While pressure has much to do with the stream for fires, the judicious laying of hose has also greatly do with their effectiveness. A new rubber hose laid straight, level, and no wind, will, according Mr. Leshure, who is authority, give the following results: Using rubber hose, one and one-quarter-inch ring nozzle.—Pressure at hydrant or steamof too pounds and 100 feet of hose will give pressure at nozzle of seventy-six pounds and discharge 200 gallons per minute. A horizontal jet will reach 167 feet; vertical jet, 131 feet. To maintain this discharge, distance, and height,
200 feet of hose will require at the hydrant or steamer, pressure 125 pounds,
300 feet of hose will require at the hydrant or steamer, pressure 149 pounds,
400 feet of hose will require at the hydrant or steamer, pressure 173 pounds,
500 feet of hose will require at the hydrant or steamer, pressure FIRE pounds,
600 feet of hose will require at the hydrant or steamer, pressure 222 pounds,
700 feet of hose will require at the hydrant or steamer, pressure 246 pounds, to the square inch, being: about twenty-four pounds additional pressure required for each 100 feet hose.
If pressure at the hydrant or steamer remains constant, at 100 pounds using 100 feet of hose, the nozzle pressure will be seventy-six pounds; discharge, 260 gallons per minute. A horizontal jet will reach 167 feet:; a vertical jet, 131 feet. Pressure remaining the same, using
The tables show that, with 100 pounds pressure at the hydrant or steamer and too feet of hose, the pressure at the nozzle is thirty-one pounds; discharge 360 gallons per minute; 167 feet horizontal and 13! feet vertical. With 700 feet of hose, the pressure at the nozzle is thirty-one pounds; discharge, 166 gallons per minute; ninety-four feet horizontal and sixty-five feet vertical. The result is forty five pounds pressure less, ninety-four gallons per minute less, seventy-three feet horizontal less, and sixty six feet vertical less.
Nothing can demonstrate more clearly than these figures the importance of using the least possible length of hose. If the hydrant is within a hundred feet of the fire, and 300 feet of hose is used, there is a twenty-five pounds diminution of pressure, and the quantity of water discharged is diminished by forty six gallons per minute. In addition to this, the distance the stream will reach is reduced by thirty five feet, and the height, by thirty-four feet.
If double lines of two and one-half-inch hose are united fifty feet from the nozzle of a twentyfive horsepower steamer, using one and one-quarterinch smooth nozzle, the results will be as follows:
If larger nozzles are used, the discharge will be greater and more effective. By the use of double and triple lines, a one and three-quarter-inch .and even a two-inch nozzle can be used. It is volume in a stream that is effective. A one and onc-quarterinch stream thrown into a hot fire increases the heat by the water turning into gas. Sometimes the water never reaches the fire because of the heat. Small streams are not effective because of the stripping. Streams begin to strip at thirty feet from the nozzle, and a stream that is to be effective must be delivered in a stream and not in drops. It is a common idea that the greater the pressure at the nozzle the greater the distance the water will reach, hut it is an error. The greater the pressure. the greater the friction and the greater the resistance by the air, and the force given the water is overcome by the gravity of the water. This results in a limit to the distance, no matter how great the force is. If a house is all afire when the department reaches it, it is folly to expect the men to put it out. Firemen must he cool, brave, and strong. They must understand how to open hydrants, lay out hose, and use the streams to the best advantage. hut it is expecting Jtoo much of them to put out a fire when the house is almost consumed. Yet they often hamper themselves by injudicious laying of hose and not opening a hydrant properly. When it takes from eighteen to twenty turns to open a hydrant fully, the fireman is likely to make his seconds minutes, and stop short of the required number of turns in his haste.
*Paper read at the convention of the Central States Waterworks association, Indianapolis, Tnd., September, 1902.
Fire engines have been increased in capacity. Some nozzles have been designed that are an improvement over the old nozzles. But the hose remains the same, and the laying of it is not equal to the old reel. By reason of the lightness of the hose wagon, better speed is made, which is of importance. It lias been a question in my mind if the plan of lapping the hose in the wagon is not detrimental, for the reason that it must in time make creases in the hose; and we know that creases will increase the friction.
Some cities, in order to provide better fire protection, are laying high-pressure mains and using specially constructed machinery. It has occurred to me that a simpler way would he to construct engines with a greater capacity and place them on a car to run on the streetcar rails, using motors to run the cars and to drive the pumps (the current to he taken from the sti’eet car wires). The pumps should he of capacity to throw not less than a three-inch stream from the car under heavy pressure. It may he possible to build heavy engines and drive them by gasolene engines. Should the capacity of the pumps be increased, it would then be for the water departments to provide the water by means of larger hydrants, and the fire department to have increased size of hose to lay from the hydrants to the engines eithor on the streeetcar rail or to the pumps on the gasolene wagon. At the present time the engines must he located at the hydrant or at a cistern, while, if the water could be obtained as 1 have indicated, the engines could be located in front of the burning building.
These suggestions may not be feasible, hut this paper is written to call attention to the necessity of providing increased fire protection, inasmuch as the insurance companies are constantly increasing rates. Automatic sprinklers have much merit in them, but they are expensive, and are not altogether free from objections to water departments for several reasons.
The action of the underwriters in requiring large mains in buildings will preclude all systems which have four-inch pipe for main lines from meeting their requirements.