First Aid Fire Appliances

First Aid Fire Appliances

The Installation, Maintenance and Use

PART 2

SECTION X

WHEELED SODA-ACID EXTINGUISHER (17 and 33 Gallons)

Approved Wheeled Fire Extinguishers made in two principal sizes: one having a liquid capacity of approximately 33 gallons (trade designation 40 gallons), and the other of 17 gallons (trade designation 20 gallons). Chemicals used are bicarbonate of soda and commercial sulphuric acid.

Method of Operation:

Extinguishers should be wheeled to the fire, and, to be used, must be operated in accordance with instructions which are prominent on the extinguisher. When the soda-solution and the acid mix as a result of the above operation, pressure is created within the container which expels the solution through the hose. While the stream is usually most effective if used close to the fire, in case of necessity it can be directed effectively from a distance of about 50 feet.

Suitability:

The “Warehouse” and “truck” types of wheeled extinguishers are suitable for use inside factory and warehouse buildings in which doorways are wide enough to permit passage of extinguishers from one room or section to another, or in which the extinguisher will not be required to pass from one room to another. The “truck” type of wheeled extinguisher is suitable also for use in mill yards and similar places.

These appliances are effective on fires in ordinary combustible materials (such as wood, paper, textiles, rubbish, etc.), i. e., on Class “A” fires where the quenching and cooling effect of quantities of water or solutions containing large percentages of water is of first importance.

They are of value on fires in floors soaked with oils, greases, etc., where the quenching and cooling effect of the water solution may be utilized; but are not effective on fires in inflammable liquids, greases, etc., in vats, open vessels, etc., where the blanketing effect is essential.

Their use in connection with fires in electrical equipment is not recommended.

The force, length and duration of the stream are not dependent upon the operator. These appliances are readily operated while being wheeled about. They are not readily handled by women.

When located where low temperatures may be encountered these appliancs must be protected against freezing in an approved manner, as described under “Maintenance.”

Distribution:

  1. Unit of Installation:—One 33 gallon or one 17 gallon extinguisher is considered as a unit.
  2. Unit of Travel:—Extinguishers should be so placed where ordinary combustible materials are involved that the distance to be traveled from any point will not be greater than 200 feet in any direction to reach the nearest 33 gallon extinguisher, or more than 125 feet to reach the nearest 17 gallon extinguisher, figuring each floor and basement separately. Ordinarily extinguishers should not be grouped.
  3. Additional units should be provided where unusual quantities of ordinary combustible materials are involved. These additional units should be located as near as practicable to the hazard to be protected and in every instance they should be so placed that the distance to be traveled from any such hazard to reach the nearest unit will not be greater than 75 feet.

  4. Arrangement:—Extinguishers should be conspicuously located where they will always be readily accessible and so distributed as to be immediately available in event of fire.

Maintenance:

Extinguishers must be recharged annually as well as immediately after use. In recharging these extinguishers all parts must be washed thoroughly with water and the water drained through the hose.

Extinguishers must be examined frequently to make sure that they have not been tampered with or removed from their designated places; to detect any injuries-, and to see that the orifice of the hose nozzle is not clogged. It is impossible to indicate just how often examination should be made, but a careful inspection on the part of the plant inspector should be made at regular intervals.

At least once yearly, before emptying and recharging, the extinguishers and all their parts (including gasket and hose), must be examined for deterioration or injuries due to misuse and the orifices of the hose nozzles examined to see that they are not clogged. Parts which are not in good condition must be replaced. It is important that acid receptacles and lead or porcelain stopples when replaced should be an exact duplicate of that originally provided with the extinguisher. At these inspections all extinguishers must be emptied and recharged and date of recharging and signature of the person who performed it written on the tag attached to each extinguisher. This work must be done under capable supervision. On these occasions several extinguishers should be discharged as if at a fire and before an assembly of the occupants of the building. These exhibitions are valuable in the knowledge they give employees and other persons of the operation of the appliance. Each extinguisher should, where practical, be emptied by discharging it.

The soda-solution must be mixed thoroughly outside the extinguisher and in exact accordance with instructions on the extinguisher. The liquid should be luke warm (never hot) and put through a fine strainer before filling the extinguisher.

