CONVENTION OF FIRE CHIEFS.

CONVENTION OF FIRE CHIEFS.

We Continue Our Report of the Convention of Fire Chiefs From Our Last Issue. The Topic Under Discussion was the Periodical Attack on Fire Departments by Underwriters.

Capt. Brophy thought that reliable insurance was a blessing to the community, that few business men could do business without the aid of insurance companies—in other words, their property must be insured, that a man of small means must have a policy of insurance on his home before he can secure means to build it. It is a well-known fact that this department controls millions and millions of dollars, but it could not exist without the fire department. He thought it unjust for an insurance agent, the president, secretary or any other officer to condemn unjustly a man who has, perhaps, spent the best years of his life in seeking not his own advancement, but in protecting the interests of others and the lives of the people as well. It is bad enough when a ward politician, to reward his services, will seek to remove a member of the department to make way for his friends, little caring what his qualifications are, but when an insurance agent, or anyone else, unjustly censures and holds up for condemnation a member of the fire department, it is the worst form of ingratitude that words can picture. Too much of this is done, but he believed very little of it came from those who were at the head of insurance companies, that very little of it emanated from the officers of large companies—it is the agents throughout the country, men who seek business without regard to the risk, but with the aim of adding to their own profits by seeking to secure the little commission by violating well laid down rules and instead of coming up like men and admitting that they have not done their duty, seek to throw the burden on the chief engineer.

In regard to the inspection of buildings he said in some cities they had a good system, but often the inspectors are graduates of colleges and schools and relatives of the officials of the different companies who were no more fitted for the position of inspector than he was for a preacher. (Laughter.) If the companies wish to save millions of dollars and desire to have a systematic and careful inspection of buildings they should go into the ranks of the fire department and secure the services of faithful, active men, who have acquired knowledge that can be acquired nowhere else, such men to be recommended by the head of the fire department. Then you will see the loss to insurance companies and propertyholders in our cities reduced in a wonderful degree. At times he had gone over the work of some of those so-called inspectors, and what they inspected was more than he could tell. He said that in the East some of the heads of the departments had recently been subjected to severe criticism from the insurance agents, but believed none of this came from responsible heads of companies.

After a man has spent the best years of his life responding to the alarm of fire, particularly in a large city, he is unfitted for most any other occupation. His compensation is not sufficient for him to retire and live, and it is the rankest injustice and cruelty to embitter the life of such a man by casting him out, claiming that he has not done his duty when he has done the best he could before God and man. At the conclusion he was greeted with applause.

Ex-Chief Benedict said that he had been listening to the remarks of the captain, and thought he had hit the nail on the head when he said the blame lay principally with the agents. He thought if the companies would not write a policy until after the buildings had been thoroughly inspected by competent men there would be a great difference in the fire losses throughout the country, but if good companies refused to take the risk there were plenty others that would. He thought that the principal complaints in regard to the matter of blaming the fire department came from the brokers and agents.

Alderman Stevenson of Montreal spoke on the same subject. He said it seemed to he the universal law all over the country, and thought it was seldom that an insurance agent would so far forget himself as to let a risk go. He said he had been in the insurance business himself, but he had another occupation, and he had refused risks time and time again that he knew were not good. He said the cities should have a good fire department and well equipped in every respect, and should also have a good building law and see that it is enforced, because fire engineers are not able to stand the enormous and unjust criticism which is seen in all the papers taken up. At the conclusion of his remarks he was loudly applauded.

Topic No. u.—”Which is most desirable for service, hose wagons or hose reels? Can rubber hose be carried to advantage in wagons?”

Chief E. L. Vaughn of Worcester, read a paper on this subject. He decided in favor of the hose wagon as it was more durable, always ready, quicker and kept the hose in better condition. Chief Brown of Jersey City said that the city he rep. resented had hose wagons in use, and he thought it most serviceable. Had four last year and ordered two more this year. He decidedly approved of hose wagons.

Topic No. 13.—“ How can a more fraternal feeling be established between fire departments and the fire patrol service?”

Paper was read by E. T. Shephard, superintendent of the Chicago fire patrol. He thought the fire department and fire patrol should unite in endeavoring to aid the heads of each of these departments to keep the fire losses of their respective cities under control, they should be ambitious to make their department superior in every respect. This ambition has been no doubt cast aside and it is possible will be again. The heads of these departments owe a duty in their respective cities to themselves and mankind in general. No matter which should be in the wrong, the fire department or the salvage corps, they should not cast aside their ambition simply to listen to the approach of the green-eyed monster that oftentimes reveals itself. The feeling sometimes exists in the minds of the heads of the departments that they can get along without the others’ help, but he wished to state without fear that neither one could get along without the other or without the others’ good will. The chief of the fire department may say to himself, “ this superintendent or chief of the salvage corps is having a great deal of success and is making friends ; he may make my position a hard one to hold and possibly by fair or unfair means secure it.I can in a great many ways make things unpleasant for him.” Now the other man may think this way, ” the chief of the fire department is a very nice gentleman, but I don t think he is the proper man for chief ; he is imbued with the idea that he is the only fire chief in the land. I am successful, I have the underwriters for my friends, I know the fire business thoroughly and should have his position. Now, I will do all I can to injure his success,” and as in the other case he is backed up by his subordinates. He thought when th£ underwriters have a man in their employ who has not sense enough to know more than to antagonize the fire department to procure what they do not need, it is time for them to discharge that man and to select a man of common sense to look to their interest and aid the fire department in every way they can. On the other hand, when the city finds a man that has so small a hold on his people and his position that a chief of the salvage corps is going to secure his position on account of popularity and thereby do an injury to the fire service, it is time for the municpal government to supply the place with a proper man no matter who he may be.

He thought much good might be accomplished by co-operation, and each aiding the ether. He thought that extending the hand of friendship, fellowship and good cheer, and disregarding selfish wishes, were the prime factors to be used in establishing a better feeling between the fire department and the salvage corps.

Topic No. 14.—“0o factories and warehouses sometimes become converted into gas retorts, in which a sufficient quantity of gas is generated from the heat of a moderate fire, to the end that the building is presently filled with gas to the point of explosion?” Paper to be read by President Atkinson of the Manufacturers’ Mutual Fire Insurance Company, Boston, Mass. It was moved and carried that the reading of the paper be omitted, and to come up at the next convention.

CHIEF STANTON’S CASE DECIDED.

Chief Ferguson presented the report of the committee appointed to investigate the case of Chief Stanton of Salt Lake City, by which the chief was exonerated from all charges made against him, and were McElroy, his accuser, a member of the association, the committee would recommend his immediate expulsion. A motion was made to enter this report on the minutes, which was amended by Chief Swenie, who proposed, to lay it on the table. This was passed by a vote of fifteen to ten.

Adjourned at one o’clock, to meet Friday afternoon at 3 P. M.

FRIDAY, 3 P. M.

The committee reported in favor of the following resolution on slow construction buildings, in which that class of construction in thickly settled districts was condemned :

Whereas, The continued erection of large structures of enormous area, of great height, on the principle known as mill construction, is proceeding in our cities, notwithstanding the disastrous experiences of the cities of St. Louis, Boston and Milwaukee; and

Whereas, Such buildings are primarily designed for special industrial purposes and intended to be built in isolated places, where in the event of fire their destruction could not cause further loss; and

Whereas, These buildings are now being built in such parts of our cities where their location is a greater source of danger to surrounding property and to the safety of a city than ordinary buildings; be it

Resolved, That this association hereby declares that buildings of the character described should be restricted in area, and that it recommends such restriction as may be deemed expedient and determined upon by the fire authorities ; that this association recommends such changes in the plans of such buildings now or hereafter erected that will enable their speedy ventilation in the event of fire.

Secretary Hill reported that the membership of the association, including honorary members, was 424. Of this number 246 are active. The treasurer reported receipts aggregating $1886—expenditures amounting to the same.

The Stanton matter was again brought up, as some of the chiefs thought that after the committee had unanimously passed a resolution exonerating Chief Stanton, that it was unfair to jump right on to them and table it ; it was an injustice to the committee. After some discussion the report was declared adopted fully exonerating Chief Stanton.

A resolution was offered by Chief Joyner to the effect that the request of the National Board of Underwriters for a uniform and regular data concerning fire and fire losses is proper and necessary for the good of the community, and that the chiefs will endeavor to furnish the same to the local board upon their request, and that the secretary be authorized to confer with the National Board of Underwriters in regard to the subject and that a proper system be submitted for their consideration. Carried.

Chief Hale proposed that the following chiefs and superintendents of the fire department of Great Britain and Ireland be made honorary members of the association : Chief Purcell, of Dublin ; G. B. Williams, Edinburg; G. W. Parker, Belfast, Ireland ; A. S. Euston, Cork, chief of the department of Birmingham.

Chief Hale said that as he had been appointed to represent the American firemen at the International Congress of Fire Engineers and had been kindly treated by those gentlemen, he would take it as a special favor to have their names both on the roll of membership and this association. Carried.

The following names were offered for membership : Horace S. Folger, general secretary of the National Fire Brigade Union ; F. G. Richarfs, James S. Gilbert, New Zealand ; Simon Brentano, New York ; F. O. Afield, New York city. It was moved that all officials of fire departments representing their cities be represented in this list. Carried.

Chief Joyner moved that a full list of all the ladies visiting the convention be enrolled and printed in the proceedings. Carried.

Chief Higgins moved that a committee be appointed to nominate the officers for the ensuing year. Carried. President appointed Chiefs Knofllock, O. ; Hendricks, Conn. ; Swenie, Chicago; Merker, Ind. ; Benedict, Newark ; Lemoin, Grand Rapids ; Bonner, New York city.

The secretary read the report of the committee on “ Exhibits.” It was moved that the report be received and published in the proceedings of the convention.

Chief Taylor of Richmond, Va., was asked to prepare suitable resolutions on the death of several of the chiefs who died during the year, the same to be forwarded to the secretary, to be published in the proceedings, and a copy of the same be sent to the families of the deceased members.

The committee reported the following as officers of the convention for the ensuing year : James Foley, Milwaukee, president ; Chief H. A. Hills, secretary ; Chief D. C. Larkin of Dayton, treasurer, and the following vice-presidents : Miles Humphreys, Pennsylvania; Henry Heinmiller, Ohio; E. W. Fisk, New York ; W. C. Astley, New Jersey; A. J. Kennedy, Connecticut William Brophy, Massachusetts; C. If. Swan, Rhode Island ; W.G. Puller, Virginia ; A. J. Harris, Florida ; F. J. Roulette, Georgia ; Jam. Burke, Tennessee ; J. F. Pelletier, Kansas City, Mo.; C. E. Staub, Kansas ; Jas. O’Neil, Illinois : Thos. K. Harding, Michigan ; Wm. Merker, Indiana ; Charles Nicholson, Iowa ; John C. Spencer, Wisconsin ; John Jackson, Minnesota; J. J. Galligan, Nebraska; Julius Pearse, Colorado ; B. U. Bell, Texas ; J. O. Cauble, South Carolina ; Jerry Carleton, South Dakota; F. E. Perkins, Vermont; Phillippe Dorvalle, Quebec; J. F. Mullians, Alabama; W. A. Stanton, Utah; R. Fergusen, Kentucky ; H. M. Lillis, Washington ; Geo. W. Taylor, Oklahoma.

