CONVENTION OF THE NEW YORK STATE FIREMEN’S ASSOCIATION.
THE fifteenth convention of the New York Slate Firemen’s Association at Troy closed, on Friday, August 19, with a parade of extraordinary size and brilliancy, which was reviewed by Governor Hill, Mayor Whelan, the members of the common council and numerous other officials. Never before had the city of Troy contained so many visitors, the number of strangers being estimated at 50,000.
About one hour and a half was taken by the procession of firemen in passing the reviewing stand, the number of men in line being about 10,000. The Governor saluted the different companies as they passed, and was in turn loudly cheered. The weather was fine and the whole spectacle one which will be long remembered.
The sidewalks and windows along the line of march, and in fact every spot from which the parade could be seen, were occupied by interested and admiring spectators, and the crowd around the reviewing stand was so great that a number of women and children fainted.
The details of the prize contests whith took place on Thursday and Friday are as follows :
HOSR Race.—First prize, $250 ; second prize, $200; third prize, $100; fourth prize, hose carriage, presented by Button Engine Works, Waterford, N. Y., $100; fifth prize, Aladdin parlor stove, presented by Burdett, Smith & Co., Troy, N. Y., $50. Entries: J. D. Campbell Company, Schenectady; Hudson Company No. i, Yonkers; J. D. Servfcs Company, Amsterdam; J. L. Cunningham Company No. i, Glens Falls; M. B. Little Company No. 2, Glens Falls; Water Witch Company, Lee, Mass. ; Neptune Company No. 1, Gloversville; Phinney Company No. 1, Cooperstown ; Relief Company No. 2, Plattsburgh; J. M. Wait Company, Sandy Hill; Van Vranken Company No. 2, Schenectady ; N. W. Vannier Company No. 2, Whitehall, Knight Company No. 2, Fair Haven, Vt.; Lewis Company No. 1, Oneonta; Eckford Company, Amsterdam ; G. R. Sherman Company, Port Henry; J. Bulger Company, Amsterdam; G. I. Wilbur Company No. 2, Oneonta; Alert Company No. i, Adams, Mass ; Tiger Company No. 8, Long island City; O. A. Manville Company No. 3, Whitehall; Burleigh Hose Company, Whitehall; Live Oaks Company, Danville, Ont.
HAND ENGINE Contest.—First prize, first class, $200; second prize, first class, $100; first prize, second class, set bronze, marble clock, etc., presented by an old fireman, $150; second prize, second class, silver trumpet, presented by S. C. I appin, Troy, $75. Entries: D. E. La Dow Engine Company No. 2, Mechanicville ; M. B. Little Engine Company, Glens Falls ; Water Witch Engine Company, Lee, Mass.; J. J. Gray Engine Company, Cambridge ; Pocahontas Engine Company No. 2, Rhinebeck ; Volunteer Firemen’s Association, New York ; Exempt Firemen’s Association, Brooklyn, E. D.; Mohawk Chief Engine Company of St. Johnsville.
PRIZE Drill,—First prize, $300; second prize, $200 ; third prize, bronze sta;u. ary. $75Entries: J. R. Durkee Hose Company, Fort Edward; C. C. Knight Hose Company, l-airhaven, Vt.; Phinney Hose Company, Cooperstown; Water Witch Hose Company, Lee, Mass.; Brant Hose Company, Brantford, Ont.; G. I. Wilbur Hose Company, Oneonta.
HOOK AND LADDER Races.—First prize, $100; second prize, $50; third prize, silver water service, presented by M. Timpane, Troy, $40. Entries: Rescue Hook and Ladder Company, Walton ; Mechanics Hook and Ladder Company, Gloversville.
HOSE Race.—Not less than fifteen or more than seventeen men to each company. Dry run, standing start, each team to be allowed one trial; cart to carry 350 feet of hose in fifty-foot lengths ; distance 300 yards, run 200 yards to hydrant, attach and lay one line of hose 300 feet from hydrant, break coupling and put on pipe; pipe and coupling to be eight threads to inch, with at least three full threads to couple, and to be screwed up to shoulder or washer, ready for water ; time to be taken from start till the pipe drops on the ground, and within twenty-five feet of the finish line; if the pipe drops more than twenty-five feet from finish line, a penalty of one-quatter second for each three feet of excess shall be added to the time.
