Convention of Central States Waterworks Association
The Central States Waterworks Association held its fifteenth annual convention at the Hollonden Hotel in Cleveland, O., September 19-21 inclusive Whether or not the pleasant weather was conducive to a Rood attendance we cannot say, but there was a fairly good attendance of the most active and well-known waterworks men of the country, and the proceedings of the con vention were up to the standard in respect to interest. In fact, more than the usual concern was manifested by those present in the various papers presented. I he address of welcome by Leslie C. Smith, Superintendent of the Cleveland waterworks department, was hearty and sincere— so much so that the Association members and guests all felt that they were indeed among friends, and displayed this feeling in all the proceedings. as well as in the pleasure pastimes. Each one felt that the held the key to the city, and entered in to the social program with relish. The welcome extended by Superintendent Smith was responded to by Alba I.. Holmes, II. E., of Grand Rapids, Mich., President of the Association President Holmes gave a very interesting resume of the salient impediments that had confronted waterworks engineers and superintendents during the past year, and complimented the successful manner with which these obstacles had been overcome. The president’s address is herewith presented. Theater parties and automobile rides were planned by a committee of .Cleveland ladies composed of the following: Mrs. A. B. Lea, Mrs. 1. n. Glauber. Mrs. E. P. Roberts, Mrs. X. J. Kramer, Mrs. E. Zweig, Mrs. J. C. Beardsley. Mrs. Louise Lower. Mrs. Thomas E. Monks, Mrs. Fred. Berg, Mrs. Lee Dinkcl, Miss Roberts. Members of the association were conducted to the intake crib and the Kirtland pumping station of the waterworks department, and also to the Glauber Brass Manufacturing Co. plant. Papers on various subjects were presented by these gentlemen: President’s Address, President Alba I.. Holmes: Jno. W. Hill. Consulting Engineer; C. YV. Wiles, Superintcndent Delaware W ater Co.; Leo Hudson, Consulting Engineer; J. B Ayers, clumist; F. C Jordan, Secretary Indianapolis Water Co.; F W. Monford, chemist. The whole program was carried “lit under the direction of a local committee composed of Hon. A. B. Lea, Director of Public Service; Leslie C. Smith, Superintend mt Water Department; F. P. Roberts, President the Roberts Yhhott Engineering Co.; Thus. F Monks. Assistant Secretary the Guardian Savings and Trust Co.; C. F. Schulz, Chief Engineer Water Department; Harry MrPhers n. Water Department; A. I. Fisher, manager waterworks department Glauber Brass Manufacturing Co., J. C. Beardsley, Thomson Meter Co.
Papers read at this convention whiJ/ do not appear in dtis issue of FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERIN’!. will be found in subsequent issues.
The following officers were elected : President, W. J. Scroggins, superintendent, Wheeling. W. Va.; vice-president, William Allen Veach, Xewark, Q.
State Vice-Presidents—Illinois, F. J. Brinkoetter. Quincy, Ills.; Indiana. T. W. McXantee, Wabash, Ind.; Kentucky. W. H. Patton, Catlettshitrk, Ky.; Missouri, S. Bent Russell. St. Louis, Mo.; Michigan, F. O. Collins, Hastings, Mich.; Ohio, C. E. Inman, Warren, O.: Pennsylvania, II. C. Lea. Sharpsburg, Pa.; Wisconsin, Fred Bosch, Whitewater. Wis.: West Virginia, Mentor Hetzer, Moundsville, V. Va.
Secretary, R. P. Bricker, Shelby, O.; treasurer, A. V. Inntan, Massillon. O.
Executive Committee—Fred B. Leopold, chairman. Pittsburg, Pa.; C. W. Wiles, Delaware, O.; T. H. Verner, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Finance Committee—Wilbur Schofield, McMeeften, W. Va.; W. B. Wilkinson, Pittsburgh, Pa.; F. C. Jordan, Indianapolis, Ind. Detroit was selected as the place of next year’s meeting, and the prediction was made by Mr. Putnam that the choice of this city would result in an accession of membership, especially in the state of Michigan.