Aisles, at least 1 foot wider than the extinguisher, must be maintained at all times and floors of aisles must be kept clear of anything which would interfere with the rapid movement of the extinguisher to a fire.

Property owners must keep on hand a quantity of chemical charges supplied by the manufacturer for use in such extinguishers, so that extinguishers may be promptly recharged after use.

When located where temperatures lower than 40 Fahrenheit may be encountered, placing an extinguisher in a tight wooden cabinet containing a sufficiently large heating unit, in continuous operation during the cold weather, will usually serve to keep the contents of the extinguisher from freezing. Installaation shall conform to the National Electric Code. Such a cabinet must be conspicuously marked to show that it contains a Fire Extinguisher. Anti-freezing ingredients must not be mixed with the solution for depressing its freezing point.

SECTION XI

WHEELED FOAM EXTINGUISHER (17 and 33 Gallons)

Approved Wheeled Fire Extinguishers made in two principal sizes:—one having liquid capacity of approximately 33 gallons (trade designation 40 gallons), and the other 17 gallons (trade designation 20 gallons). Chemicals used are bicarbonate of soda and a foam producing agent dissolved in water for outer compartment and aduminum sulphatee dissolved in water for inner cylinder.

Msthod of Operation:

Extinguishers should be wheeled to the fire, and to be used, must be operated in accordance with instructions which are prominent on the extinguisher. When the two solutions mix as a result of the above operation, foam is produced and pressure is created within the container which expels the foam through the hose. While the stream is usually most effective when directed from a distance, it may be used close to the fire. In case of necessity it can be directed effectively from a distance of about 50 feet.

Suitability:

The “warehouse” and “truck” types of wheeled extinguishers are suitable for use inside factory and warehouse buildings in which doorways are wide enough to permit passage of extinguisher from one room or section to another, or in which the extinguisher will not be required to pass from one room to another. The “truck” type of wheeled extinguisher is suitable also for use in mill yards and similar places.

These appliances are effective on fires in ordinary combustible materials (such as wood, [taper, textiles, rubbish, etc.), i. e., on Class “A” fires, where the quenching and cooling effect of quantities of water or solutions containing large percentages of water is of first importance.

They are effective on fires in considerable quantities of inflammable liquids, greases, etc., in vats or other open vessels, or on floors, etc., i. e., on Class “15 fires, where the foam formed by the mixing of the two solutions may be retained as a blanket on the burning material.

Their use in connection with fires in electrical equipment is not recommended.

The force, length and duration of the stream are not dependent upon the operator. The appliances are readily operated while being wheeled about. They are not readily handled by women.

When located where low temperatures may be encountered these appliances must be protected against freezing in an approved manner, as described under “Maintenance.”

Distribution:

  1. Unit of Installation:—One 33 gallon or one 17 gallon extinguisher is considered as a unit.
  2. Unit of Travel:—Extinguishers should be so placed where ordinary combustible materials or inflammable liquids and greases are involved, that the distance to be traveled from any point will not be greater than 200 feet to reach the nearest 33 gallon extinguisher or more than 125 feet to reach the nearest 17 gallon extinguisher, figuring each tloor and basement separately. Ordinarily extinguishers should not be grouped.
  3. Additional units should be provided where unusual quantities of ordinary combustible materials are involved and where the special hazards on which they are effective exist in an unusual degree. These additional units should be located as near as practicable to the hazard to be protected and in every instance they should be so placed that the distance to be traveled from any such hazard to reach the nearest unit will not be greater than 75 feet.

  4. Arrangement:—Extinguishers should be conspicuously located where they will always be readily accessible and so distributed as to be immediately available in event of fire.

Maintenance:

Extinguishers must be recharged annually as well as immediately after use. In recharging these extinguishers all the parts must be washed thoroughly with water) and the water drained through the hose.

Exinguishers must be examined frequently to make sure that they have not been tampered with or removed from their designated places; to detect any injuries; and to see that the orifice of the hose nozzle is not clogged. It is impossible to indicate how often examination should be made, but a careful inspection on the part of the plant inspector should be made at regular intervals.