1’RIZK Drill.—Each company must drill at least twenty-four men, exclusive of commandant, officers or file-closers, and will be allowed twenty minutes for drill. The succeeding company must be ready to start within five minutes after the company preceding them have finished, or lose their places.
HOOK AND LADDER Races.—Hook and ladder teams (eighteen men), to run 300 yards ; put up thirty-foot ladder, weighing not less than 100 pounds ; have man ascend to top, man to start from ground; time to be called when he grasps the top rung, rung to be be held until time is called.
HAND ENGINE Contest.—All engines having cylinders of nine inches or over in diameter rank as first class ; all others as second class. First class engines will play through 250 feet of hose, and second class through 150 feet of hose. Extension or artificial brakes will not be allowed. Engines will throw horizontally through such nozzles as each may select. Each engine will be allowed twenty minutes in all, alter previous engine has left stand, to draw on stand, take suction and play. Three minutes will be allowed to replace sections of bursted hose.
In the hose races the first prize was won by the J. D. Scrviss team of Amsterdam in 48J/ seconds ; the J. D. Campbell Hose Company No. 4, Schenectady, taking second prize with 49^ seconds ; the third prize was won by the Alerts of Adams, Mass. ; the fourth by Relief Ilose Company of Pittsburgh, and the fifth by Lewis Hose Company of Oneonta.
The first prize in the hand engine contest was won by the Exempt Firemen’s Association of Brooklyn, E. D., by a score of 185.1 ; Mohawk Chief Engine Company of St. Johnsville, taking second prize with 172.2,
In the hook and ladder race the Rescue Hook and Ladder Company of Walton had a walk-over, and took the prize of $100 with a record of r minute seconds; the Mechanics of Gloversville did not start, owing to an informality in their credentials.
The winners in the prize drills were as follows: First, J. R. Durkee Hose Company of Fort Edward, percentage 82.5; second, Brant Hose Company of Brantford, Ont., percentage 78.33 ; third, Phinney Hose Company of Cooperstown, percentage 66.66.
Of the large number of special prizes offered, the one for the finest hand engine in line was awarded to the Exemt Firemen’s Association of New York. The Citizens Hose Company of Catskill was adjudged to be the finest appearing company. Chief Engineer Wining of the Fort Plain Fire Department, who is six feet eight inches high, took the prize offered to the tallest fireman in the procession, and Assistant Chief Engineer Green of Troy was declared the finest looking fireman in the parade.
WATER METERS AND WASTE WATER.
EW YORK is awakening to the importance of checking the waste of water in the city, until the greater supply is obtained by the completion of the new aqueduct. The present source of supply is so uncertain that frequently precautions have had to be taken to prevent a famine. With 110,000,000 gallons daily supply there was an excess of consumption over the water received through the conduits last summer, so that the depth in the city reservoirs was reduced to twenty-four inches. To prevent waste and a recurrence of this state of affairs, the public works department is placing meters in manufactories, and many private houses are adopting them, although the latter are by law exempt from being obliged to do so. There are now some 15,000 meters in use in the city, and this number will be increased by probably 2000 before the end of the year. This will make a good showing and go a long way toward stopping the waste.
To use one example of how much water returns to the sewers unused, take the tenement houses. An ordinary tenement house, which is the principal residence of the working classes, contains twenty sets of appartments, each one being provided with water. In winter the faucet is allowed to run continually all night to prevent the pipes from freezing, while during the summer days the water is let run to waste to a much greater extent, that it may be cool for use. Take the discharge of an ordinary faucet at 10,000 gallons per diem and it will be seen that by a low computation the unused water from one tenement house will foot up 40,000 gallons waste. This calculation extended to all parts of the city will at once show where the defect lies, and why in dry weather we have had so little water in the reservoirs.
The diminished pressure in the mains has often deprived many families of water necessary for ordinary use even where pumps are used, and there is constant apprehension on this account when large fires have to be fought.
The average daily consumption of water in gallons per capita in the leading cities is : New Y’ork, 70 ; Philadelphia, 70 ; Boston, 68 ; Providence, 39 ; Buffalo, 127 ; Detroit, 152 ; Washington, 166; Rochester, 57; Worcester, 51 ; Fall River, Mass., 24 ; Dayton, O., 33 ; Atlanta, Ga., 31. Of these Providence is generally supplied with meters, while Detroit and Washington have the fewest. Buffalo has only about 100. These figures show conclusively the advantage of a proper meterage system. The rates for 1000 gallons taken through a meter are : New York, 13% cents; Boston, 20; Philadelphia, 8; Brooklyn, m’J, and Buffalo, 3. Thusjan average of ir cents is obtained from these five leading cities, which is a low figure and will likely prove a convincing argument in favor of meters.