The first regular session of the convention was scheduled for Tuesday afternoon, but no business was transacted at this session other than election of new members, as follows: Van A. Reed, Jr.. Pittsburgh, Pa., treasurer Federal Engineering Company, consulting and contracting engineer; John P. Bracker, president and manager, Lowellville Water Company, Lowellville, O.; W illiam G. Clarke, civil and consulting engineer, Toledo. O.; Win. A. Fleig, Gatnon Meter Company, Newark, X. J.; W. B. Wilkinson, Westinghouse E. & M. Company. Pittsburgh, Pa.; C. I. Crippeti, electrical engineer. Youngstown. O.; Jos. McKinley, electrical engineer, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Leslie C. Smith, superintendent of the Cleveland water department, who delivered the welcoming address, takes great pride in the efficient operation of the department, and also equal pride in his city, and his address reflected this sentiment. He urged that whether water plants he publicly or privately owned, the same dominant characteristics should mark their management, namely, justice to all alike, efficient service and honesty in all dealings with the public. These principles reduced to practice will prevent complaint and reduce opposition to the minimum. Mr. Leslie welcomed the convention to the sixth city of the Union, now rapidly advancing to the fifth grade, and reviewed many of Cleveland’s industries. its parks and beauty spots. He said that So per cent, of all the coal handled on the Great Lakes comes into and out of Cleveland; 25000,00ft tons of ore per year are brought into this port, which has over 1.000 manufacturing industries, representing an investment of over $400,000,000, and an annual output of over $215,itnu.ooo. It ranks first in the manufacture of electric carbons and wire, wire nails and heavy machinery. In its automobile activities, second only to the city of Detroit. Larger than its industires, worth more than all its money, is the big-heartedness and open-fistedness of the Cleveland people. Mr. Smith briefly reviewed the history of the Cleveland waterworks from the time when in 1853, the municipality took over the private plant upon a bond issue of $500,000. The intake at that time was some 300 feet from shore, and is now completely buried in the sand. In 1874 a 5-foot tunnel was extended to the present west side crib. This was quite sufficient until in 1801 an additional 7-foot tunnel was built, and in 1905, the present 0-foot tunnel was completed and put into operation. The pumping capacity of Cleveland is 156,0N).O00 gallons; it has 707 miles of mains ranging front 4 inches to 18 inches in diameter. It has over 80,000 consumers. Over 79,000 meters, about 08.7 per cent, of the taps being metered. I he plant to-day represents an investment of $16,240,000, and if the value of the franchise were included, would be worth nearly $25,000,000. The reputation of the Cleveland waterworks plant has gone broadcast over the world as obtaining thorough results by scientific methods. It furnishes water to the ordinary consumer at o 1-3 cents per 1,000 gallons, and this without favoritism or favor. In closing, Mr. Smith again repeated his warm welcome, and promised the convention that when they left Cleveland if they had not had a good time, it would not be Cleveland’s fault, or that of its water department.
In responding to the mayor. President Holmes congratulated the convention that no mistake had been made in selecting Cleveland as the place for the 1911 convention, as witnessed by the character of the mayor’s welcome. He called upon C. W. Wiles to say a few nice words to the mayor in further acknowledgment. Mr. Wiles thanked the mayor warmly, and said that it was apparent that the convention had not come to any small burg, and he for one was greatly surprised at the strides that Cleveland was making in all ways, and particularly in the progress of its water department within the past ten or eleven years. He referred to the fact that the people are everywhere now dmanding better and purer water, and that waterworks men must meet this demand. He hoped that the time would come when typhoid fever would be entirely eliminated; but in the meantime be held that too often the water supply was blamed for typhoid when the trouble was either in the milk supply or flies. The cry was often: “Boil your water,” when it should he: “Boil the milk.” President Holmes assured hi9 audience that if typhoid fever ever was entirely eliminated it “never would he missed.” He called on Mr. PL P. Roberts, president the Roberts-Abbott Engineering Co. to further address the convention with words of welcome. He made a strong plea for paying firemen and engineers higher salaries. In large installations it is evident that when great saving can be effected by proper firing, the firemen should reap some reward. In answer to a query as to what resulthave been obtained through the employment of patented smoke consuming devices, the speaker said these patented devices need not necessarily be re sorted to, as the desired effect could lie secured without them by proper firing and proper stack, draft, etc. Care should be taken to prevent in filtration of air and leaking of air in boiler settings. Boilers ought to lie pointed up carefully Different conditions of stokers are requisite de pending on whether you have a steady or a variable load. Again, a stoker that is good with one kind of coal will not be equally good with a different coal. A paper by Mr. John V. Hill, ot Cincinnati consulting engineer, was read, on the subject. “Stream Pollution in Ohio.”