It was moved that a committee consisting of Chiefs Lindsay, Nofflock and Hendricks be appointed to escort Chief Foley to the chair. As the chief was escorted to the chair he was greeted with loud applause.

Chief Purcell presented to Chief Foley two beautiful onyx memorials about two feet high and mounted in gold, one representing a hose nozzle and the other a fire trumpet, with the inscription :

“ Presented to James Foley, chief of the fire department, Milwaukee, Wis., by the engineers and members of the fire department, as a token of regard and esteem and in honor of his election to the presidency of the National Association of Fire Engineers, August 25, 1893.”

Chief Foley replied in a neat and appropriate speech, thanking the department for its kind appreciation of his in the presentation of two such beautiful memorials, after which the meeting adjourned sine die.

CONVENTION NOTES.

The tests of fire apparatus and appliances on Friday afternoon proved very interesting. The smoke protectors, patents of two inventors, were tested in wooden houses constructed in the street near the exhibit hall. When the smoke and fumes from the materials ignited in the places were sufficiently dense, representatives of both appliances entered them, and remained inside for fourteen and a half and fifteen minutes respectively. These protectors do not differ materially from others of a similar kind exhibited before, where air has to be pumped through hose to supply them. The trial of the Eastman holder was cut short by the breaking of the hose near the coupling, but so much of the test as was seen demonstrated that this tool is one of the most useful and effective of fire department appliances. With the Eastman nozzle and holder a splendid stream was thrown through a three-way Siamese and two and a half-inch nozzle, and other sizes were to be tried only for the above mishap.

Mention of the trial of the Combined Fire Engine and Hose Wagon is given elsewhere, but it may be stated that this test proved of more interest than any of the others, for the reason that the invention was new to many of the members, and it is likely it may come into general use in suburban districts and small cities in future. The engine is constructed from the best models, can make steam and throw a stream as quickly and effectually as any other pattern engine built. The hose wagon part is arranged so that the hose can be taken over the side the same as in any ordinary wagon. The trials of firing up. throwing water and taking out hose, were executed in such a satisfactory manner as to leave no doubt in the minds of those present that the combined engine and hose wagon is a success and has come to stay.

The other tests were those of the Hale water tower, which worked, as usual, perfectly, throwing an immense stream over the large storage building at the wharf. The fire boat Cataract showed some fine throwing through two and one-half and four-inch nozzles, and the Champion chemical engine did good service in extinguishing flames in the wooden buildings where the smoke protector trials were made.

Around the convention hall were placed large crayon portraits of the leading chief engineers, and that of Chief Purcell of Dublin. This was an idea of Chief Foley’s and it proved a graceful compliment to those whose pictures adorned the walls.

Chief Purcell was presented with a handsome gold badge and made an honorary member of the associati on.

The presentation of a trumpet and play pipe of onyx, mounted in gold, twenty-four inches high, by the members of the Milwaukee Fire Department, was a very beautiful and appropriate gift and showed the cordial and friendly relations existing between the chief and his men.

Altogether the convention may be set down as a great success.

A SCHOOL OF FIRF. EXTINGUISHMENT.*

When Columbus discovered America a land was added to the sisterhood of nations that was destined to be ravaged by fire as no other land and people have been ever before.

The fires that have marked the settlement of this country— the fires that have attended its growth—the fires that we chronicle to-day, are but testimony to the intense energies of our people, their stupendous accomplishments in every direction of human enterprise, and it well may be said that its very fires bespeak the magnitude and resources of this land.

But while this tremendous fire loss and the multitude of its fires was, for many years at least, a normal condition incident to the rapid growth of this country and the equally swift accumulations and concentration of values, the continuance of this destruction on its present scale is highly wasteful, and within the actual knowledge of all competent to speak upon the subject, is in a large degree preventable.

Thoughtful writers have tried to educate the public mind and community to a realization of this ever increasing destruction and the methods for its effectual prevention.

Your very association was called into existence just twenty years ago because the practical firemen of this country were among the earliest to discern the waste of property. They desired to use all the great influence and authority that attaches to the opinion of firemen who have made fire extinguishment their life-calling, and they recognized the value of a permanent and representative association to give official expression and voice to all ideas and experiences that would help to prevent, diminish and control fires. And the work of the National Association of Fire Engineers has constantly been a stimulation to better fire fighting. It has created new methods and has improved old ones.

• An address delivered by Simon Brentano at Milwaukee, August 23,1898.

The first topic discussed before your convention was fire prevention ; and its suggestions are as practicable to-day and as ready of application as they were twenty years ago.

The careful reading of the subjects discussed at the various conventions assembled hitherto, shows an earnest purpose to gather every possible advantage from the daily experiences you meet with, and no one familiar with the practical discussions before this body touching upon every phase of fire extinguishment can be unmindful of the great benefits that have resulted from this association.

The urgent necessity for every form of organization on the part of firemen that will improve, encourage and promote the best and most approved means of fire extinguishment and all that relates to this art is self-apparent.

It has taken 6000 years to establish the fact that fire extinguishment is accomplished by brain force instead of brute force. It has taken this immense span of time, an incalculable destruction of property throughout the world, and a needless sacrifice of life, to demonstrate that fire extinguishment is a profession ! And even now, after this long period of time, so few, so very few among the many, recognize the fact that fire extinguishment is an art.

The widespread belief that every man without previous knowledge, training, aptitude and experience is fitted to be a fireman, has done more to retard the elevation and improvement in fire extinguishment and to discredit the work of meritorious firemen than all other agencies combined.

This impression in the common mind that the unskilled have equal capacity with the skilled, the general lack of knowledge of the public as to the requisites of a trained fireman ; the inability, in other words, to distinguish between them ; and, again, the signal defect in the attitude of the public, in their failure to discern that fire extinguishment has become a profession—all constitute a menace to the best interests of the firemen and the fire service. _

The indifference of firemen as to what the common belief is in this direction has also contributed largely to the dangerous and false impression so widely prevalent—that anybody can be a fireman I

It is the office of the firemen themselves to point out in all places and at all times that the duties relating te and embraced in fire extinguishment are only safely and properly entrusted to those skilled and experienced in this calling.

The public should realize that in nearly all of our cities fire extinguishment has changed from a calling that can be voluntarily assumed in the moment of emergency, to be laid aside in the meantime. The public should know that the responsibilities and duties imposed upon a fireman, paid or volunteer, demand the constant exercise of the soundest judgment, skill and experience. The public should be taught the danger that uniformly and positively attends the appointment of incapable men in the fire service.

The present situation of affairs, then, in which the attitude of the community and of the majority of people is one ot unconcern to the real status of the fireman and toward improved fire extinguishment, can only be a danger and obstruction to the fire service.

To correct such a condition it requires the united and intelligent efforts on the part of influential and accredited fire authorities.

But until the time comes when capable, conscientious and ambitious firemen will join in a common effort to renounce any association and connection with incompetent and inexperienced men; and until that time when they will establish under the law that fire extinguishment is a profession, and can only legally admit those of proper qualifications for entering upon the same—until then, one of the most humane, ennobling and self-sacrificing professions will be looked down upon as a degraded, unsystemized and uncertain service.

What is the real fire service of to-day ? In its best state and as practiced by the true fireman it is a science. It calls for an instant and correct judgment to be exercised over facts and circumstances confronting one absolutely without previous notice and knowledge; and the successful fireman of to-day possesses an alert mind, courage, skill and other attributes as high as those demanded in any other human calling.

The fact of the slight estimation in which the profession of fire extinguishment is held leads to almost insuperable difficulty in providing departments and communities with sufficient appliances and means for performing the work demanded. Firemen are deficient in respect of suitable and ample apparatus that will enable them to control and extinguish fires, without fault of their own; and when, as a result of the parsimony and misjudgment which has withheld the proper means of extinguishment, a fire gets beyond control, the first blame and the impression prevails that the department is inefficient, although no department similarly equipped could have done any better.

We see actually in hundreds of our communities that the recommendations for the purchases, regular equipment and the strength of some important part are disregarded.

Communities grow, but reluctantly furnish the necessary protection to the increased values and added territory they have gained.

Whenever firemen secure their real recognition in the municipal service as people competent to express the controlling judgment as to their own necessities, and whenever they es. tablish that those possessing a trained knowledge in the art of fire extinguishment should Vie followed in their recommendations for equipments and in matters generally appertaining to the service, they will have attained an immense forward stride

While in many instances we witness a department not wholly efficient in equipment, but capable otherwise; in other communities we are confronted with local political conditions which make it impossible to secure a body of men fitted for fire extinguishment.

There are other departments of the public service where professional politics have entered and defiled—there are many others that bear the baleful foot-marks of the politician, but nowhere else is the retribution so swift, the harm so unerring, as in the fire service.

The exercise of the right kind of politics is the inalienable prerogative of every American citizen. It created our country, has sustained it through all its perils, and will vouchsafe its glorious future.

But the great state-craft of the ward politician that can make a proficient fireman in twenty-four hours’ notice out of a man who does not know the difference between a hose-butt and a water tower, and who has probably never seen either; and the sagacity of the ward politician who can discern in certain individuals the capacity entitling them fo promotion and command where no one else can, this is the kind of politics that is the blight, the curse, and the ultimate doom of any department so afflicted. Keep clear of it, its very beneficiaries are its earliest victims.

Your association, keen in its penetration of the dangers threatening the standing of the fire service on this account, in its first meeting deplored the interference of politics, and in a resolution declared that in the appointment of chief engineers and heads of departments partisan purposes and political influences are taken into consideration and brought to bear, greatly to the detriment and to the efficiency of the department and the extinguishment of fires in our land ; that it is a matter of great importance that the most efficient and trustworthy be placed in charge; and, therefore, it is recommended that all political influence and party prejudice be altogether annulled and thrown aside in such appointments, and only the most efficient and trustworthy be placed at the heads of said departments, so that responsibility be intelligently assumed, and that the very best means be employed both in the prevention and extinguishment of fires and loss of life; and that the term of chief engineer, heads of departments, be extended, and when found efficient and trustworthy, the same be retained.”

Is not this a pitiful plea—asking that the men who have been instrumental in the saving of property and life be retained!

Your second convention declared that “the appointment, retention or dismissal of men for political considerations is suicidal.”

The actual peril of any political influence in the power of appointment, retention and promotion, and indeed the danger of such interference or control in fire department matters, the threatening and alarming consequences of political influence, however remote, iu any matters concerning the practical extinguishment of fires, has been debated thoroughly before every convention of this association, and in your proceedings are recorded the earnest, eloquent and dignified resolutions resenting and condemning such interference.