In the economical management of water-works, this question of meters must be taken into account, especially in rapidly populating centres, where frequent extensions of the water-works systems must be made or a supervision placed upon the unnecessary waste of water.
A BIG AERATED RESERVOIR.
HE whole of the Ilobokon reservoir, which holds 15,000,000 gallons, has been converted into an artificial boiling spring by means of hundreds of jets of air driven up through it from perforated pipes laid upon the bottom. For the past three years all the water supplied to Hoboken has been made brilliant and sparkling by air forced into the mains at the pumping station, seventeen miles away (roin the reservoir, on the Hackensack river. This has answered the purpose until the excessive heat of the present summer, when algae have sometimes formed in the corners of the reservoir farthest away from the point where the aerated water entered. To compensate for the loss of oxygen due to the standing still of the water in the reservoir, under the blazing heat of the sun, Dr. Albert Leeds, the chemist of the water department, proposed the making of the reservoir into a boiling spring in the manner described. This has been done and has proven a complete success.—Ex.
CONNECTICUT STATE FIREMEN’S CONVENTION.
THE fourth annual convention of the Connecticut Slate Firemen’s Asso* ciation, held at Meriden August 16 and 17, was well attended, and was a most interesting, instructive and enjoyable meeting. At the opening session of Tuesday, ninety-seven companies were represented by delegates. President Hendrick called the meeting to order, and, after a prayer, Mayor Davis welcomed the firemen to Meriden. His speech was responded to by Chief Hendrick, and the rest of the morning’s session was devoted to routine business.
At the afternoon session an interesting address was made by John H, Leeds of New Haven, and the reports of the secretary and treasurer were read, showing a very satisfactory condition of affairs. The total membership of the association had increased from 150 in 1886 to 177. The balance in the treasury was $6,357.23. In the evening the visiting delegates were banqueted at the Town Hall, and speeches were made by Governor Lounsbury, Chief Hendrick, Chief Hyatt, Mayor Davis and others.
On Wednesday the morning session was opened by the reading of a telegram of greeting from Secretary Newgass of the New York State Firemen’s Association. President Whiting of the Orient Insurance Company of Hartford then delivered a long and able address upon the relations existing between the underwriters and firemen, and was followed by Superintendent W. C. Smith of New Haven with a paper on the electric fire alarm system. The election of officers was then proceeded with, resulting in the choice of A. C. Hendrick of New Haven as president; first vicepr;sident, J. B. Hyatt of Meriden ; secretary, John S. Jones of Westport, and treasurer, S. C. Snagg of Waterbury. Senator Staub of New Milford was elected delegate to the national convention.
During the recess which followed, the exhibition of fire apparatus was given.
In the afternoon, in addition to transacting some miscellaneous business, a ballot was taken and Norwich decided upon as the place for the next convention. The committee on exhibits reported the Silsby steam fire engine, the Holloway and Mansfield fire extinguishers, the E. J. Doolittle truck, the Gladding combination suit, the Bonner (Empire) life-saving net, and Samuel Cotter’s patent for holding and instantly releasing hose. After the reading of the reports of several special committees, the convention then adjourned.
THE OLD DAYS OF THE TROY FIRE DEPARTMENT.
ROY’S fire department dates back to 1798, in which year Premier Engine Company was organized. A second-hand engine was purchased. The fire wardens, when at fires, wore white covers on their hats and carried white rods in their hands. The engine could throw a stream an inch and a half in diameter to the roof of two-story buildings. The wheels of the engine were a foot and a half in diameter, sawn from thick oaken planks and hooped with iron. The water trough was nine feet long, and on it was an upright box containing pipes and valves. Water was forced from the trough by treadles and brakes through a goose-neck pipe protruding from the top of the box. The following extract from A. j. Wrise’s “ History of Troy,” relating to the period immediately after the organization of the first company, will be read with interest, and no doubt cause hilarity among firemen, resident and visiting : “ The propertyholders were required by the fire ordinance to have hanging in an accessible part of their dwellings and places of business two leathern buckets, each having the owner’s name and a designating number painted on it. The capable men of the village were instructed to deport themselves at the time of a fire in the following manner by the village newspaper: First, seze the fire buckets immediately and repair to the spot; let the mind be as composed as possible, and at the same time behave with the greatest activity and energy. Second, those who live most contiguous to the engine, together with the firemen, should immediately repair to it and have the engine under way, also the fire books and ladders and axes, to be on the spot at the same instant, and when at the place of action, there ought to be the most profound silence observed, except from the trustees and tire wardens.” Premier Engine Company was continued in service until August 23, 1861, and was disbanded September 5 of that year. Troy (N. Y.) Times.