The paper brought out some discussion. Mr. Leopold referred to a plant which is being built by certain interests in Baltimore County. Md.. that are developing same suburban property. They have erected a plant on the Emhoff lines to taste care of the sewage in that suburban district: the location of that disposal plant is within a few hundred feet of some of the residences that are now built there and where they expect some of their best development to take place. The outcome cannot be told until the plant is finally in operation. Enough confidence is felt in it that they have expended several thousand dollars in the expectation that it will be a success. It is in a location where if it were to prove offensive it would practically destroy the property value surrounding it. A vote of thanks was tendered to Mr. Hill for the paper.
Mr. Wiles in discussing the paper renewed his former statements with reference to typhoid fever being unjustly attributed in many cases to drinking water when it might rather be found to have been due to milk supply and to flies. Mr. Leopold took issue with this so far as it would seem to minimize the importance of proper filtration and purification of the water supply. He held that at least 75 per cent, of the typhoid fever was due to the water supply and possibly 25 per cent, to milk, flies, decayed fruit, and other causes. The discussion then branched off into a wider range, taking up the subject of typhoid origin in the first place, and the fact that certain individuals are typhoid carriers, as is well known. Mr. W iles cited cases, one in his own city, where typhoid cases had been attributed to the water supply which he has proved to have originated in the milk supply.
Letters of regret were read from State VicePresident Fred Bosch, of Whitewater, Wis., and Ex-President John I.angan, of Tipton, Tnd. In illustrating the difficulty of sometimes tracing the exact origin of typhoid, President Holmes related cases occurring in his state of Michigan, where some 40 in one case and 23 in another deaths from typhoid could not be traced, as the water showed on analysis no signs of the typhoid bacillus. He did not believe that half of the cases that wherein the water was claimed to be at fault in the production of typhoid were due to it, in spite of the statements of physicians that typhoid was almost exclusively a water borne disease. Doctors make mistakes occasionally like other fallible men. They are sometimes able to bury them underground and they tell no tales when dug up, unlike a bad joint in a water pipe. Mr. Leopold hung to his contention firmly and cited his adversaries in this controversy to the records of lessened typhoid following the installation of water purification plants. The reduction in typhoid he stated at Pittsburgh has been 75 per cent, since the installation of the filtration plant, and similar results have followed the introduction of filtration plants in other cities, the average reduction in typhoid fever being from 50 to 80 per cent in such cases. He would not, however, undertake to *say that there were not many cases in which typhoid would be found to have its origin in the milk supply, etc. President Holmes on his part also deprecated any intention to belittle the good and beneficial results from water purification, but he believed some cases had been charged up to the water supply as typhoid which were not typhoid at all. In which Mr. Leopold agreed with him. Mr. Wiles related the case in his neighborhood where a milkman charged with causing typhoid infection had had his water analyzed, and found pure, but it after.vards developed that he washed his milk cans in a spring in his cellar which was found to be badly infected with typhoid germs. Mr. Collins told of a case where typhoid bacillus appeared in the water in a certain reservoir, and upon an analysis of the source of supply to the reservoir it showed no germs, and the water in the reservoir did. Finally it was conjectured that dust might have impregnated the water in the reservoir, and upon covering it over and sealing it. the trouble disappeared, there were no more germs, thus indicating that in fee tion of water may sometimes be caused from floating dust in the air falling on it.
Mr. Scroggins, of Wheeling, made a strong appeal for some kind soul to come down there and help him to convince the people that they need a purification plant, one of his friends complain ing to him that when he took a hath in Wheeling he had to use a clothes-brush atterwards to dust his person off. Mr. Young, of Kent, O.. thought that some persons furnished their own typhoid infection internally, and needed to take pills or something else a little oftener, and not blame ‘their troubles on the quality of the water. It was suggested that the present condition of the Wheeling water was a strong argument to the breweries to continue in business. If it was filtered it might knock them out. This closed the night session on Tuesday. Sept. 1!’. and an adjournment was taken to Wednesday morning.