Have your resolutions resulted in good ? Certainly they have, although we may have no broad, practical evidence of their effect.

But like all other influences at work, which aim to teach the people at large the changed condition, the high and skilled calling of the American fireman, your resolutions lend the great weight of their authority, and help to fashion the public mind to the necessity of entrusting fire extinguishment to the skilled and proficient only.

Perhaps it would be idle to expect a greater accomplishment of practical results as the outgrowth of the resolutions of your association, when they have not been followed by any active measures to enact them into legislation.

It should be remembered it is a comparatively brief space of time which records the establishment of the paid fire department ; and the beneficent results of the skill, training and discipline of the modern department are not so inculcated in the knowledge of the public as they should be.

It is clear, however, that the time for resolutions is past, and the moment for action is here.

The ceaseless destruction by fire, and the changing conditions of our communities in population, in manufacture and in all other aspects that can contribute to losses, tax the capacity of our alert firemen and strain the resources of our best equipped departments. It is fitting, therefore, and no occasion has been more propitious, that your body shall guide the State associations in securing in our various States such legislative enactments on our statute books as shall unify the strength, the purpose, and the work of the fire departments of this country, whether paid or volunteer.

We have not in any State a law universal throughout the State in relation to the subject of fire extinguishment and fire protection.

The propriety of invoking general legislation in fire matters has been proposed before this. Its necessity is made clearer every day, and it has now become the manifest duty on the part of firemen to endeavor to secure all legitimate legislation that will promote better fire extinguishment. . –

It would be futile to attempt here the details of what such general laws should embrace ; but I believe there will be on the part of this association a full record with the broad suggestions that I will touch upon, and which I think should be established as law’ throughout our States.

First, we are aware that the volunteer service is bound to be preserved for years in many sections of this country where a paid department cannot be maintained.

But it is not fair that a volunteer department should enroll or be permitted to enroll members who merely wish to escape local taxation or jury duty or both, or to enroll members whose payment of a fine will extenuate any non-attendance for fire service.

The State should reorganize the whole volunteer system by requiring an enlistment under a general fire law, and under which form of enlistment a man would obligate himself for some specific time and for some specific duties, and to perform the same willingly, cheerfully and obediently.

This law should contain the most rigid provisions for defining and punishing insubordination.

The law should further provide for the kind and class of equipment and apparatus essential to fire extinguishment, and should not permit the organization or continuance of any volunteer organization not in compliance with such standard legal requirements.

This law should in addition provide for an annual inspection on the part of the State authorities of all such apparatus and organizations.

The law should also establish the permanency of the chief officers of the volunteer organizations. When elected, it should be for a term sufficiently long to enable the experience to be gained to make a man proficient, and it should also be established that all promotions and elections in the volunteer service should be in the order of rank.

In other words, the law should define the legal position of the volunteer firemen substantially like that of the State militia. The volunteer organization reorganized under such a plan as it is here briefly outlined would be advanced in efficiency and rank enormously.

The matter of extending volunteer protection which protects is only of an importance co-equal with the necessity for legally compelling communities populous enough to maintain a wholly paid department.

It is the very mockery of law and of our legal resources that suffers a community to grow without resting under compulsion of any kind to provide any definite protection against fire.

The apathy, ignorance and freedom from legal responsibilities for any default in this direction on the part of the public officials, whose authority extends to fire protection, should forever be rooted out of this country.

No single man’s judgment, nor that of any number of men in simple administration of civic functions for the time being, should be that which decides whether fire protection is necessary ; and if so, to what extent.

The law should establish, demand and impose the maintenance of some form of fire protection everywhere. The law would enforce no hardship in establishing a condition of standard fire extinguishment.

The duty of the commonwealth is to furnish the citizen protection from public dangers. The function of fire protection in municipal affairs is paramount. Upon the safe protection, immunity from, and ready control of fires, depend the prosperity, the importance and the happiness of a community, as much as it does on any other department of the municipal service.

The general laws which provide for the maintenance of a paid fire department should establish the minimum equipment. Every State should define the legal position of a fireman in such a law.

It should provide for the appointment of men only after a proper examination and after fulfilling certain requirements.

It should fix a probationary period.

It should, after a man has been accepted in the regular service, provide for his permanency and pension ; and it should prohibit the dismissal of any man, except for cause and upon written charges and after full opportunity to be heard in delense.

The law should permit no promotion, except in order of rank ; and should permit no promotion irom a lower to a higher grade, except upon and after an examination.

All firemen recognize the boundless good that results from any legal measures that give permanence to the service and afford legal protection to their position during efficiency and good behavior.

No service can expect to attract or retain the best class of men so long as their positions are not secure.

The law, in its relation to the paid fire departments, should provide for the direct control and maintenance of the insurance patrol by the regular municipal department. The patrol is, in fact, the third arm of the service. So far as the city of New York is concerned, the law declares that the “ department shall be charged with the duty of preventing and extinguishing fires and of protecting property from water used at fires.” The protection of property from water used at fires is so largely the work performed by the patrol that it exemplifies the occasion for having this important service as a part of the regular department, to the end that the quickest, fullest and largest advantage may be taken to extinguish fires with the least loss. No criticism on the excellent work done by the patrol is intended or contemplated in advocating its incorporation with the department proper. But the work performed by it is one that should be maintained by the public and not by a private tax, and the usefulness of its splendid services can surely be further augmented when under the direct control of the fire department.

This law should also provide for the establishment and maintenance of a fire alarm telegraph system. It is an inseparable part of a modern fire department; and no department, however otherwise equipped, is efficient without it.

It is to be regretted that our departments do not train their men in the telegraph arm of the service. In cities having central offices, the employees might with profit become part of the uniformed force. The telegraph service—the most powerful ally to the fire service—like all other means, methods and appliances that relate to fire extinguishment, should be under the final authority of the chief engineer, because I believe that every part of the service under such control is brought better and surer under the quickening and wholesome influence of the uniformed force—the men who put out the fires, and who are anxious and ready to accelerate every means for doing so better.

And eventually, either separately or in close affinity with a general fire law, must come a general building law. Bad buildings discredit some of the best work of our firemen.

The parallel of this is illustrated in the man with one leg, one arm, one lung, one eye, and suffering from heart disease and with a variety of other fatal ailments promiscuously attending him. When that man dies, everybody wonders how he lived so long. Well, we have literally thousands of buildings in the physical condition of this man, and yet, when such a building burns, everybody wants to know why it burnt.

The subject of an improved and safe building art is so closely related to reduced fire losses that it must forever be a matter of the deepest concern to our firemen and indeed to all those charged by duty with caring for the public safety and welfare.

There can be no contention in view of the diversified construction in our country and in the different parts of it, that many, many years must elapse until we shall be benefited, on any broad scale, by laws and practices having to do with safer and better building.

As it is, the practical experience of the firemen of this country has been a guide to our architects, our builders, and has been the real instructor to our public authorities in framing the improved laws which now prevail in some of our cities; and the fire service has contributed, indeed, in every way, a great deal to a safe and improved construction throughout this country.

It is a serious question, in view of necessary concentration of values which modern commercial conditions impose, how far buildings shall be restricted in respect of height and area.

The exigencies of business and other conditions have caused to be reared enormous structures in all of our cities, covering extensive area, of great height and filled in many cases with merchandise or other material of a quickly inflammable character.

These buildings constitute a serious menace to surrounding property, and in some instances, and under certain circumstances, they threaten the safety of a city.

It is a wise legal restriction that no structure should be so built or occupied that in the event of fire it can for any reason whatsoever portend such a serious danger.

Experienced firemen realize the anxiety and responsibility of a fire of this class, where the resources of a department are seriously taxed, and when a single unfavorable circumstance, such as a poor water supply, the throwing out of service of companies and apparatus, or the occurrence of other fires at the same time, can have most disastrous results.

Even the laudable ambition of private gain should not overstep the limit of public prudence.

Other phases of such a general fire law should establish a standard size hose coupling, and such a provision would set at rest this important question.

And while it is not contemplated in the law that a State bureau should exercise any control over or abridge the authority ol any paid department, except to provide a minimum equipment, the bureau should record and contain the statistics relating to fire losses, which should be made in every State a matter of public record ; and, accordingly, the law should prescribe a uniform report as to certain facts on the part of all departments and communities, that will give a complete, reliable and authoritative exhibit of facts that concern practical fire extinguishment.

Notwithstanding all of our deficiencies in law and despite the many disadvantages under which work must be done, America, illustrious for her manifold accomplishments in the world’s progress, is alike distinguished for her advancement in fire extinguishment.

The necessities of this land have evolved the best practical methods of fire extinguishment extant, and to this country we owe the modern fireman and the modern system of fire extinguishment.

Other lands, comparatively secured from fire and only threatened remotely with dangers that are a daily menace with us, yet recognize in America the best index to their equipment.

The American firemen and the American fire service were the first to establish and pronounce that celerity is the fundament of efficient fire extinguishment.

She has impressed her valuable axiom on other lands so well, that we find in the gradual course of adoption in all foreign lands the telegraph service in conjunction with the fire service and to the release of horses. We find also the swinging harness. the sliding pole, the controlling nozzle, the auxiliary boiler constantly maintaining steam, and other American appliances, all conducing to the improvement and safety of foreign cities.

The celerity of the uniformed force has been of deep import on other callings in America.

The hospital ambulance, with its quick hitch ; the police patrol, with the swinging harness and its whole idea of response developed from the fire service ; and the official usage by the army of the United States of America of the quick hitching collar for the light batteries, reflect the highest compliment and credit to the American fire service, and its aid and benefits to callings other than its own.

And yet this country which has really created and fashioned the profession of fire extinguishment has done nothing to perpetuate it.

The knowledge which is often gained at the very peril of your lives—the experiences that are derived after many a memorable fight, are not and cannot be transmitted to those who are to come after us.

There is no profession practiced—there is no special calling followed in the world to-day without having its school where its teachings can be made authoritative and live forever. And yet here is a calling of vital interest to all, charged with the protection of life, charged with the protection of property, and exercising constantly a care and responsibility so sacred and so vast that it is alarming to see that it depends alone upon its daily experience to maintain its teachings.

We need a school for fire extinguishment 1

We need a school where those who wish to adopt the profession of a fireman can receive practical, competent and systematic training in the science and methods of fire extinguishment.

We need a school so that it will forever disabuse the idea that those unskilled, those untried and those incapable can he firemen.

We need a school because it will make uniform the instruction to all the best prevailing methods of fire extinguishment.

We need a school where the individual experiences of the fireman, the improvements and the progress of the service can be authoritatively promulgated, so that its teachings and its practice shall prevail and give equal advantage to all departments to obtain, enlarge and practice the best art of fire extinguishment.

We need a school which will be accepted by firemen and which will gather and broaden and perpetuate the best means and methods of fire extinguishment.

