 for furnishing pipe, castings, valves and hydrants has already been awarded, and a contract for similar materials, estimated to cost $330,000, will shortly be advertised. It is expected that all of this material will be laid, partly by city force, and partly by several hauling and laying contracts during this year. Work has just been commenced on a contract for furnishing, delivering and laying a 36-inch water main about two miles long, in East 169th Street, etc., Bronx, connecting to Shaft 7 of the Catskill Aqueduct and designed to improve the trunk main system in that borough. This contract was awarded last February to the Beaver Engineering and Contracting Company at an estimated cost of $376,000. In addition to the above, the department has before the Board of Estimate a request for an appropriation of corporate stock funds in the amount of $1,139,000, for the installation of mains, 12-inch to 36-inch in diameter, to improve the distribution systems in all the boroughs, and provide more adequate trunk main facilities in areas which have outgrown their present feeders, work of this nature having been practically suspended during the past five years. It is expected that this appropriation will be granted, and that the work will be executed during the next twelve to eighteen months. To improve and facilitate the work of maintenance of the distribution system there will shortly be purchased by contract, fifteen small passenger automobiles and ten auto trucks of 1 to 31/2 tons capacity, at total estimated cost of about $28,000. The installation of several small plants for the treatment of streams and the sewage of villages in the Catskill and Croton watersheds, and the enlargement of the Mt. Kisco disposal plant are contemplated in the near future. The matter of the re-construction of Highbridge, which carries the Old Aqueduct across the Harlem River, required for the removal of the obstruction to navigation at this point, has been under discussion by the city and federal authorities for the past few months, and it is probable that final decision will shortly be made as to the plan which will be adopted for this work, which necessitates a considerable expenditure.—Department of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity, Merritt A. Smith, Chief Engineer.

Norfolk, Neb.—We are at this time engaged in laying about 8,000 feet of 4-inch, cast-iron main and 1,900 feet of 6-inch main; this includes sixteen additional fire hydrants and twelve gate-valves in brick manholes with cast-iron covers. This is a much-needed improvement, having been contemplated for about three years, but owing to war conditions, was not pushed until this last winter, when we let a contract at a figure that staggered us. The above extension will cost us over $18,000. We have fully $20,000 more of extensions than we have plans out for and which are badly needed, but will be unable to do much with them this year. We hope to be able to spend about $10,000 more this fall out of our water works profits, hut this may be cut down some. Our city has grown very rapidly during the past five years, and the water works has been unable to obtain sufficient funds to keep up to the growth of the city. We have just completed two additional 8-inch deep wells at the auxiliary plant to provide for increased demands for water. These wells are about 100 feet deep, and we anticipate at least 300 G. P. M. from each. They are connected into one suction line, together with a 12-inch well, and are pumped by a 750-G. P. M. Gould triplex pump. We have also overhauled and put in first class condition two of the motors at the main plant; these have been neglected for several years and were getting in bad shape. We have two reserve motors now that can be used in an emergency. We have also instituted a new scheme here for furnishing water to houses on the cross streets which are not supplied with a regulation cast-iron water main. In many cases there are from three to six houses abutting these cross streets. We have no need for a main on all these streets from a fire-protection or circulation standpoint, so we have decided to connect between the cast-iron mains with 2-inch extra heavy wrought iron pipe (galvanized), leaving a three-quarter tee opposite each house. We further protect this pipe by painting with hot asphalt at all joints or threads. In this manner we are able to furnish fresh water direct to many houses that otherwise could not obtain same without considerable expense, and we also save considerable over the cost of cast-iron mains. We connect these 2-inch lines to the cast-iron mains by cutting in either a tee or cross, as may be needed, and the use of tapped plugs threaded for the 2-inch pipe. Where both ends are connected, an expansion joint is used in the block. We have just completed a physical valuation of our system, showing a present valuation of about $250,000, and we have outlined a plan of work for the next five years involving an expenditure of over $100,000. We have also instituted an up-to-the-minute set of books and records which we consider an asset to any plant. We have had to increase our office help, but the results that we will get will be of great value to us. As a result of our valuation and report, an increase in domestic rates is recommended, with a slight decrease for large consumers, a sliding scale with a fixed service charge being contemplated.—H. H. Tracy, City Engineer.

Pensacola, Fla.—The improvement we are making at present is an increase in our water supply. The Layne & Bowler Company of Memphis, Tenn., are now engaged in installing one new well from which we expect to get a minimum of 1,000 gallons per minute of extra supply. We expect to have this well in full operation by June 15th or sooner. We have also let a contract to equip our plant with an oil-burning system, but on account of the unsettled condition of fuel oil, and the difficulty of obtaining a supply, we will only go as far as to equip one

of our two boilers for oil; we expect to get that far by July 1st. —J. L. Sweeney, Superintendent.