At least once yearly, before emptying and recharging, the extinguisher and all their parts (including gasket and hose) must be examined for detcrioratior. or injuries due to misuse and the orifices of the hose nozzles examined to see that they are not clogged. Parts which are not in good condition must be replaced. At these inspections all extinguishers must be emptied and recharged and date of recharging and signature of the person who performed it written on the tag attached to each extinguisher. This work must l>e done under capable supervision. On these occasions several extinguishers should be discharged as if at a fire and before an assembly of the occupants of the building. These exhibitions are valuable in the knowledge they give employees and other persons of the operation of the appliance. Each extinguisher should, where practical, be emptied by discharging it.

Aisles, at least 1 foot wider than the extinguisher, must be miantained at all times and the floors of aisles must be kept clear of anything which would interfere with the rapid movement of the extinguisher to a fire.

The solutions must be mixed thoroughly outside the extinguisher and in exact accordance with instructions on the extinguisher. (The liquid should be put through a fine strainer before filling the extinguisher.)

Property owners must keep on hand a quantity of chemical charges supplied by the manufacturer for use in such extinguishers so that extinglishers may be promptly recharged after use.

When located where temperatures lower than 40° F. may be encountered, placing an extinguisher in a tight wooden cabinet containing a sufficiently large heating unit in continuous operation during the cold weather, will usually serve to keep the contents of the extinguisher from freezing. Such installation shall conform to the National Electric Code. Such a cabinet must be conspicuously marked to show that it contains a Fire Extinguisher. Anti-freezing ingredients must not be mixed with the solutions for depressing their freezing point.

SECTION XII

HAND HOSE

This appliance as designed for first aid equipment should consist of approved unlined linen hose in lengths not in excess of 50 feet.

Approved hand hose for first aid equipments should be limited to hose not over 1 1/2 inches in diameter. At the standpipe the hose should be provided with approved hose valves of the straight way type, and the valves provided with an open drip connection not less than ¼ inch in diameter to prevent leakage through valve from entering the hose, Hose should be permanently attached.

The hose should be equipped with nozzles not less than 1/2 inch in diameter and not greater than ¾ inch in diameter. It should be hung in approved semiautomatic racks allowing the full opening of the hose valve without discharge of water through nozzle until the hose is fully dislodged from rack.

The nature of the hand hose supply, the size of risers and underground supply lines are dependent upon the height, area and interior design of the building, therefore, the installation of hand hose equipment should be made only with the consent and on the advice of the Inspection Department having jurisdiction.

While the primary supply for hand hose should be preferably from public water works, satisfactory results may be obtained from the use of gravity tanks, pressure tanks, automatic fire pumps or booster pumpsThese other supplies may also be required where the city pressure at highest outlet is less than fifteen pounds, but their use should always be regulated by the Inspection Department having jurisdiction.

Method of Operation:

The hose gate valve should be opened and the nozzle grasped firmly. Hose line should then be drawn toward the fire. The water is then automatically released as the last few feet of hose are pulled from the rack or reel.

Suitability:

Inside hand hose equipments have been shown to be exceptionally efficient in incipient fires in free burning material and where water or solutions containing a large percentage of water are effective. They are or limited service with fires in inflammable liquids. Their use on electric arcs, electric machinery or wiring is not recommended on account of conductivity of liquid.

It has not been found practicable to protect these appliances against freezing, either by means of pipe covering or boxing, therefore their use should be limited to buildings where there is no danger from freezing.

Distribuiion:

  1. Unit of Installation:—One hand hose connection is considered the equivalent of two units of first aid fire protection.
  2. Note—As a general rule hand hose should not entirely displace the fire pail or other hand extinguisher requirements without the permission of the Inspection Department having jurisdiction.

  3. Area per Unit:—The number of smaller standpipes in each building and each section of a building divided by fire walls should be such that all portions of each story of the building are within 5 feet of a nozzle for a first aid stream when attached to not more than 50 feet of 1 1/2 or 1 1/4-inch hose. Where the first aid streams can be properly supplied by an automotic sprinkler system, separate standpipes for these smaller streams are unnecessary.
  4. Arrangement:—The hand hose should be so placed that travel from any point to the nearest connection will not be greater than 75 feet. Hose valves should be placed beneath the fire hose and at a height not to exceed five feet above the floor. Where they are liable to be molested they shoii|ld be provided with guards sufficiently secure to prevent tampering, but which will not prevent access to them in case of fire.