1’lie following were noted in attendance: A. L. Holmes, 11. E„ Grand Rapids. Mich.: Win. Allen Yeaeh. Secretary. Newark. () : C E. Inman. Supt., W arren. O.: A. W Inman. Supt.. Massillon. O.: Fred B. Leopold, Pittsburgh, Pa.: C. W. Wiles, Supt.. Delaware, O.; T. H. Yerner. Waterworks Supply Co., Pittsburgh. Pa.: F. W. Collins, Supt., Hastings. Mich.; F. K. O’Brien, B. F. Goodrich Co., Akron, ().; Herman H. Orbit/., Supt. Board Public Works. Mt. Clemens. Mich.; J. M. Walker, J. M. Walker & Co.. Wellsburg, W . Va.; John Cripps, Eagle W hite Lead Co., Cincinnati. O.; A. B. Belville. Eagle White Lead Co.. Cincinnati, O.; H. C. Lea, Supt. Water & Light. Sharpshurg, Pa.: Roy A Hobbs, Supt., Bartlesville, O.; Lester W Hobbs, Barnesville. O.: W in. A. h’leig, Gatnon Meter Co., Newark, N. J.; W . J. Scroggins, Supt. City Waterworks, Wheeling, W . Ya : W T. Junkins, Chief Engineer, City W aterworks, W heeling, W . Ya.; C. B. Cooke. City Engineer, Wheeling, W. Ya.: Lewis B. Ohliger. Canton. O.; Wilbur Schofield. Supt.. McMechen, W . Va.; Mentor Hetzer, Moundsville, W . Ya.: M. A. Lynn. Wheeling. W. Va.: II. B. Young. Kent Water & Light Co.. Kent. ().; W . B. Wilkinson. W estinghouse E. & M. Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.; C L. Crippen, Bus. Manager, Consolidated Gas & Electric Co.. Youngstown. O.; J. A. Kiewel, barman Brass Works, Cleveland, O.; Jos. C. Beardsley, Thomson Meter Co., Cleveland. O.; E. P. Roberts, Cons. Engr.. Roberts & Abbott Co., Cleveland. O.; A. Fischer, Cleveland, O.; R. P Bricker, Secy. Shelby Water Co.. Shelby, O.; John W. Dolman, Waterworks, Cleveland, O.; Lee Dinkel, Glauber Brass Mfg. Co., Cleveland, O.: W. A. Clark, Supt., W yoming, O.; Joseph McKinley, Mgr. Power Dept. (Contracting) Allegheny Co. Light Co., Pittsburgh ; W. J. Rreece, Supt., Gabon. O.; Chas. Londick, Supt. City Waterworks, Three Rivers. Mich.; D. G. Brown. Clerk Board of Control, Wheeling, W . Va.; R. L. Rathbone, Westinghouse E. & M. Co., Cleveland. O. ; Chas. S. Ferguson, Lorain, O.; C. E Callender, Mineral Products Co., Chicago, 111.; Leslie C. Smith, Supt. Cleveland Waterworks. Cleveland, O.; Herbert J. Putnam, Thomson Meter Co., Detroit, Mich.; 11. W. Collins. Roe Stephens Mfg. Co.. Detroit, Mich.; C. F. Schulz, Chief Engineer, Cleveland Waterworks, Cleveland. O.; A. I. Fisher, Mgr. Waterworks Dept . Glauber Brass Mfg. Co., Cleveland. () : John F Fussinger, National Meter Co.. Cincinnati. O. Ladies in attendance were: Mrs. J. C. Beardsley, Mrs. H Orbitz, Miss E. R. Roberts, Mrs. J. Green. Mrs. J. M. Walker, Mrs. Roy Hobbs, Mrs. N. J. Kramer, Mrs. E. Zwicg, Mrs. Louise Lower, Mrs. bred Berg.
Address of President Holmes.