ATTEND TO YOUR HORSES.
HEN a horse refuses to drink, and coughs after swallowing a little, it indicates sore throat or swelling of the glands of the neck. It is one of the symptoms of distemper, which is prevalent at this season. Give the horse a warm bran mash, with one drachm of chlorate of potash in it, daily for a week or ten days. There is nothing serious to be apprehended.
For a horse which is weak in the knees, rub the limbs briskly with a woolen cloth, then bathe with salt and water, wipe dry, and apply a mixture of one pint of alcohol and one drachm of tincture of Spanish ily, rubbing in a tablespoonful twice a day with the hand. Let the horse run in a loose stall, deeply littered with sawdust or dry swamp muck, or on an earth tloor. Skunk’s oil, beef brine and other trash of the kind are useless.
Piles are caused by dilatations of the blood vessels of the lower gut or rectum and the formation of tumors. In horses they are rare, and melanotic tumors on the lining membrane are often confounded with them. The treatment is as follows : Give daily three ounces of Glauber salts and common salt ; also, bran and linseed mashes, with one drachm each of sulphate of iron and ground gentian root. If the piles appear outwardly, or there is much irritation, and the horse rubs the tail, inject one ounce of a solution of a drachm of sugar of lead in a pint of water.
A horse can be fed on grain and bran if he is not overfed. These foods are concentrated, and need to be given with caution. Cottonseed meal is not a safe food, but the whole seed, i’ quite free from lint, may be given in moderation. Some coarse fodder is desirable, if it can be procured, and a supply should be grown either of millet, corn fodder or pea vines, and cut when in blossom and cured for hay. if a little roughness is given, six pounds of bran and the same of some kind of grain, and two pounds of whole clean cottonseed would make sufficient food for a 1000-pound horse. Five pounds of hay daily given with this grain would be quite sufficient.
Green food in the summer is often the cause of serious indigestion, with its common results—colic and rupture of the stomach, which is inevitably fatal. Such food should never be given wet, or heated by fermentation after cutting, or in excessive quantity, nor when a horse is weary. Clover or rye should be cut after the dew Is of! and before the heat of the day, and spread in the shade to writ, or in the afternoon, and left to wilt until the next day. A sprinkling of salt will tend to avoid trouble with such food, as it prevents fermentation.
Water should always be gtven before feeding and never immediately afterward. Colic is often produced by copious watering soon after eating, and also by watering when the animal is hot and weary from work. The stomach being chilled is for the time incapable of digesting any food. Light feeding is to be given during hard or rapid work, and the full feed is only given after sufficient rest. Overfeeding is to be specially avoided, and regularity is very important. One twelve-quart pailful of cut hay and four pounds of meal is a full feed for a 1000-pound horse, given twice a day, with an equivalent feeding between of oats or corn and long hay. Orchard grass hay, cut just at the blossoming, is excellent for horses. Ripe timothy is the next best, and corn blades, pulled green and well cured, make as good feed as any. Dusty or mouldy food is to be specially avoided, not only for its effect upon the digestive organs, but for its evil results upon the respiratory functions. Idleness is conducive to indigestion, and during the present season particularly horses should be turned out several hours for exercise every day.
The shrinkage of the muscles of the shoulder, and which is commonly called “ sweeny,” is due to some lameness of the foot or limb, which induces the horse to favor the shoulder and throw the muscles out of use. This inaction causes the muscles to decrease in substance, and the shoulder flattens or becomes hollowed. The remedy for this disfigurement is to relieve the lameness and restore the shoulder to proper activity. The seat of the trouble may be in the shoulder, which may have been sprained. If this is the case, pressure with the knuckles on the shoulder will show it; if not, it will most probably be found in the foot or the pastern joint. Navicular disease is the most frequent cause of this shrinking of the shoulder muscles. This disease is indicated by the animal pointing the toe of the foot forward, and by going lame at starting and soon recovering. Driving fast down hill is the usual cause of trouble with the shoulder by injury to the joint or to the feet.—Scientific A men’can.