Maintenance:

The hose stations should be frequently inspected to see that the fire hose is in proper position on the racks or reels, and that all of the equipment is in place and in good condition. The hose should be removed at intervals and new gaskets installed in the couplings, both at the hose valves and at the play pipes and nozzles.

In General:

For further details of installation requirements, both for original systems and additions to same, water suplies, etc., refer to pamphlet on Standpipe and Hose Systems and consult in all cases the local Inspection Department having jurisdiction.

DRY POWDER TUBES AND HAND GRENADES

So-called fire extinguishers, consisting generally of sheet metal tubes filled with mixtures of bicarbonate of soda and other materials in powdered form or of glass bottles filled with chemical solutions and designed to be hurled at the seat of the fire are inferior tor general use and therefore their introduction should not be encouraged.

First Aid Fire Appliances

24

First Aid Fire Appliances

The Installation, Maintenance and Use

A SMALL quantity of water or other extinguishing agent used intelligently at the start of a fire, may easily be more effective than the work of an entire fire department five minutes later.

First Aid Fire Appliances are essentially what the name implies: apparatus provided close at hand for immediate use when needed.

It should be understood that they are designed to cope with fires in their incipiency and are not to be regarded as a substitute for automatic sprinklers.

Various types of first aid fire appliances are described herein. Each type is of value, but all are not equally desirable for all conditions. On this account consideration should be given to the particular needs of each individual property.

The requirements given herein are, in general minimum and the Inspection Department having jurisdiction should be consulted in all cases.

While the methods of operation of the various types of apparatus are generally apparent from their very nature, it is important to give instructions to occupants of buildings in order that all may understand their purpose and how to use them effectively. These instructions should be supplemented by yearly or more frequent demonstrations.

It is extremely important that the instructions regarding maintenance should be carefully followed so that the first aid fire appliances will be always fully charged; in their designated places at all times: and in a condition which will permit efficient operation at any moment without delay.

In buildings where appliances are likely to be obscured by piles of stock, lumber, etc., it is desirable to paint on the walls or on boards located well above the appliances, a signs approximately one foot wide by four feet long, consisting of alternate diagonal stripes of sharply contrasting colors. This sign becomes familiar, immediately brings the appliance into prominence and will save valuable time in case of emergency.

In many industries temporary hazards occur from time to time. A good practice is to maintain a few portable stands or racks consisting of a horizontal bar on uprights with feet. Locate these stands as necessary and hang on them such first-aid appliances as are suited to the “Special Hazard” to lie protected.

STANDARD FIRE PAILS—(12 Quarts) CASKS WITH PAILS AND BUCKET TANKS

Approved fire pails made of galvanized iron or steel or of fibre; of 12 quart capacity; extinguishing agent used is water or an antifreezing solution consisting of granulated calcium chloride (free from magnesium chloride) mixed with water in definite proportions (see table below), depending upon the lowest temperature likely to be encountered.

Method of Operation:

Pails should be carried to the fire and the contents thrown or poured over the entire surface of the burning material. While the liquid is most effective if used close to the fire, in case of necessity it can be directed from a distance of 10 feet.

Suitability:

These appliances are effective on incipient fires in ordinary combustible materials (such as wood, paper, textiles, rubbish, etc.) i. e., on Class “A” fires, where the quenching and cooling effect of quantities of water or solutions containing large percentages of water is of first importance.

They are of value also on incipient fires in floors, soaked with oils, greases, etc., where the quenching and cooling effect of the water may be utilized; but are not effective on fires in inflammable liquids, greases, etc., in vats, open vessels, etc., where the blanketing effect is essential.

Their use in connection with fires in electrical equip ments is not recommended.

Their use is limited to fires which may be readily reached by liquid thrown or poured from a pail. These appliances are readily used while being carried about.