We need a school so that there shall be some recorded information which is authoritative and accepted by all firemen as establishing the accustomed manner of fire extinguishment, so that when another epidemic of investigation into fire department matters again comes over the land, some definite information may be available to the firemen.

Firemen should remember that at present no information is at hand, and there does not exist in regard to fire department matters and methods any collective data from which or by reason of which a standard of comparison can be made to judge different communities. It should also be remembered that the conditions to be taken into account, in order at any time to institute a true comparison, are so diverse, and embrace so many different factors, that the greatest forbearance should be exercised in the criticism of one community against another. In this same connection should be mentioned those instances within the experience of many here, where the department has done some of its most creditable work, but where, on account of an unusual loss or some attendant circumstance, inquiry and criticism is made, and the service placed in a defensive position, and one of blame instead of praise ; singularly enough in such cases, those arrayed against the department are usually triumphant in convincing and establishing their opinion, because as far as mere words go they are greater adepts at fire extinguishment than our best people. Firemen, unfortunately, do not detect quickly enough the necessity for repelling any misstatement regarding their work and their methods.

We need a school of fire extinguishment so that those in charge of large industrial plants and in charge of valuable property can be taught to be efficient in the use of the stationary appliances that are usually present, and so that these people can be a source of co-operation at times, instead of a detriment to a department.

We need a school because it would compel the recognition of fire extinguishment as a science, and because it would exert an active influence in removing the service from the field of politics.

We need a school because it would dignify the calling of a fireman, and because it would elevate the art and methods of fire extinguishment, and advance its practical methods better than could be done in any other manner.

We need a school so that a permanent interest can be aroused in an intelligent public mind, and that will emphasize that the work you are doing and have been doing for years ranks as a profession. We need a school that will enable people to realize what the fire service is.

Do you ever think yourself of the wide sphere of the duties of our departments, and how impartially and justly they are performed, and how the broad functions of the service should cherish the admiration of all.

No home so wealthy—none so poor ; no property so great— none so small; no life so treasured—none so vile ; nationality, creed—no distinction is known, none ever made. It recognizes peril to fife and fire alone !

And, finally, we need a school so that through its instrumentality the great duty of fire protection may be further fostered that its best methods will endure ; and to the further end that for his care, alacrity, judgment, arduous and perilous work in protecting and conserving the material interests of his country, her lives, her storehouses, her very wealth, the meed of just praise may be given to the American fireman.

CONVENTION OF FIRE CHIEFS.

1

CONVENTION OF FIRE CHIEFS.

The Week’s Doings at Milwaukee.—Lively Discussions Over Mr. Affeld’s Paper.—The Case of Chief Stanton.—The Exhibits.— Notes and Comments.

THE twenty-first annual convention of fire engineers convened at Milwaukee, August 22d. The meeting was held in the arcade of the Plankinton House. Secretary Hills called Vice-President Thos. W. Lane of Manchester to the chair, and as soon as Chief Lane had formally opened the convention Chief Foley introduced Mayor Koch, who delivered the address of welcome.

Chief Koley next introduced Hon. Geo. W. Peck, Governor of Wisconsin, who said: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen ol the fire departments of the United States—I have taken great pleasure this morning in coming nearly too miles to welcome you to the State of Wisconsin and that city of which we are all so proud—Milwaukee. You represent men who have more friends I think than any other class of men on the face of the earth—the firemen, and you have gone from the bottom of the ladder, I presume, to the top. I appreciate the bravery of the lire department as well as anybody. The life of the fireman is one f continual battle; the soldier of the army fights a few times, is wounded perhaps and perhaps he is not, and returns home to the welcome we are all so proud to give; the fireman every day in the week and almost every hour in the day is ready for a battle which is as fatal and as deadly. A man must be a brave man to be a fireman or he would never wear the uniform of a fireman and he must be “ on tap” every moment of the time and he takes his life in Ids hands at all times. He may be a crank on the subject of fires, he may feel that his company can put out a fire better than anyone in the w’orld. and he may convince anyone if they will allow him to talk long enough that his company is the best. The fireman as I would saysleeps with his boots on, he is ready for business at any moment; he never ought to get tnairied in the world (laughter), lie simply ought to tnairy a fire engine or a hook and ladder truck and stay by it always—he will get married, he will go and spark his girl and walk with her on the avenue until the file alarm sounds, and then it is “Good bye, Jane.” If he is alive next day he will go around and attempt to apologise. He gets married but it is a mean trick to play on a girl (applause). I knew a fireman who got married and went away with his wife. He registered at the best hotel and was shown to a room in the best hotel, but when the rattle of the fire department went by he stopped, dropped his valise and was not seen again for two days. The fireman who marries has a wife who is constantly listening to the alarm of the tire bell as well as he. She knows that he his doing his duty and when he returns it may be in the patrol wagon or ambulance, and the children are always looking for trouble and they feel that their father is the bravest man that there is.

A fireman should have as many lives as a cat and I believe our brave Chief here (pointing to Chief Koley) has as many lives as a whole litter of kittens (applause). You, gentlemen, represent the new fire departments; I am of the old, but you must belong to the old department or you would never get to belong to the new. I see here a chief of one ol our Wisconsin towns who was with me thiity-sevcn years ago as one of the torch boys for the old Watcrwitch Engine Company. Those were in the days of the old volunteer departments. What a difference there is now. You firemen of to-day goto the scene in a big rush, if you have to go down three flights of stairs and blow up with gas, but the old fire department waited for it to come out of the window (applause). They would not take advantage of a fiie (applause). Now when 1 see a lire on East Water street, as there occasionally is, a dropsical fire tug steams up to the back window s and pours fifteen streams into the fire ami I think it is a mean trick. But you have got it down fine. We used to have ladders that broke down if three men got on them. Now you have ladders that go up with a coffee-mill attachment and a stream goes in the window while the fireman sits down below reading a novel. O ! it is easy now, and yet the boys will fall off those ladders.

Gentlemen, I welcome you to the State of Wisconsin and the city of Milwaukee, and as I said before, I know that you are brave men or you would not be where you are. I hope you will live as long as it is possible for a fireman to live. I know that every fireman who dies while on duty, or who has served twenty years will go to heaven, and right here I can give St. Peter a pointer While some of his people are looking over the battlements he wants to keep a close watch for an alarm down here, for if any of those firemen hear it they will put a drag ropeon the chariot which travels the streets of Jerusalem and they will run to that fire. (Great applause and laughter.)

Commissioner Wight then spoke on behalf of the Board of Fire and Police Commissioners of the city of Milwaukee. He spoke of the disastrous fires which swept over Milwaukee the past year, but that Milwaukee was not daunted—it was as strong as though it had passed on the other side and that these misfortunes would not affect the city’s welcome to the brave firemen, and that every one would try to make the visit of the chiefs a pleasant one. He referred to the pleasure felt by the convention at the presence of Fire Chief Purcell from the Emerald Isle.

The president next called on ex-President Taylor of Richmond, Va., to respond on the part of the convention. As the chief ascended the platform he was greeted with applause. He said he really thought it the unkindest cut of all to have the alarm sent in over the fire department to call on him to respond without having an opportunity to prepare, but that he would do a fireman’s duty and respond as best he could. He thought Milwaukee a beautiful city, and he greatly appreciated the hearty welcome they had received from the people of Milwaukee. He congratulated the delegates that they were invited to meet in the home of their beloved chief, in the land of the free and the home of the brave, and in the home of Chief Foley and good beer. (Applause.)

Chief O’Connor of New Orleans was also requested to respond to the addressof welcome. His appearance was greeted with applause. He said that in the absence of their worthy president, who would be not only happy but delighted to respond to the welcome in a proper manner, he was unprepared, He said he was pleased to see so many members assembled to do honor to the city of Milwaukee and their dear friend Foley. He thought the deliberations of such conventions were useful in disseminating knowledge among its members and to all those who might attend. He said the firemen of to-day were selected from among the ranks for their physical and mental ability and their ability to cope with emergencies. He said he knew he voiced the sentiments of eveiy member of the association when he said, “ We thank you most heartily and sincerely for the cordial welcome that you have extended to us.” (Applause.)

CHIEF PURCELL, DUBLIN

The next thing in order was the roll call.

CHIEF ENGINEERS.

A’ansas.

Staul, C. E., Kansas City. Walden, A. G.. Wichita.

South Dakota.

Carleton, J., Sioux Falls. Zienert, F., Yankton.

Colorado.

Pearse, Julius, Denver. Roberts, L. H., Trinidad.

Utah.

Stanton, W. A.. Salt Lake City.

Nebraska.

Gatligan, J. J., Omaha. Smith. F. M., So. Omaha.

Malone, Robt., Lincoln.

Illinois.

Harrison, Samuel, Evanston. Paige, JD.. Joliet. Brahtn, B., Rock Island. Heffron, E., Rockford. Moeller, Carl, Peoria.

O’Neal, Jas., Bloomington. Botkin. J. B., Clinton. Boyle. John. Schlaz, G. J., Quincy. Swenie, D. J., Chicago.

Jaeckel, J. F,, Pekiu.

Manitoba.

Code, W., Winnipeg.

Minnesota.

Jackson, John, St. Paul. Runge, A. 11., Minneapolis. Province of Quebec.

Benoit, Z., Montreal.

Dorval, Phillippe, Quebec.

Oklahoma.

Taylor, G. W., Gu»hr:e.

Ontario.

Rowe, John A., London.

Ireland.

Purcell, T. C., Dublin.

Michigan.

Peabody, F. W., Albion. Bentley, L. A., Eaton Rapids. Scott, T., Manistee. Harding, T. K., Bay City. Russell, Geo. F., West Bay City.

Battle, James, Detroit. Fallon, James I, Muskegon. Fleissner, C., Ex., Manistee. Lemoin,Henry,Grand Rapids. Williams, James, Flint. Tolan, James, Escanaba.

Despres, S. C., Traverse City. Crawford, J. A., Benton Harbor.

New York.

Thompson, Thad. F., Ithaca. Bemish, Samuel, Rochester. Blackburn. R. G., Oswego. Cluney, Thos. H., Jamestown. Hull, A. C., New York City. Bresnan, J.J.,Bat. Chief.N.Y. Reiley, Henry, Syracuse. Christie, H. P., Brooklyn.

Eli, Bates, New York City. Bonner, Hugh, New York City. Byron, Patk., Troy. Higgins, M. E., Albany. McConnell, B. J., Buffalo. Jewhurst, E. J., Auburn. Smith, L. W.. West Troy. Cole, Frank, Ithaca.

Missouri.

Lindsay, John, St. Louis. Hale, G. C., Kansas City. Pelletier, J. F., Patrol, Kansas City.

Georgia.

Hanks, J. D., Rome. Jones, L. M., Macon. l’uder, W. B., Savannah.

Burrus, Geo. J., Columbus. Joyner, W. R., Atlanta, Roulett, F. J., Augusta.

South Carolina.

Cauble, J. 1, Greenville.

Florida.