Pomona, Cal.—This company has been installing two new pumping plants. In one we have installed what is known as the Kimball Turbine pump and in the other a two-stage centrifugal. Each well supplies the company with about 50 miners’ inches of water. These wells were constructed at a cost of approximately $4,000 each. In addition to this, we are building a re-enforced concrete reservoir at a cost of about $11,000; laying about 3,200 feet of 12-inch steel pipe line, and about 3,000 feet of 16-inch concrete pipe; as well as expending, and having expended during this year, in the neighborhood of $5,000 on improvements to our tunnel proposition. This will probably constitute the greater amount of the improvements to our system for the year 1920.—G. A. Lathrop, Secretary.

Revere, Mass.—We are not going to do a great amount of work in the water division of the public works department. We are now laying about 1,400 feet of 10-inch pipe on North Shore Road for domestic and fire service for the new bicycle race track. We have a few short stretches of 6-inch pipe to lay this year for domestic purposes.—Herbert T. White, Superintendent of Public Works.

Saginaw, Mich.—The city of Saginaw is expending a separate fund of $200,000 this season upon its distribution system. All the contracts for pipe, valves, hydrants, etc., are let. The city has also voted $500,000 to make a start upon a $5,000,000 project, involving an entirely new plant, and bringing the water from Saginaw Bay. The expenditure of the $500,000 will be for the preparation of the plans in detail, the purchase of sites, both at the city end and the Bay Shore end, the surveying and procuring of eighteen miles of right of way and the construction of some of the new pipe line within the city. Mr. Allen Hazen of New York is the engineer of the new plant.—R. F. Johnson, Commissioner.

St. Louis, Mo.—Our construction work and improvements will be of no great magnitude. We are expecting to spend about $75,000 in reconstructing Homer’s Dike, which runs out about 1,500 feet into the Mississippi River from the west bank, diverting the channel in low water to Intake Tower No. 1, thereby eliminating some of the troubles we have had on account of sand deposits. We also expect to spend some $60,000 in cleaning large size water pipe. Appropriations will be asked for providing for the cost of covering the clear water storage basins at Baden and Bissell’s Point. This work, if authorized, will cost probably $400,000. There will be, as is the usual custom, a certain amount of distribution pipe laid to supply new districts that are opened both for manufacturing purposes and for homes.—Edward E. Wall, Water Commissioner.

Shreveport, La.—In compliance with your request of May 8, relative to improvement to the water system of this city, advise that the bids for $400,000 worth of work will be opened on the 28th of this month. The improvement consists of a three-million-gallon clear water well, the installation of two six-million-gallon pumps, one high and one low service, the laying of approximately two miles of reinforcement mains 20-inch and 16-inch, the extension to the building and possibly the remodelling of the settling basin. It is also proposed to make an impounding reservoir of Cross Lake, which will cover twelve and a half square miles of water surface. The latter proposition will cost in the neighborhood of a half million dollars. These improvements will increase the capacity of the present plan for a city of one hundred thousand population. This department also has charge of and operates the sewerage system, the cost of which is taken from the revenue derived from the water sales. The earning of this department the last three years has taken care of all the improvement work done in that time, including both water and sewerage extensions; over $175,000 has been expended in making the necessary extensions.— Thomas L. Amiss, Superintendent.

Sioux City, Iowa—Our city will install another electrical unit, will put down another well, lay 9,500 feet of 24-inch castiron pipe, and install new Kenny 250 H. P. boiler at our Main Street station.—Phil Carlin, Superintendent.

Springfield, Mass.—This department has laid out quite an elaborate system of extension and improvements for the present year, aggregating the laying of some thirteen miles of different sizes of pipe ranging from 16 inches in diameter to 6 inches. This pipe has been contracted for through the United States Cast Iron Pipe & Foundry Company, the Warren Foundry Company and the Camden Iron Works, and is at present under construction, none of it having been received as yet. It is a question whether we can complete the work that we have laid out for the present year on account of the shortage of labor. We have purchased a Model 24 Parsons trenching machine and a No. 10 backfiller, with which machines we expect to expedite the work materially, but even with those machines man power is not entirely eliminated, and at present we have but eight men in a gang where we should have between thirty and forty.—Alfred E. Martin, Superintendent.

Toledo, Ohio—Improvements so far contemplated for the division of water consists of an additional ten-million-gallon sedimentation and coagulating basin in conjunction with twentytwo additional filter units of one million gallons capacity each, now under construction. Possible planning and contract letting of three additional miles of force mains 30 inches in size. These are no doubt the major improvements which will be given consideration by this division during the balance of this year.— George N. Schoonmaker, Assistant Commissioner.