When located where low temperatures may be encountered these appliances must be protected against freezing in an approved manner, as described under “Maintenance.”

These are solid, workable ideas that are advanced in this paper. We feel sure that our readers will welcome this report, which was made at the annual meeting of the National Fire Protection Association in San Francisco, Cal.— Editor.

*Edward R. Hardy, Chairman; H. A. Fiske, H. W. Forster, Geo. H. Greenfield, Milton F. Jones, Hervey Mason, R. S. Moulton, C. H. Patton, Benj. Richards, W. G. Sanderson, A. R. Small, H. P. Smith, F. J. T. Stewart, C. E. Worthington.

Distribution:

  1. Unit of Installation:—Five (5) pails are considered a unit.
  2. Note.—A 50-gallon cask (painted red on the outside heavily pitched on the inside and marked FIRE in black letters at least 2 1/2 inches high) with three standard fire pails located near the cask; or an approved 22-gallon or larger bucket tank containing lve standard fire pails, may be employed as a unit in lieu of five filled pails.

  3. Area per Unit:—Units should be provided, where ordinary combustible materials are involved, in the proportion of one unit for every 2,500 square feet of floor area, figuring each room, gallery, basement, etc., separately. Units should be so placed that the distance to be traveled from any point to reach the nearest unit will not be greater than approximately 35 feet. Ordinarily pails should not be grouped in numbers larger than the specified unit.
  4. Additional Units should be provided where unusual quantities of ordinary rombustible materials are involved. These additional units should be located as near as practicable to the hazard to be protected and in every instance they should be so placed that the distance to be traveled from any such hazard to reach the nearest unit will not be greater than 15 feet.

  5. Arrangement:—Fails, casks and bucket tanks should be conspicuously located where they will always be readily accessible and so distributed as to be immediately available in event of fire. Fails should be hung on hangers or set on brackets or shelves so that their upper rims will not be higher than 5 feet nor Jess than 2 feet from the floor.

Maintenance:

Containers must be kept full at all times and be refilled immediately after use.

Containers should be examined frequently to make sure that they have not been tampered with or removed from their designated places; to determine (with a hydrometer) whether or not the specific gravity of the solution if Calcium Chloride is used, is such as to insure against its freezing at the lowest temperatures which may be encountered; to prevent the solution becoming foul; and to see that the containers are kept full and to replace the liquid which may have evaporated. Containers should preferably be kept covered. So much depends on climatic conditions and temperatures that it is impossible to indicate just how often examination should be made, but a careful inspection on the part of the plant inspector should be made at regular intervals.

At least once yearly the containers must be examined for deterioration or injuries due to misuse. Containers which are not in good condition must be replaced. At these inspections several pails should be emptied as if at a fire, before an assembly of the occupants of the building. These exhibitions are valuable in the knowledge they give employees and other persons of the most efficient method of using the pails.

When located where low temperatures may be encountered, granulated calcium chloride (free from magnesium chloride) must be mixed with water for depressing its freezing point. The following table shows approximately the temperature at which the solution will freeze when granulated calcium chloride (free from magnesium chloride) is added to water in the proportions shown:—

Anti-freezing solutions must be mixed thoroughly in exact accordance with proportions given above. About a tablespoonful of lime should be added to each 2 1/2 gallons of anti-freezing solution to prevent corrosion.

Where anti-freezing solutions are employed, property owners must keep on hand a quantity of granulated calcium chloride (free from magnesium chloride) in an airtight receptacle so that containers may be promptly refilled after use.

In an emergency common salt (not rock salt) may be used instead of calcium chloride when the solution is kept in wooden casks and where temperatures lower than zero Fahrenheit will not be encountered. Two and three-quarters pounds of salt should be used with each gallon of water, producing a solution having a specific gravity of 1.205. .Salt solution must never be kept in metal containers.

SECTION II.

FOAM FIRE PAILS

(12 Quarts)

Approved fire pails of special type made in one size, total capacity 14 quarts, liquid capacity 12 quarts; extinguishing agent used:—bicarbonate of soda and foam producing agent dissolved in water for outer chamber and aluminum sulphate dissolved in water for inner chamber.