Following is the address of President Mba I. Holmes, 11. E„ Grand Rapids. Mich.:
“The year that has passed since last we met has been, through the section of the United States covered by this society, one that has taxed the most of the superintendents in their endeavor to furnish their patrons with a sufficient supply of water that was satisfactory in quality. The summer has been dry’ and hot, and the demand for more water to supply the numerous uses of it in the households and factories and to meet the necessities of sanitary requirements has been severely felt by the most of the departments. The extension each year in our cities ot the street sprinkling area has also had its effect. and the increase of sanitary fixtures required by the sewer extensions has added to the burdens of many of our already overtaxed water supplies. These conditions will increase each year in severity for some time to come as the cities continue to grow and extend their area of paved streets and the sewer systems that must precede them; and as the residents of our towns become financially able they will call for all the improved sanitary necessities that are a part of merican civilization and which differ so materially from the needs of the bulk of the residents in foreign cities of like size and class lu our small cities and villages the same conditions exist, and with the increased interest in public improvements being manifested in this central section of the West served by this association, the call for safer and better water is insistent. The time lias gone by when a water supply will be tolerated that furnishes water that is only good for the sprinkling of lawns and streets and the use in extinguishing tires. We are now fairly up against the demand for safe, clean water that can be used for any and all purposes, and I believe that it is the duty of the members of the Central States Waterworks Association to take up this light for quality and quantity with their superiors in authority, and work to give the people of their cities and villages the best that can be bad. And the best that can be had can now be obtained in any locality, thanks to the labors of the eminent engineers and chemists that have made this question their lifeworK m the past, and who have snown us how to separate the poisons from the water, and by sedimentation, filtration and softening, and the removing ot coloring matter offensive to the eye, have made it possible to secure results in the production of water that is satisfactory for all purposes an I can be furnished at a cost within the reach of all. A portion of our region is blessed with ground water that for the present is safe and satisfactory; and where proper care for the stoppage of waste is taken no trouble will be ex perienced in performing the duties required of the water department. But many such installations are doing inefficient work, and are not satisfactory to the consumers, for the reason that the excelent water is used for the furnishing of power for the moving of elevators and other purposes that should be handled by steam, electricity or other means. This question of quality is vital, as it has to do with our daily life in the family. It must, therefore, he the first thing to be considered. W e must furnish a safe domestic supply first, and next provide for fire service, but the amount of water required for the extinguishment of fires in our cities is mighty small annually as compared with the needs of the community for domestic purposes. This question relates so closely to water rates that I wish to impress upon you at this meeting the necessity of each individual city making its own rates, governed by the cost of the water sold and the avoidance of the system of copying the rates from towns of about the same size as has been the custom in the past in many localities. The conditions are rarely the same, and equity and justice to all the residents of the city as well as its taxpayers, requires a price list that is fair to all. In every city, whether it be supplied by a private company, or is owned by the municipality, the cost of operation and maintenance must lie borne by the community; and the community is interested, or should be interested, in seeing that every user of water is treated fairly and pays his share of the proper cost for the supplies furnished The only way that water can he furnished for the operation of machinery in a pumping plant is to sell it for less than it costs to furnish tile same water for other purposes. This discrimination snould be opposed by us, I think, and the rates for this service placed at somewhere near the cost of production. I know that I shall be told that when a plant is running and supplying the other consumers that cost of supplying some large factory with water will be hut little and that tin money is needed for expenses. W hy not supply tlte same theory to taxation, and say that it costs no more to collect the taxes from a large taxpayer than from tinsmallest, and therefore the larger should have a lower rate? Good water is always expensive, and waste of it must be avoided. It is also limited in quantity to the needs of humanity, and it quality must be protected. 1 realize that 1 am saying nothing nevy to the members of this society; but 1 believe that we should keep this matter before the people until the evils that have crept into the management of our water plants have lieen corrected. The public look to the managers of these plants for the correct solution of the remedy for the inefficient supply and unsatisfactory quality that prevails in many of our towns; and unless we take this question up and handle it rightly we fail in our duty as waterworks managers to the people who rely upon us. We must furnish a water beyond reproach in quality, in quantity sufficient for all required purposes, with ample storage to protect against accidents and fires: and we must ask the patrons of this system to provide the necessary means to do this and to take care of the continuance of the system. To do this we must take care of as much of the question of depreciation as is possible each year, and all of the time, so that the plant is kept at its highest state of efficiency and the frequent issue of a bonded indebtedness for repairs will not he necessary. This will require higher rates in the most of the plants than now are charged, but will be what the most conservative business men of the country require of concerns in other lines. I want to bring up the question of uniform accounting in all of our municipal plants, a feature that has been taken care of in Ohio, but is to be considered in the most of our other states yet. 1 would urge the most thoughtful attention of all of our members to this very essential feature to the end that comparisons may have some value in the future. The hoodwinking of the people by the reports in many of our cities, in relation to the handling of our public utilities lias been scandalous, and it is time that honest men insist on truthful and intelligent reports from their servants. This is along the line of good business management, and competent and fair-minded officials cannot object to this system. 