Weehawken, N. J.—Concerning improvements and additions which are contemplated by the Hackensack Water Company in the near future, wish to advise that applications for extensions of our distribution system are far behind their usual number, as our pre-war extension work has been for several years between 25 and 30 miles per annum, and I question if such work this year will amount to 25 per cent, of normal, and no extension work is contemplated in sizes above 12 inch. We are, however, spending a good deal of money on a new 30-inch transmission main a little over eight miles in length, and because of the various elevations over which it is to be laid, it is made up of classifications “B,” “D,” “E” and “F.” A large portion of this pipe has been received and distributed, and the work of laying it is well in hand, and I think bids fair to be completed before the end of the present year, although a large portion of it requires from 50 to 60 per cent, rock excavation. In connection with this new main, two 7J4 million gallon vertical triple expansion crank and fly-wheel pumping engines are to be installed at our New Milford Station, but we could get no delivery of these machines before about January 1, 1921, and which will mean erected and ready for service probably about June 1. Order for the pumping engines was placed with the Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company, they being the low’est bidders.—D. W. French, Superintendent.

Worcester, Mass.—Worcester, in common with most other water departments, is not doing its usual extension work, such as was carried on previous to the war. There is, however, one development here which is worthy of mention, the Norton Company. located at the north end of the city, are building 92 single houses, which are expected to be ready for occupancy in June. In order to take care of the proposition the water department is called on to lay 2,300 feet of 16-inch, 564 feet of 12-inch, 1,272 feet of 6-inch and 1,300 feet of 2-inch pipe. Also the necessary gate valves and hydrants. Indications in Worcester are that there will be no great building boom, though it is estimated that the number of new services to be put in during this year will approximate 500.—George W. Batchelder, Water Commissioner and Registrar.

Warren, Mass., to Form Water District

The town of Warren, Mass., has been empowered by the state legislature to form a water district and the voters can now take suitable action to get a water supply system. Several attempts have been made in the past, to secure the system, but as West Warren already has a good supply, that part of the town has opposed the movement and it has heretofore been impossible, it is stated, to get the necessary two-thirds vote. The authority to form a separate water district disposes of that difficulty.

The Cleveland Board of Control has awarded the contract for completion of the excavation for the new reservoir and a new bond issue to supplement one of $3,000,000 under which work is now being done, will probably be necessary, according to Utilities Director Farrell. The contract is for $312,000. Two years ago, a contract for the work was forfeited by other contractors because of the cost of cutting through a rock formation encountered.

A Novel Case Involving Water Right

The Ohio Court of Appeals recently handed down a decision in a novel and interesting case, referred to as follows in the local press: “The village of Cardington is located on a stream and for over seventy years a mill dam had been maintained within the limits of the village, under an agreement between the village council and the owners of the dam. Under this agreement certain of the impounded waters was given for the use of the village for fire protection purposes. Following the washing out of the dam in a flood about two years ago, certain of the residents along the stream above the village joined with some of the taxpayers of the village in an effort to enjoin the reconstruction of the dam, contending that as the use of the dam, for mill purposes had been abandoned by the original owners, they had no power to grant such privilege to the village, because such a privilege, it was averred, was contrary to the terms of the original grant. The case, when heard before Judge Mouser, attracted a great deal of attention, and his decision was adverse to Paul B. Maxwell and his associate plaintiffs and in favor of the village, which had been practically without fire protection for some two years. The plaintiffs carried the case to the Court of Appeals, and this tribunal has just handed down its decision sustaining -Judge Mouser in his findings.”

Claims Transgression of Constitutional Rights

Question have arisen in the course of the efforts of the city of Providence to increase its water supply, which are of far reaching importance, involving, as they do, the extent of the power of a municipality to exert the right of eminent domain by seizing property asserted to be indispensable for the city’s interests, at a compensation claimed to be inadequate by the owners of such property. The claims of one important corporation have been settled by compromise, after somewhat prolonged legal proceedings at the end of which both parties appealed against the decision of the Supreme Court, the city holding that the damages awarded were too large and the corporation contending that they were too small. The compromise reached privately settled on a sum between the two. The company demanded $1,000,000 and $344,000 was the sum awarded, but the settlement gave $265,000 to the corporation. The case now in court is that of the Joslin interests, which embrace six mills and light and water plants, all situated on land that will be submerged by the huge reservoir contemplated by the Providence Water Supply Board and for which the damages claimed are $3,400,000. The state legislature had passed an enabling act under which the Board proposed to acquire the property and the Supreme Court affirmed the right of the city. The corporation has appealed to the Supreme Court of the United States, the petition setting forth that the petitioner is advised and believes that the judgement of the Supreme Court of Rhode Island was erroneous and that the act the State Legislature was unconstitutional. The petition further asserts that the attempt of the Legislature to make the City Council the sole judge of the necessity for the taking of property and the extent of such taking, without right of the landowner to say that the public use may be fully subserved without taking the property or some part tbereof, contravenes Article 14 of the amendments to the Constitution of the United States. The right of the petitioner to a hearing by an impartial tribunal is asserted in the petition. A temporary injunction has been granted by Judge Barrows in the Superior Court to prevent the city from interfering with the plaintiff pending the settlement of the question of constitutional rights.

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