Method of Operation:

Fails should be carried to the fire before the cover is removed, and the contents of the pail thrown or poured on the fire. When the two solutions mix ns a result of the above operation, foam is produced. While the liquid is usually most effective when directed from a distance of about five or ten feet, it may be used close to the fire.

Suitability:

These appliances are effective on incipient fires in ordinary combustible materials (such as wood, paper, textiles, rubbish, etc.), i. e., on Class “A” fires, where the quenching and cooling effect of quantities of water or solutions containing large percentages of water Is of first importance.

They are effective on fires in small quantities of inflammable liquids, greases, etc., in vats or other open vessels or on floors, etc., i. e., on Class “B” fires, where the foam formed by the mixing of the two solutions may be retained as a blanket on the burning material.

Their use in connection with fires in electrical equipment is not recommended.

Their use is limited to fires which may be readily reached by liquid thrown or poured from a pail. These appliances are readily used while being carried about.

When located where low temperatures may be encountered these appliances must BE protected against freezing in an approved manner, as described under “Maintenance.”

Distribution:

  1. Unit of Installation:—Five (5) pails are considered a unit.
  2. Area per Unit:—Units should be provided where ordinary combustible materials or inflammable liquids or greases are involved, in the proportion of one unit for every 2.500 square feet of floor area, figuring each room, gallery, basement, etc., separately. Units should be so placed that the distance to be traveled from any point to reach the nearest unit will not be greater than approximately 35 feet. Ordinarily pails should not be grouped in numbers larger than the specified unit.
  3. Additional units should be provided where unusual quantities of ordinary combustible materials are involved and where the special hazards on which they are effective exist. These additional units should be located as near as practicable to the hazard to be protected and in every instance should be so placed that the distance to be traveled from any such hazard to reach the nearest unit will not be greater than 15 feet.

  4. Arrangement:—Pails should be conspicuously located where they will always be readily accessible and so distributed as to be immediately available in event of fire. They should be hung on hangers or set on brackets or shelves so that their upper rims will not be more than 5 feet nor less than 2 feet above the floor.

Maintenance:

Pails must be refillled annually as well as immediately after use.

Pails should be examined frequently to make sure that they have not been tampered with or removed from their designated places. They must be kept full of liquid at all times, by adding liquid to replace that which evaporates or is used. Pails should preferably be kept tightly covered. So much depends on climatic conditions and temperatures that it is impossible to indicate just how often examination should be made, but a careful inspection on the part of the plant inspector should be made at regular intervals.

At least once yearly, before emptying and recharging, the pails must be examined for deterioration or injuries due to misuse. Pails which are not in good condition must be replaced. At these inspections all pails must be emptied and recharged and date of recharging and signature of the person who performed it written on the tag attached to each pail. This work must be done under capable supervision. On these occasions several pails should be emptied as if at a fire and before an assembly of the occupants of the building. These exhibitions are valuable in the knowledge they give employees and other persons of the most efficient method of using the appliances.

The solutions must be mixed thoroughly in exact accordance with instructions given on the pail.

Property owners must keep on hand a quantity of chemical charges supplied by the manufacturer of such pails, so that pails may be promptly refilled after use.

When located where temperatures lower than 40 Fahrenheit may be encountered, placing a fire pail in a tight wooden cabinet containing a heating unit (such as a sufficiently large electric lamp), which is kept in continuous operation during the cold weather, will usually serve to keep the contents of the fire pail from freezing. Such a cabinet must be conspicuously marked to show that it contains a fire pail. Antifreezing ingredients must not be mixed with the solutions tor depressing their freezing point.

SECTION III

SODA-ACID EXTINGUISHER

(1} and 2J Gallons)

Approved Hand Fire Extinguishers made in two principal sizes; one having a liuquid capacity, when propertly charged, of approximately 21/2. gallons, and the other of approximately 1 1/2 gallons. Chemicals used are bicarbonate of soda and commercial sulphuric acid.