1 am fully aware that politics cuts a mighty figure with all of this business; but 1 believe that there are honest men in all parties, and that the American public will require that whichever party is in power shall put its best men in charge of its offices, or get out of office at the next election. We have had sonic strong illustrations of this in the last few years in national politics. Let each party give us the lies: men that they have, and with a uniform system of doing the business, with the books open for inspection, and with plain published reports in all lines, efficiency will be secured and grafting dishonesty reduced to a minimum. Tile conservation of the water supply for the benefit of the inhabitants of the town must be taken up by us. and handled in the same manner that we would handle other questions in business, realizing that all waste must be paid for by the supporters of tile water system, the same as all water used must he paid for, and that if this feature of unnecessary waste be eliminated, then the cost of that actually and necessarily used may be reduced considerably. Commencing at the pumping station, or distributing reservoir, meter all the output. Meter every tap, except fire hydrants. Make the rate for w’ater high enough so that users cannot afford to have leaky fixtures, and have a charge for ‘ready to serve’ on all fixtures, taking cognizance of tlu-ir size. Allow no so-called ’lire lines’ of large size to fie run into private grounds without meters thereon, and allow no dictation of fire insurance companies as to how your department shall he run. The breaking of one of these large lines, frqm any cause, may so cripple the water plant that no pressure can fie carried, and with disastrous results in case of a second lire following the first or occurring coincidentally with it A mattter that has been before this association at a previous meeting, and which received the sanction of its members in annual session, related to a Public Service t otnntission along the lines of tile similar commission in the state of Wisconsin. Sonic commission that could have state supervision of water plants that supply water for domestic purposes in so far as to compel the companies to furnish safe, wholesome water. and to have regulation of rates, to the end that fair returns may be had on the honest investment of capital therein, either in a private or municipal corporation, is needed in all the states of the Union. Such a commission would also insure that extortionate water rates should be prevented and all consumers of like amounts equalized as to rates, none to receive water at less than cost at the expense of the remainder.
I feci sure that the Wisconsin commission lias Ix-on of much Itenelit in that state. Various matters of this kind are in a chaotic state in our plants; and if we had a state regulation along these lines it would improve the working of the departments and avoid the local political and personal influences that seek to steer the only department of the municipality that sells its product, along the lines of inefficiency ami graft. The agitation that must take place, the initiation of which must come from the waterworks man, should he started and pressed in the various waterworks associations of the country, to the end that uniformity of results may he obtained in each state, as nearly as conditions will permit: and in this work I feel that we shall receive the support and aid of the different boards of health of the states in which we reside. Many of the waterworks troubles are the result of our following the precedents set years ago, when the conditions were different and the necessities of to-day had not arisen or were considered as luxuries not necessities. Fifty years ago water meters were hardly known, and none were used in the moderate-sized towns as is the common practice in such towns to-day. The cheapness of fuel in those days, and the limited needs and uses of water in the cities made the daily pumping less of a tax on the community than it is to-day. In the matter of the profitable operation of water plants I want to call your attention to some points in which this work differs from the selling of other products, and ask you to study them. In a municipal water plant the
city has a monopoly of a product that the consumer must have if he would live decently. Without the use of water under pressure he can have no sewer or sanitary conveniences, no lawn or lire protection; and this product he must buy from the city at the city’s price; and yet the most of tile municipal plants cannot keep their heads above water, so to speak, and are constantly in trouble to get the means to pay for needed repairs and extensions; and are unable in many cases to pay more than laborer’s wages to the employes. Since we last met the activities of the engineers and chemists who have been transforming the character of our water supplies have been very marked, and the question of purification of vile supplies, such as have been in use in some towns is fast being settled for them, so that this branch of our membership is destined to be kept very busy for the years to come, and it is to these friends that we must look for relief from disease and death. The results in many cases have been miraculous, and it seems as though these chemists could make water, however polluted, safe and satisfactory to the consumer. Large illustrations of this feature of waterworks engineering are now being constructed, or have just been finished, within the jurisdiction of this association, and I hear only satisfaction expressed hy the people who have installed these plants. Of course, this is the only absolutely safe means by which pure water can lie secured with a certainty that it will so remain.”