Haney, T. W., Jacksonville. Harris, A. J., Tampa.

Tennessee.

Alexander, J. D., Nashville. Burke, James, Memphis.

Alabama.

Mullen, J. F., Birmingham. Sloan, Matthew, Mobile.

New Hampshire.

Lane, Thomas W., Manchester.

Vermont.

Perkins, F. E., Burlington.

Massac h usclfs.

Brophy, Wm , Worcester. Leshure. A. P., Springfield. Davol, Jr.. M.C., Fall River. Macy. Fred, New Bedford Hosmer, E. S., Lowell. Vaughn, E. L., Worcester. Webber, Louis P., Boston.

Connecticut.

Eaton, Henry J., Hartford. Kennedy, A. J., New Haven. Hendrick, A. C., New Haven. Lounsbury, T. A., West “

Kentucky.

Attersall,W. A.,Winchester. Ferguson, Richard Frankfort Muir, G. W., Lexington.

New Jersey.

Astley, W. C., Newark. Fish, Ed W., Mt. Vernon.

Bazley, T. I)., Long Branch. Benedict, D. E., Ex.. Newark Elfreth, S. S., Camden. Murray, P. J., New Brunsw’k

Hodgkinson, J.W., Freehold. McGill, W., Trenton Stage, John, Paterson. Exall.W., Delegate State Assn.

Pennsylvania.

Cohn, C. H., Allentown. Bosch, Bernard, Titusville. Bundel, C. E., Sharon.

Heston, Herbert,

Fettinger, C. S., Delegate State Association.

Baxter, Jr., Jas. C., Phila. Philadelphia R. R.

Virginia.

Puller, N. G., Richmond. Taylor, G. W.. Ex., Richm’d Farley, E. V., Petersburg!!. Knepp. J. S., Roanoke.

Texas.

Bell, Frank A., Ft.Worth. Wilkinson, Thos., Dallas.

Ohio.

Archibald. J. A.. Cincinnati. Bennett, J. A.. Cleveland. Dickinson, J.W., Cleveland. Hills, Henry A., Hartwell. Heinmiller, Henry, Columbus.

KnofiWk. Geo., Mansfield Larkin, D. C., Dayton. Langley, L. F.. Zanesville Simpson, E. W., Springfield Wall, C. T., Toledo,

(Continued on page 111.)

Indiana.

Grill, Ed, Evansville. Parsons, J., Richmond.

Korty, F. J., La Fayette. Dorsey, O. C., Crawfordsville. Merker, Wm., New Albany. Moffett, W. H., Rushville.

Iooa.

Franken, Wm., Burlington. Melander, Martin, Des Moines. Reinfried, Joe, Dubuque. Walters, C. D., Council Bluffs. Kellogg, Geo. M., Sioux City. Nicholson, Chas.,

Wisconsin.

McGill, Jos. P..W. Superior. Barr, J. S., Kenosha.

Foley, James, Milwaukee. Spencer, John C., Janesville. Daniel, J. IL, Eau Claire. Harvey, C. W., Beaver Dam. Abesser, D. S., Racine.

West Virginia.

Healey, F. J., Wheeling.

Louisiana.

O’Connor, Thos., New Orleans.

Rhode Island.

Palt, Irvin II., Central Falls. Swan, Chas. IL, Providence.

ASSISTANT CHIEFS.

Hooper, II. C., Peabody, Mass.

Goun, C. D., Allentown, Pa.

FIRE COMMISSIONERS.

Godfrey, M. II., Detroit, Mich.

Pearson, J. IL, Auburn, N. Y.

Kane, Lyman E., Newark, N. J.

Archibald, R. M., Cincinnati, O.

Daunt, W. J., Bay City, Mich.

Pryor, E. F., Dayton, O.

Crause, W. J., Bay City, Mich.

Hyman, II. H., Cleveland. O.

Sckindehette, G. IL, Bay City, Mich.

FIRE ALARM SUPERINTENDENTS.

Merker, J. M., New Albany, Ind.

Thompson, W. II., Richmond, Va.

Hoag, G. M., Cleveland, O.

Walker, W. B., Atlanta, Ga.

Evans, C., St. Louis, Mo.

Curtin, M. J., Milwaukee, Wis.

SUPERINTENDENTS FIRE INSURANCE PATROL. Pickhard, A., Louisville, Ky.

Swan, C. H., Providence, R. I.

Abbott, Samuel J., Boston, Mass.

Curtin, M. J., Milwaukee, Wis.

Newman, Herman F., Cincinnati. O.

Williamson, H. R , Worcester, Mass.

Shepherd, E. T., Chicago, III.

Pelletier, J. F., Kansas City, Mo.

Hull, A. C., New York.

PRESS.

Shepperd, F. W., FIRE AND WATER.

Smith, W. E., Western Fireman.

Clark, L. W., Firemen’s Herald.

Case, W. C., The Herald, Augusta, Ga.

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS.

Whiting, W. J., Hayward & Co.; Bosch, F.. American Fire Engine Company ; Braxmar, C. G.; Hull, J. A.; Hoagland, C. A.; Landy, Charles, lCureka Fire Hose Company ; Lewis, M. C., Michigan Fire Ladder Company ; Markey, I. B., Eureka Fire Hose Company; Mitchell, K. J., Fire Extinguisher Company; Ryan, James C., Gleason & Bailey Manufacturing Co.; Salter, K. II..Chicago Fire Hose Company; Smith, C. H., Gutta Percha and Rubber Mfg. Co.; Woodhouse, D. A. Wight, W. IL, Boston Woven Hose Company ; Forster, T. V.; Gardner, J. B.; Bennett, John A., Revere Rubber Company ; Gdlen, D. W.; Chandlee, W., Gamewell Fire Alarm Company ; Evans, R. D., Wilson Manufacturing Company ; Christie, Harlan Pi, Peerless Rubber Manufacturing Co.; Young, Robert, Fire Extinguisher Manufacturing Co.; Hawkeotte, G. A., American Fire Engine Company; Burke, D. IL; Callahan, C.; Buckley, J. S.; Ewing, T. K. Barnard, G. L.; Hedger, W. E.; Tate, W. T.; Thomas, J. IL; Ong, L. B.; Pitcher, W., La France Fire Engine Company ; Andreen, Gus ; Stack. J. T., Gamewell Fire Alarm Company ; Chandler, E. B., Gamewell Fire Alarm Company; Boyle, W. J.; Birge, E. B.; Polglase, T. R., Municipal Fire Alarm Company; Proctor, G. IL, Boston Rubber Company ; Richardson, C. IL, Combination Ladder Company ; Mahan, F. M.; Willis, G. S.; Webber, W., Cornelius Callahan Company; Prentice, A. T., R. D. Wood & Co.; Nichols, C., Crane Company.

VISITORS.

Lindblad, A. J., special agent, Swedish Government; Kane, L E., Newark, N. J.; Van Brunt, R. J., Long Branch, N. J.; Nixon, A. C., Dayton, O.; Hurley, John. Macon, Ga.; Schatzman, W. IL, Macon, Ga.; Ware, C. H., Dayton, O.; Mensing, H. R., Toledo, O.; McDonald. A. II., Jr., New Haven, Conn.; Stevenson, A. A., Montreal, P. Q.; Eversman, E. A., Toledo,O.;.Davis, J. W., Newark, N. J.; Crossman, E. A., Jr., Newark, N. J.; Brown, H. II., Newark, N.

J.; Thompson, E. J., Philadelphia; Coffin, W. E., Beverly, Mass.; Hirschman, C., Cincinnati; Griffin, Joe, Cincinnati; Harris, J. D., Atlanta, Ga.; Seize, C. R., Atlanta, Ga.; Joyner, R., Atlanta, Ga.; Lacy. A. L., Philadelphia; Kennedy, F. B., Lafayette, Ind.; Markey, W. A., Brooklyn, N. Y.; Pickard, B. H., Louisville, Ky.; Schall, C. H., Allentown, Pa.; Merkel, G. A., Allentown, Pa.; Batchelder, J.

K., Cincinnati, O.; Larkin, M. D., Dayton, O.; Pratt, E. E., Meriden, Conn.; Whitacre, H. II., Louisville, Ky., Donegan, H. F., Louisville, Ky.; Grierson, T., Eagle Rock,

N. J.; Walsh, Robert, Newark, N. J.; Yleit, T., Newark; Swenie, D. J., Chicago; Porter, W. A., Philadelphia; Affeld, F. O., New York; De Witt, V Philadelphia; Starke, T., Muskegon, Mich.; Hammond, Jos. C., Philadelphia; Bennett, W. IL, Eagle Rock, N. J.

Chief Foley then offered a letter from the Chamber of Commerce tendering to the delegates the freedom of the floor of the Chamber during their visit. It was moved and seconded that the invitation be accepted. Motion carried.

The following telegram was read from President Chief Hughes of Louisville :

Impossible for me to be with you on account of very important business. Regards to all the boys. HUGHES.

It was voted that it be placed on file and be embraced in the records, and that the secretary should wire back the deep regret of the convention that he was not present. A letter from ex-President Chief Johnson of Philadelphia regretting his enforced absence was also read and placed on tile.

The chair appointed the following committee on credentials:

Chiefs Joyner, Swenie and O’Connor. Convention then adjourned until 2.30.

AFTERNOON SESSION.

The committee on credentials submitted its report, and after transacting some minor business the convention adjourned. The remainder of the afternoon was spent in a trip to the Allis works and in visiting the exhibit hall.

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 23.

The convention was called to order by Acting President Humphreys of Pittsburgh. F. O. Affeld of New York, resident manager of the Ilamburg-Bremen Fire Insurance Company, was to address the convention later, but as important business called him back to New York it was moved that the rules be suspended and he be given precedence. He opened the session with a very interesting paper on the relations which should exist between the tire departments and the underwriters. He stated that the value of property destroyed during the year 1891 in the United Stales was $143 764,000, and the cost of maintaining the public schools in the United States was only $140,277, ; the amount of National bank notes in circulation was only $131,000,000 on September 25, 1891 ; the value of merchandise imported into the United States was only $127,000,000 ; the gold and silver exported from the United States during the year ending June 30, 1891, was $108,000,000, and so on. Incidentally he called the atlenPon of the convention to the fire waste in the United Stales and how’it could be prevented. He said the fire waste in our country was greater than any other civilized or barbarous country, and that the increase in fire waste the last three years was nearly thirty-eight per cent of the destruction reached in 1890. He said we had four times as many fires here as in Europe, and four times the destruction of property. Six of the largest cities of Europe have nearly forty-seven cents per capita, while New York, with a population of 8,000.000, has $2.80 per capita. He referred to the losses in South American cities, where the houses were principally of brick and mud, and in some places they never had a fire or fire department.

He said in the United States there had been a great deal of useless destruction caused by electric light wires, volatile fuels and flimsy construction of buildings, and that the efforts of the board of underwriters had been unavailing to remedy this. Fires continue to increase despite the increase of the capacity of water-works and the better equipment of fire departments. He thought the insurance laws should be revised, and that people should not be allowed to insure for full value. He also suggested an improvement in the building law. He thought the chiefs of the different departments could materially aid the board of underwriters in furnishing statist cs.