CORROSION OF LEAD PIPES.
HE excerpt minutes of the British Institution of Civil Engineers contain the following abstract of a paper by Dr. G. Von Knorre, printed in The Gesundheits Ingenieur :
The author states that during the past year he has had many opportunities of examining specimens of lead pipes which have corroded in walls, owing to the action of mortar or cement, or in the soil. The behavior of lead exposed to the influence of the air, water, lime-water, etc., is briefly discussed. In damp air a bright, freshly-cut surface of lead becomes speedily coated with a thin scale of gray oxide, which adheres closely to the metal and prevents further oxydation. At ordinary temperature, in dry air and in inclosed vessels specially protected from moisture by the presence of sulphuric acid or calcined chloride of calcium, lead undergoes no change ; lead, however, in a fine state of subdivision, is speedily converted into protoxide. Water that has been boiled and which is free from oXygen, if air is excluded, does not dissolve lead. Shaken up with lead in the presence of air, water even in two hours takes up about 1-10 per cent of the metal. Even a corroded surface is thus attacked, and when the metal is alternately exposed to the influence of air and water the action is more rapid. All waters do not dissolve lead with equal treedom, and the presence of small quantities of carbonic acid and of certain bicarbonates retards the action, while chlorides, nitrates and decomposing organic substances intensify it. The experiments of Pattison Muir bearing on this subject are specially quoted, as are also the results recently obtained by Lunge and Venator. Besnou had found that lime-water powerfully attacked lead, and the author, who has made careful investigation of the influence of lime-water on lead, states that if air is excluded, bright lead shavings remain unaltered in the liquid, but that, on the admission of air, the metal is at once vigorously attacked. If lead is exposed to the action of lime-putty, lime-water or lime-mortar, air being also present, a pale yellow deposit of oxide of lead becomes visible, even in the course of a day or two, the part of the lead nearest to the surface of the putty, the lime-water, or the mortar, being the most freely attacked, because it is there that the air has the most ready access. The chemical reaction is a very simple one, the hydrated oxide of lead, formed in the presence of oxygen and moisture, is dissolved in the lime-water, and partially precipitated as yellow oxide, free from water (it being a well-known fact that under certain conditions the yellow anhydrous oxide of lead is set free from solutions of oxide of lead in the presence of caustic alkalies or lime-water as yellow or red crystals, forming a red powder). Such a precipitate of oxide of lead might be formed upon lead pipe in mortar or cement containing caustic lime in the presence of air and moisture. Two specimens of corroded lead pipe proved on analysis to contain in the corroded parts 99.05 and 99 37 per cent of oxide of lead. The mortar in which the latter sample was imbedded was extremely alkaline when tested with litmus paper, and contained a considerable quantity of caustic lime. In certain specimens of corroded pipes forwarded to the author from the Berlin water-works, the part of the lead attacked was white and not yellow, and it was proved that when caustic lime is not present the hydrated oxide may be decomposed by the carbonic acid gas contained in the atmosphere, in which case a white basic carbonate of lead takes the place of the yellow oxide. Some analyses are given which show that these corroded pipes had been thus attacked, but that varying amounts of sulphuric acid, nitric acid and chlorides were also present. The author states that these latter ingredients appear to him to play an important part in the corrosive action, for, on the analogy of the old plan of manufacturing white lead with small quantities of acetic acid in dung heaps, in which process the acetic acid only acted as a carrier, the first formed acetate of lead being at once converted into carbonate of lead by the carbonic acid evolved, it can readily be seen that nitric acid would play a similar part. Indeed, both the nitrates and chlorides are known to act just as well as carriers as the acetates formerly employed in white lead making. In impure soils, rich in decaying organic matters, lead would be speedily attacked were it not for the absence of oxygen.
In a discussion on the paper it was pointed out by Mr. Oesten that though lead may be thus readily attacked, the whole of the necessary conditions are rarely united, as out of 20,000 lead house connections in the city of Berlin, he had only after careful search, extending over a period of twelve months, found eight instances of corroded lead piping.
—At a recent test of a new Clapp & Jones steam fire engine at Norfolk, Va., with fifty feet of hose and a one and three-eighth inch nozzle, a stream was thrown 305 feet; with two lines of hose and seven-eighth inch nozzles two streams were thrown to a height of 237 feet each, and with a one and one-quarter inch nozzle water was thrown fully twenty feet above a 175foot church steeple.