DEEP WELLS THAT FEEL THE SEA.
In their investigation of the underground water resources of the coastal plain of Virginia the geologists of the United States Geological Survey have collected data relating to the many hundreds of artesian wells that yield excellent waters in large areas of the coastal region. Particular note has been made of the quantity and quality of the supply afforded by wells that give hows at the surface. The water of most of these wells is admirably adapted to household uses, though that of some of them contains enough mineral salts in solution to make trouble in boilers used for steam production. The variation in flow exhibited by these wells with the rise and fall of the tide is of peculiar interest, the flow being notably greater at the flood than at the ebb-tide. It is the general opinion among well-drillers that practically all flowing wells near tidal rivers or inlets from open bays do feel the distant sea, but some of them so slightly that the variation in flow is not noticeable. The geologist in charge of the ground-water investigations in Virginia states that changes in water-level in wells, due to fluctuations in the height of the surface of some neighboring body of water, have been observed ail over the world. It is customary to explain these changes by supposing a direct connection between the river, lake, or bay; but in many places, as in eastern Virginia, such connection is clearly impossible, owing to the depth of the wells and tlie nature of the intervening beds, some of them dense, tough marls and clays. These beds, however, though they do not transmit water, nevertheless contain it, and, as water is practically incompressible, any variation of level on the river or bay is transmitted to the well through tlu water-filled gravels, sands, clays, and marls. When a porous bed is tapped by a well, the water rises to the point of equilibrium and fluctuates as the hand of the ocean varies its pressure on the beds that confine the artesian flow.
The sudden death is announced of William S. Simpson, of Patchogue. (L. T.), N. Y. He was 64 years of age and had been actively identified with the Patchogue lire department for many years, and bad served as chief for five years. He was president of the board of trustees of the Patchogue Exempt Firemen’s association.