Chief Leshure of Springfield, Mass., asked if there were any cities which had reported the number of brick, stone and wooden buildings. He thought it was quite an undertaking for a fire chief to keep track of the statistics, as it would require a great deal of time, trouble and expense to get out these statistics every year. He would like to do it if he only had time to do it.

Mr. Affeld replied that the chiefs themselves were not required to personally count the houses, but to obtain the reports from the various cities. Chief Leshure asked if there did not exist insurance maps showing this.

Chief Higgins of Albany thought that a fire chiefs duties were to put out fires, and the matter of statistics should be left to the insurance men or those who were in a better position to attend to it.

Capt. Wm. Brophy of Worcester, Mass., who is an electrical expert, spoke on the subject of electrical wires. He also spoke of the insurance companies, and regretted that any man could practically obtain as much insurance as he wished, as local agents in writing insurance were not always careful in regard to the risks, and that many of the fires were not due to the insufficiency of the fire department, but to over-insurance.

Chief all of I oledo, O., thought that the local agent in writing insurance should know the exact character of the building which he insures. He also thought that the inode of construction of many of the buildings was at fault, and if the insurance companies were going to relieve the owners of the buildings of all responsibility, then they must assume the responsibility of the property and relieve the firemen of all responsibility.

Chief Lindsay of St. Louis said that his experience showed that slow combustion buildings were the most dangerous of all. Such a building in St. Louis some two years ago caused a most destructive fire. He said there were a great many of such buildings being erected, and that proper attention should be paid to area, etc., and that in a great many instances the contents of the building had a great deal to do with it.

Lhief Page of Joliet, 111., thought the loss assumed in the paper read was not correct ; that the loss was not so great considering the rapid growth of the country, and that in many instances the loss by fire is a benefit to the community, as it results in the destruction of many old buildings which never would have been torn down. He said Chicago woulo never have been what it is to-day were it not for the conflagration of 1871. When a building was burnt it was immediately replaced by a larger and more substantial one. He said he was an insurance agent and had also been a city assessor. When he went to insure a man he was told the stock was very valuable, but when he went around with the assessment roll he was told it was not worth one-half as much. He did not think insurance agents could properly inspect buildings, the Plankinton, for example ; he did not think any one could inspect that building. He thought the convention ought to talk about putting out fires and the respective kinds of apparatus used rather than about insurance.

Chief Foley said he agreed with Chief Lindsay’* remarks on slow combustion buildings. He said the great October fire was caused by one of those slow combustion buildings. He thought the convention should go on record against all such constructed buildings. He thought there ought to be a building law to that effect, and then the people should see that the law was carried out, as the safety of European cities lay in their building laws.

Chief O’Connor of New Orleans thought there should be a universal law upon the subject of the erection of buildings throughout the country, and the law should be gotten up in detail by the members of the convention to suit the various cities, as some cities required larger buildings than others and that high buildings should be limited. He also thought that the cities should be better supplied with police protection, so as to enable firemen to get the alarm quicker. He also said that many buildings were insured for years and years, while the agents never examined the condition of the stock from year to year, and that a great deal of the destruction of property was due to imperfect inspection from time to time by the agents.

Chief Purcell of Dublin was called upon by the president to express his views on the best construction of buildings. He said he did not come to address the convention, but rather to listen and to learn. He said in coming to the convention he knew he was not coming to a foreign country, as they don’t look upon America in Ireland as a foreign country, (Laughter and applause.) He said he came here as though he were coming home, and that he was very glad indeed to be here, and returned his sinccrest thanks for the cordial reception he met with in Milwaukee ; that it would be a mark in his memory to which he w’ould always turn with pleasure. The conditions in Ireland, he said, had perhaps no counterpart in America ; as an old country they had old institutions, beginning with the mud cabin and improving with each generation ; that the buildings were erected without regard to symmetry, and consequently the streets are, as the Irish say, “as crooked as a ram’s horn,” but within the past forty years the municipal authorities have in a great measure rectified it, making more breathing space ; in fact, putting, as it were, lungs into the cities. Public health laws were passed which at first met with considerable opposition by sordid propertyholders. He said that in America the existence of so much lumber was a temptation, as we were tempted to use it too freely, while Ireland had no timber they had plenty of marble, granite, sandstone and brick which they used very freely in the construction of their buildings. They make no attempt to erect the so called “ fireproof ” buildings because they think such a thing is an impossibility, for if the building does not burn the contents will.But they build thick, strong walls, and the streets are very wide so that a fire seldom crosses to the other side. The water supply of Dublin, he said, was excellent. The water-works were built at an expense of j£6oo,ooo. In addition to this they have a series of reservoirs four miles from the city, so that if an accident should occur they would have ample water supply. Engines are seldom used, as there is a pressure on the hydrants of sixty to ninety pounds, even when several lines of hose are used.

At the conclusion of his address he was greeted with applause.

Ex-Chief Taylor of Richmond said he knew he voiced the sentiment of every member of the association when he said they felt highly complimented in having their brother come from the neighboring city of Dublin, such a short distance, to be present with them—that they would not only welcome him to the city of Milwaukee, but would welcome him also as a member of the association. lie moved that a vote of thanks be tendered their Dublin friend for the very interesting talk which he had given, and also that he be made an honorary member of the association, which motion was passed unanimously.

Chief Swenie of Chicago asked that the business of the convention be suspended in order to allow Simon Brentano of New York to deliver an address, as he was obliged to return home. The subject of Mr. Brentano’s address was “ A school of fire extinguishment.”

(Mr. Brentano’s paper will be published next week.)

It was moved and seconded that the thanks of the associa* lion be tendered Mr. Brentano for his able address, and that it be spread upon the minutes of the meeting. Motion unanimously carried.

The president called upon Chief Henry M. Lillis of Tacoma, Wash., and president of the association of Western fire chiefs, to take a scat on the platform. The president then appointed a committee on examination of exhibits as follows : Chief Page of Joliet, Ill.; Chief Pelletier of Kansas City, Mo.; F. S. Kroty, Indiana; George T. Burrows, Ga., and Henry T. Eaton, Connecticut.

AFTERNOON SESSION.

The secretary read a communication from John P. Pratt, U. S. consul, introducing and recommending Chief Purcell to the association ; also letters of regret at not being able to be present at the association, from William II. Johnson, ex-Chief Philartd, Thos. L. Wolcott of the same place and chief of the fire department of Paris, France.

Secretary also read communication from the State Fire Association of Connecticut to the National Association of Fire Engineers, wishing them a pleasant and prosperous session. It was moved and carried that the communications read by the secretary be printed in the proceedings.

Topic No. i.—”Storage of merchandise In factories, wholesale establishments and warehouses.” Pajier was read by F. Pelletier, Kansas City. He said the proprietors of such buildings were frequently warned about the way they had their goods arranged, but they never heeded the warnings. ‘Ihe goods were generally placed in such a way as to form a barrier when a fire had to be fought. He believed in stacking goods on the principle of a wheel, having the centre of the floor for the hub and having the aisles radiate like spokes to the windows. This would make it much easier for the firemen to get at a fire, as it would give free access to the building and the goods in case of fire. In no case should merchandise be stored to within two or three feet of the ceiling. He thought the goods should l e elevated from the floor, as it would be a protection from damage by water in case of fire. He concluded by hoping that the subject of how to reduce losses caused by the storage and wholesale houses would be carefully studied, as it was a very important subject.

Top;c No. 3.—” Simple suggestions for house inspection by firemen.” Paper was read by Chief Joyner of Atlanta, Ga.

(Chief Joyner’s paper will be published next week.)

Mr. McDevott of Philadelphia spoke on the subject of electricity and the danger of coming in contact with live wires. He spoke of the success that has been attained by electricity at the expense of life and propcity. He considered the trolley wire very dangerous; in fact, all overhead wires. He thought if the wires were placed in the ground that much of the danger would be removed.

Chief Leshure made a motion to continue the subject of electricity. Capt. William Brophy of Worcester, Mass., was requested to speak upon the subject. He said the subject assigned to him was ** simple and practical rules for the inspection of electric wires,” but as there was some misunderstanding on his part or the part of the secretary, he would give them instead, “Safe and convenient rules for handling electric light wires.” He said it was not presumed that any sane person would place himself directly in the face of danger from electricity, but the fireman, in the performance of his duty, especially in large cities and towns, where all kinds of electric wires can be found in the streets and on house-tops, is often exposed to the danger of coming in contact with such wires. He thought overhead wires were no longer a necessity and should come down. They should no longer be tolerated. He also urged that the different wires along the streets should be distinguished by means of colors, so that a fireman could tell what sort of a wire he was encountering. He illustrated on the blackboard how firemen might avoid danger from contact with various kinds of live wires. His subject was a long and very interesting one, and at its conclusion he was greeted with applause.

A resolution was offered by Chief Lindsay of St. Louis to the effect that the association declare against buildings of the slow burning description which were of large area and that its influence be exerted toward having buildings of that sort altered in plans so as to be divided into smaller area or be built in isolated places. After considerable discussion the resolution was referred to a committee of three to report next day. The committee was composed of Chiefs Lindsay, Leshure and Higgins.

1 he next was topic No. 2.—” Stand-pipes for large buildings, what amount of pressure will it require at the steamers to get sixty pounds pressure on top of building, using from 100 to 500 feet of hose at bottom of stand-pipe, and fifty feet on top of buildings from fifty to 150 feet high?” Paper was read by Chief Swenie of Chicago. It was a long and interesting one.

I opic No. 6.—” Civil service in fire departments, its advantages.” Jas. Foley of Milwaukee, J. W. Dickinson of Cleveland, O., L. C. Grant of Burlington, Vt.

Chief Foley of Milwaukee was called on to speak of the advantages of civil service in the fire department. He illustrated it by telling of Milwaukee’s experience. He said that previous to 1885 the position of a fireman was a very uncertain one as it depended largely upon political changes. The fireman was at the mercy of political machines and there was no Incentive to work. The bill provided for a fire and police commission consisting of four members, no more than two of whom were to be of the same political party, and it was a fact that during the last four years while the city was Democratic the chairman and secretary of the board were Republicans. When the law first went into effect they had never dreamed of the complete abolition of politics as the law was deemed too radical for that, but politics have been abolished and for the last dozen of years no member of the board has been approached in the interest of a single candidate. He explained the workings of the plan and the details of the examination of applicants for positions in the department. To obtain a position in the fire department the applicant must be a citizen of Milwaukee for three years, five feet seven inches in height and between the ages of twenty-four and thirty-five years, must be of good character. He then undergoes a physical and mental examination. He is not expected to be up in botany or geology. lie must be able to read and write well and have a good knowledge of geography. A man who never heard of Lincoln or Grant, who cannot locate New York and the Mississippi river is too deficient in intelligence to be a Milwaukee fireman. (Laughter.) He said the result of the law was to build up a systematic and well organized fire department. (Applause.)

Topic No. 4 was next taken up. Subject, “The Universal Mercantile Schedule.” Paper was read by A. Rothnellers of Chicago. He said such a schedule would bring about various needed reforms, secure better rating, encourage proper construction of buildings, prevent adverse legislation, insure a more thorough inspection of buildings, educate the business man that he is the maker of his own rate of insurance, it will reduce the great fire waste in the country. He said that it was used in a great many cities in the North, South and East, and he could not see any reason why it should not be generally recognized, as it was thorough and systematic.

The following resolution was offered :

” Be it resolved that the association present Chief Purcell of Dublin a badge of the association.”

THURSDAY, AUGUST 24TH.

At 10.15 l^e meeting was called to order by the president.

Chief Stanton of Salt I-ake City asked permission to make a statement under suspension of the rules, which was granted. He said in March last he was placed before an investigating committee of the city council to answer to charges made against him by two agents of various fire apparatus. He was exonerated by the city council, but he wanted a further investigation by the association, and he asked for the appointment ol a committee of five to investigate his case. Chief Le Moyne of Grand Rapids opposed this. Chief Hendricks of New Haven proposed tabling the proposition until there was a larger attendance so that the members could express themselves on the question. Chief Joyner thought Chief Stanton was right in demanding an investigation. After some further discussion the motion was carried.

The chair appointed Chiefs Ferguson, Joyner, Runge, Heimmueller and Le Moyne.

Chief Joyner asked to be relieved for personal reasons and the chair appointed ex-Chief Bates of New York. Chief Le Moyne also asked to be relieved, as he was a friend of both parties, but the chair declined to excuse him.

Topic No. 7.—”Hydrants, how best to caie for them in winter.” Paper was read by A. C. Hendricks of New Haven.

He said before beginning his paper that for many years he was a member of the fire department, but recently he had severed his connections with the old department and entered a new field, as he had accepted the position of inspector for the National Board of Underwriters. He had visited nearly 250 cities and he desired to express his thanks for the courtesy with which he had been received by the fire chiefs all over the country.

He thought the care of hydrants should be in the hands of the fire department but often they were under the control of the water board. He thought it would be an important point to decide how a city could be benefited and whether better service could not be rendered by placing the care of hydrants in the hands of the fire department. They sometimes divide a city into districts, which system, where used, works very satisfactorily. As hydrants were for the express purpose of fighting fires, he thought it was a great mistake to allow them to be used by street sprinklers, as their bearings became worn and useless. He thought the fire chiefs throughout the country who had not already control of this department should endeavor to secure it.

Chief Hendricks then read a paper by Chief Benoit of Montreal, which was directed to him personally. He had 2000 hydrants supervised by the water department, which sees that they are at all times in perfect order. Firemen are always selected to make inspections and report any irregularities to that department, which during the four winter months employ a force of twenty-four inspectors, who report at headquarters twice a day. They use a portable two horse steam boiler to thaw out frozen hydrants. He thought this a better plan than putting the hydrants in charge of the fire department, as firemen are sometimes hampered in their work, and it might interfere with their other duties. A paper treating the same subject by P. Dorval of Quebec was read. He considered it very important that hydrants should be kept in proper order at all times, and great care should be exercised in winter to prevent their freezing; that they should never be opened in winter except for the use of fire. He also thought the fire department should have charge of the hydrants, and that experienced and trustworthy men should be employed to inspect them, and that these men should report all defective hydrants to their chief, who in turn should report to the water-works department for immediate repair. He thought the chief of the fire department should have the privilege of selecting the men for that position, and of discharging them for incompetency or neglect. He said that he had been a fire engineer for sixteen years, and during nine of those years the care of the hydrants was under the control of the water-works department, and during the seven years the fire department had control of the hydrants he had never encountered a defective hydrant.

Chief Sloan of Mobile moved a suspension of the rules, and that a vote be taken on the next place of meeting. Chief Benoit of Montreal read a letter from the city clerk of that city inviting the convention to meet there in 1894, and assuring them a hearty welcome. He was followed by Alderman Stevenson of Montreal, who made a very humorous speech in favor of his city. Chief Swenie of Chicago made a motion that Montreal should be designated as the next place of meeting. Montreal was unanimously chosen with much applause. Chief Joyner of Atlanta proposed the selection of a committee to set the date of the next meeting. The chair appointed Chiefs Joyner, Swenie and Sloan.

Chief Foley presented a letter from Capt. Pabst inviting the chiefs to visit the brewery. This was accepted unanimously.

Chief Purcell of Dublin was now called to the stage, and ex-Chief Taylor of Virginia welcomed him in a graceful and eloquent address, and presented him on behalf of the association a beautiful gold badge.

He said : ” Mr. President, members of the association and my worthy brother from the neighboring city of Dublin—It is unnecessary for me to say that we are glad to have you with us at our national convention; you know that you are welcome; you see inscribed upon the banners the word ‘welcome,’ and when Americans say welcome it is no idle word, but it is a welcome that is sincere. You are a welcome guest to the city of Milwaukee; this association, of which lam an honored member, also gladly bids you welcome, therefore you should feel perfectly at home in this beautiful, prosperous American country; enjoy yourself as you would under your own vine and fig tree. I will not interrupt the proceedings of this convention by attempting any lengthy remarks, but will at once perform the very pleasant duty assigned me. It is my privilege, as well as pleasure, on behalf of this National Association of Fire Engineers, to present to you a small token of our esteem—this beautiful badge. It is made of that purest of all metals—gold, which is typical of that purity of our affection for you as a brother chief engineer, engaged in the same great battle as ourselves with that most dreaded of all elements— fire. Over and above the shield is that proud bird of our nation. the American eagle, whose outstretched wings protect and defend it, emblematic of that protection and security which we, as Americans, vouchsafe to all good people who come to visit us, to take up their abode with us, to make our home their home, our people their people, and our country their country. The pin that shall bind it over your heart is typical of that brotherly love which should, and I trust does, bind together the hearts of every true fireman beneath the canopy of high heaven. Accept this, my brother engineer, wear it as long as life lasts, and when you shall have answered the last alarm, hand it down as an heirloom to your posterity as you recross the waters of the mighty ocean and set foot in safety once more upon the soil of your beautiful land, with its pleasant memories of your visit to America, and may the recollection of your sojourn with our association and your visit to Milwaukee form an oasis, as it were, in the pilgrimage of your life.” (Applause.)

Chief Purcell was very much overcome by this presentation; thanked Chief Taylor and the association, regretting he could not find words forcible enough to express his appreciation; that his soul was filled with such outpouring, and his heart was crowded with so much happiness that words were inadequate to express his feelings. He apologized for his emotion, and assured the convention that he would always look back to his visit with pleasure, and he hoped that in the years to come that no action on his part would ever cause one member of the association to blush with shame for having bestowed this badge upon him. He was loudly applauded at the conclusion of his remarks.

The chairman presented Mr. Mahon of Sweden to the convention. The committee appointed to set the date of the next convention reported in favor of the second Tuesday in August and the succeeding days, which was accepted.

Topic No. 9.—“Chemical engines and extinguishers, their value in incipient fires.” Paper was read by Chief Stagg.

Chief Stagg favored chemicals, as they work quickly, avoid water losses and do not arouse the neighborhood, and can be used in putting out both large and small fires.

Topic No. 8.—“Importance of co-operation between fire departments and architects and builders.” Chief Le Moyne read the paper written by Chief Goetz. He thought suggestions from firemen to architects and builders would be a means of avoiding many fires, as from their familiarity with their work they can see at a glance where the defects in a building lie, whether in construction or architecture.

Topic No. 10.—“In view of the fact that during the past three years charges of inefficiency have been made by the underwriters against the fire departments of some of our principal cities, which charges have been taken up by the public press in an exaggerated form, which has engendered much ill feeling to the manifest detriment of the service in the said cities, should there not be some system devised whereby a better feeling could be established between underwriters and officers of fire departments, so that any deficiency or alleged inefficiency in fire departments could be brought to the attention of the proper authorities without resorting to sensational articles in the public press?” J. W. Smith, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Mr. Smith wrote the association expressing his regret at not being able to be present, but that he would prepare a paper and forward it, if possible. As n® paper has been received the chairman called Chief Taylor to the chair and spoke himself on topic No. 10.

He thought a great deal of blame had been attached to the fire departments of the country in several sections and thought it demanded some consideration, at least, at the hands of this convention. He spoke of reading in one of the journals of an insurance agent who established himself in a foreign city that was conspicuous for not having any fires, and when he went to solicit insurance the inhabitants informed him it was not necessary as they never had any fires, but his plea was that if they once began to insure fires would follow. He believed that insurance caused fires, from the fact that agents were often careless in writing risks. He said unfortunately for the firemen when the owner of a building saw his property go up in smoke, when the firemen had used their best efforts to save it, he would immediately proceed to condemn the fire department. lie thought if the insurance men would join with the firemen in advocating building laws it would reduce a great number of fires in this country. (Applause.)

{Balance of Report Next Week.)

THE EXHIBITS.

The S.adt Theatre, about one-quarter of a mile from the convention hall, was engaged for exhibitors. The distance was somewhat of a drawback to the fine display receiving the full attention to which it was entitled, but the difficulty of securing accommodation in the same building with the headquarters of the association is experienced every year. Consequently the active and associate members have become accustomed to the circumstances. The theatre was handsomely decorated for the occasion’and the space, somewhat small for the displays, was utilized to the best advantage. The exhibitors who had the largest displays came from the East.

THE BOSTON WOVEN HOSECOMPANY.

Every year finds this company adding to the number of supplies exhibited at conventions. This season has not been an exception to the rule, as most of the space on one side of the theatre and in the centre was occupied with a display of all kinds of fire supplies. W. H. Wight is the ruling genius in the arrangement and extent of these exhibits, and he has just returned from the Internationa) Fire Congress in London,where he had as large a show of fire department supplies on exhibition as that shown on this occasion. It consisted of the following well known brands of hose: Bay State Jacket, Boston Fire Jacket, Alpha and Paramount single hose and other special makes; also the Bull-dog brand rubber hose and feather weight rubber, which weighs only thirty-seven pounds. The Boston extension ladder has a new device for raising the upper section, which consists of a combination of steel wire rope and chain, which pass over a large shieve sixteen inches in diameter at the top of the lower section and along the sides of the ladder, leaving the centre entirely clear, and around two sprocket wheels at the lower end. The cranks ship into the centre of the sprocket wheels and cannot slip out in hoisting or lowering. The Boston extension ladders with rope hoisting and the Boston roof ladders, water tower ladder pipe, hydrant gates and Siamese, ten varieties of spanners,radjustable rein and pole snaps, gongs with which are furnished guarantees for eight years, play pipes of various kinds, the Wight patent nonkink play pipe, which is made with a wire spring near the nozzle, which will bend in any direction without breaking, shutoff nozzles, pony extinguishers, a large and varied assortment of fire department lanterns, suction strainers, suction couplings, hose hoists and cellar tubes, besides rubber clothing and an endless variety of all kinds of appliances and supplies. Mr. Wight, whose picture is shown on this page, has charge of the fire department branch of the company’s business and is well known among the chief engineers of the country as an able salesman.

W. H. WlOHT, Boston Woven Hose Company.

THE COMBINATION LADDER COMPANY.

C. N. Richardson, proprietor of this company, deserves great credit for the enterprise he showed in the variety and extent of his display of ladders and locks.

It was the largest exhibition in this line ever shown by a manufacturer at any of the preceding conventions. The newimproved chain-winding extension ladder, in addition to being equipped with patent safety locks, has a folding operating crank which lies close to the ladder and is easily opened and operated, without having to carry the old style crank, thus avoiding delay and dispensing with the loss of space required by that appliance. The folding windlass lock keys into a scutcheon on the side of the ladder and perfectly locks the shaft simultaneously with the lock on the fly ladder. This is the first invention of this kind exhibited before the association and must prove invaluable to firemen who are looking for a ladder which combines safety and loss of time in its elevation. The tests shown by the exhibitor proved that it was a perfect piece of apparatus, and its working was highly commended by the chiefs. The two new trucks ordered for the New York Department are to be fully equipped with these ladders. Other ladders exhibited by this company was one with double pulley rope hoist, patent locks and pulley, a small hand extension ladder which rolls up on wheels in a groove without any friction. It is intended for general use. The space occupied by this display w-as elaborately arranged with bunting and artistic printing, and attracted attention from every visitor to the exhibition.

THE CORNELIUS CALLAHAN COMPANY.

As usual, this company had a very fine display of the supplies which it is famed for manufacturing. Chief G. S. Willis, president of the company, and W. Webber were present, the latter being in charge of the exhibit. It consisted of the Callahan Adriatic cotton, rubber-lined hose, Callahan jacket hose and Callahan volunteer and mill hose, siamese connections, hydrant gates, Callahan shut-off and spray nozzles, gongs, the celebrated Callahan relief valves, door openers, chemical nozzles, axe handles and holders, extinguisher holders, Davol water tower for extension ladder trucks, leather and rubber play-pipes, flexible pipes, axes, spanners and hose straps ; in fact, the display comprised all the modem appliances used in fire fighting. To show the popularity of the Callahan shut-ofl nozzles it may be stated that there are now over 4000 of them in use in the fire departments of the country. Considerable taste was shown in the arrangement of this exhibit, which was in every respect in keeping with the reputation of the house.

THE GAMEWELL FIRE ALARM AND POLICE TRLKORAPH COMPANY.

The display of this company was in charge of Mr. Chandler, manager of the Western branch of the company, assisted by Messrs. Chandler and Stack. The apparatus that comprises the latest improvement in fire and police alarm telegraphy was arranged to the best advantage and its working explained to the crowds that constantly visited this interesting exhibit. Boxes of various kinds, indicators, registers, gongs and every conceivable device of the most improved pattern were displayed. There was a fine showing of Gamewell patent keyless boxes which strike half a dozen blows in a second, a great improvement over those heretofore made.

REVERE RUBBER COMPANY,

represented by ex-Chief Bennett, made a most attractive display of the celebrated American Jacket hose, all sizes; solid rubber standard fire hose in three different colors, red, white, and blue, so as to distinguish the uses for which they are intended. A male coupling with patent swivel was an innovation that caused much discussion and was specially referred to in the report of the exhibit committee.

CRANE COMPANY.

E. M. Nichols, representing this company, exhibited one of its hydrants with patent independent nozzle shut-oflf, which admits of the water being shut off either opening with closing the hydrant. A principal feature in the hydrant is that it cannot be turned the wrong way nor can the valve be forced beyond its proper position and damaged. In addition to this every valve is interchangable and does not depend on the water pressure to hold it tight. Mr. Nichols also had a model of the hydrant by which he showed its working to the satisfaction of all those who visited his display.

KANSAS CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT SUPPLY COMPANY.

Dr. Casey was in charge of this exhibit and was kept busy in explaining the working of the Hale water tower, the merits of the swinging harness, collars, hames and other supplies. So much has been said in the columns of FIRK AND WATER about these inventions, that it is only necessary here to state that the chiefs and exhibit committee were favorably impressed with the excellence of the display.

THR EUREKA FIRE HOSE COMPANY.

This company was represented by Messrs. Markey and Candy and they bad a fine display of hose on exhibition, consisting of the celebrated Eureka, Paragon and Red Cross brands and carbolized rubber hose. The Eureka Company is the sole manufacturer of the above brands, which are known everywhere. The display included the Ferguson quick hose connection for fire or hand engines, hydrants and stand-pipes on buildings.

THE NEW GAYNOR ELECTRIC COMPANY.

A very fine display of fire alarm apparatus was given by this company, including boxes, indicators, gongs and the new noninterfeiing box. The exhibit was in charge of Mr. Donegal), president of the company, and Mr. Whitacre.

THE PEERLESS RUBBER MANUFACTURING COMPANY was represented by Harlan P. Christie, who showed samples of the brands of hose manufactured by this company. The Peerless fire hose is made of long fibre cotton duck, woven expressly for the purpose, and fine Para rubber. It is guaranteed as possessing the essential qualities of lightness, flexibility, durability and strength. The company also manufactures other brands of hose of different grades and all kinds of rubber and other fire goods. Mr. Christie is the agent of the company for fire hose.

SAMUEL KASTMAN & Co.,

manufacturers of the Perfection and deluge nozzles, holders and deluge sets, belting, hose and fire supplies. The exhibit of the above appliances was in charge of Cyrus P. Robinson and was very attractively arranged.

AMERICAN FIRE ENGINE COMPANY.

G. F. Hawkeotte, manager of the Cincinnati branch, and B. Bosch, Philadelphia agent, represented this company. The new pattern combination steam (ire engine and hose carriage on exhibition attracted much attention. The company has built several of this kind of apparatus recently, some of which arc in service in Chicago and other large cities, and that shown at the present convention was built for the Milwaukee Department. It has proven a success, being particularly adapted for small cities, or thr. suburb* of larger ones. It can carry a good supply of hose and throw a fine stream of water, while its weight docs not much exceed 5000 pounds. The American Fire Engine Company has made a hit in this class of engine and without doubt it will soon become popular everywhere. Such an engine and hose carriage are required. At the test, steam was generated in four minutes and an excellent stream of water thrown through a I ‘⅛-inch nozzle with a steady steam pressure of 180 pounds. Those who witnessed the test were greatly pleased with the performance.

1). A. WOODHOUSE

had a fine display o( rubber hose, play pipes, fire boat standpipes, Siamese nozzles, hose holders, wire cutters.

MICHIGAN FIRE LADDER AND ENGINE COMPANY.

Mr. Lewis, treasurer of thi* company, exhibited an excellent model of the Arrow aerial truck, a full description of which has already been given in this journal. This truck is now in use in several cities throughout the United States.

S. F. HAYWARD & Co.

This company was represented by Mr. Whiting. It is the largest fire department supply house in the East, at 365 Canal street, New York, and carries a stock of alt appliances on hand. The company is also agent for the manufacturers of 6re apparatus and supplies, including the Fire Extinguisher Manufacturing Company of Chicago, the U. S. Hose Hoist Company and others.

GLEASON & BAILEY MANUFACTURING COMPANY, manufacturers of hook and ladder trucks, hose carriages and wagons, fire apparatus and supplies of all kinds, Seneca Falls, N. Y., was represented by James C. Ryan. The company claims to have over 9000 pieces of fire apparatus in use throughout the world. The excellence of the rolling stock manufactured by it is so well known as not to need any special mention here.

C. A. HIGHER.

A new departure in threads has been made by the above. He has patented a straight thread for male and female unions, which claims the merit of easy connections, the thread hitching without any delay. It can be adapted to any coupling or hydrant by means of special tools provided to change the old style threads. These tools can be used by any fireman or unskilled mechanic, thus overcoming the objection to any cost of altering existing threads. Visitors to the convention were hown the new couplings and tools by the inventor, and his patents received a highly favorable commendation from those present.

LA FRANCE FIRE ENGINE COMPANY.

F. L. Pitcher, agent for this company, was on hand to look after its interests. Over 150 of the celebrated Hayes aerial trucks, manufactured by the company, are in service, and the patent nest tube boilers of the La France engine are claimed as among the best for generating and holding steam of those in any other class. Mr. Pitcher says the company are now full of orders for both engines and trucks and that the outlook for future business is very bright.

THE FORSTER MANUFACTURING COMPANY, represented by Mr. Forster, had a fine display of fire appliances and life saving nets on exhibition.

MUNICIPAL FIRE ALARM COMPANY.

T. R. I’olglase, Western representative of this company, was present to look after its interests. Owing to delay on the road, the apparatus intended for exhibition did not arrive in time for the convention, but this did not make much difference, as Mr. Polglase lost no time in looking up his friends and relating to them the great merits that his system possesses over others. There is no doubt but that he succeeded.

THE GUTTA PERCHA AND RUBBER MANUFACTURING

COMPANY.

This company was represented by its Western agents, who were to be seen everywhere hobnobbing with their friends. Every fireman is familiar with the celebrated Maltese Cross and Baker fabric brands of fire hose which the company manufactures ; therefore it is only necessary to mention the fact that the exhibit in the persons of the gentlemen referred to above was highly interesting.

WM. D’ II. WASHINGTON.

FIRE EXTINGUISHING MANUFACTURING COMPANY

exhibited a model of the new water tower. This apparatus is constructed after the principle of the Babcock aerial truck, and can be extended to seventy-five feet and throw water at any angle. A full description of it will be given in a later issue of FIRK AND WATER.

THE WILSON MANUFACTURING COMPANY,

manufacturers of the well known Wilson fire escape, was represented by Mr. Evans, agent of the company. This appliance has been placed in many hotels and leading institutions, and is recognized as the best thing of its kind manufactured.

Among the other exhibitors were: John M. Green Manufacturing Company, Chicago, patent swinging harness ; C. G. Braxmar, New York, badges; John H. Graham & Co.. New York, bells; Halloway & Donahue, Paterson, N. J., fire lighter ; Arnemann Torchiani, New York, respirator ; Edward Grill, Evansville, Ind., patent wire cutter; Groscb, Allenberg, Buerling & Co., 457 John street, Cincinnati, O., automatic shutter opener; J. B. Gardner, Geneva, N. Reynolds’ automatic hose reel ; Omaha Safe aud Iron Works, 610 Fourteenth street, Omaha, Neb., fireproof shutters and doors ; T. K. Ewing, 47 Mack block, Milwaukee, Wis., hose coupling; Elias B. Birge, St. Paul, Minn., door-opening device.