Method of Operation:

Extinguishers should be carried to the fire by means of the top handle and, to be used, must be operated in accordance with instructions which are prominent on the extinguisher. When the soda-solution and the acid mix as a result of the above operation, pressure is created within the container which expels the solution through the hose. While the stream is usually most effective if used close to the fire, in case of necessity it can be directed effectively from a distance of 30 to 40 feet.

Suitability:

These appliances are effective on incipient fires in ordinary combustible materials (such as wood, paper, textile, rubbish, etc.), i. e., on Class “A” fires where the quenching and cooling effect of quantities of water or solutions containing large percentages of water is of first importance.

They are of value on incipient fires in floors, soaked with oils, greases, etc., where the quenching and cooling effect of the water may be utilized; but are not effective on fires in inflammable liquids, greases, etc., in vats, open vessels, etc., where the blanketing effect is essential.

Their use in connection with fires in electrical equipment is not recommended.

The force, length and duration of the steam are not dependent upon the operator. Thee appliances are readily operated while being carried about. The 1 1/2 gallon extinguisher is intended primarily for use by women and children.

When located where low temperatures may be encountered these appliances must be protected against freezing in an approved manner, as described under “Maintenance.”

Distribution:

  1. Unit of Installation:—One gallon or two 1 1/2 gallon extinguishers are considered as a unit.
  2. Area per Unit:—Extinguishers should be provided where ordinary combustible materials arc involved in the proportion of one unit for every 2.,00 square feet of floor area or greater part thereof, figuring each room, gallery, basement, etc., separately. They should be so placed that the distance to he traveled from any point to reach the nearest extinguisher will not be greater than approximately 35 feet. Ordinarily extinguishers should not be grouped in numbers larger than the specified unit, except in such properties as churches, schools, hotels, arcade and office buildings where corridor distribution and grouping may be necessary to some extent.
  3. Additional units should be provided where unusual quantities of ordinary combustible materials are involved. These additional units should be located as near as practicable to the hazard to lie protected and in every instance they should be so placed that the distance to be traveled from any such hazard to reach the nearest unit will not be greater than 15 feet.

  4. Arrangement:—Extinguishers should be conspicuously located where they will always be readily accessible and so distributed as to be immediately available in event of fire. They should l>e hung on hangers or set on brackets or shelves so that the top of the extinguisher is not more than 5 feet above the floor.

Maintenance:

Extinguishers must be recharged annually as well as immediately after use. In recharging these extinguishers all parts must be washed thoroughly with water and the water drained through the hose.

Extinguishers must be examined frequently to make sure that they have not been tampered with or removed from their designated places; to detect any injuries; and to see that the orifice of the hose nozzle is not clogged. It is impossible to indicate just how often examination should be made, but a careful inspection on the part of the plant should be made at regular intervals.

At least once yearly, before emptying and recharging, the extinguishers and all their parts (including gasket and hose) must be examined for deterioration or injuries due to misuse and the orifices of the hose nozzles examined to see that they are not clogged. Parts which are not in good condition must be replaced. It is important that bottles and lead or porcelain stopples when replaced should be exact duplicates of those originally provided with the extinguishers. At these inspections all extinguishers must be emptied and recharged and date of recharging and signature of the person who performed it written on the tag attached to each extinguisher. This work must be done under capable supervision. On these occasions several extinguishers should be discharged as if at a fire before an assembly of the occupants of the building. These exhibitions are valuable in the knowledge they give employees and other persons of the operation of the appliance. Each extinguisher should, where practical, he emptied by discharging it.

The soda-solution must be mixed thoroughly outside the extinguisher and in exact accordance with instructions on the extinguisher. The liquid should be luke warm (never hot), and put through a fine strainer before filling the extinguisher.

Property owners must keep on hand a quantity of chemical charges supplied by the manufacturer for use in such extinguishers, so that they may be promptly recharged after use.

When located where continued temperatures lower than 40 Fahrenheit may be encountered, placing an extinguisher in a tight wooden cabinet containing a heating unit (such as a sufficiently large electric lamp), which is kept in continuous operation during the cold weather will usually serve to keep the contents of the extinguisher from freezing. Installation shall conform to the National Electrical Code. Such a cabinet must be conspicuously marked to show that it contains a Fire Extinguisher. Anti-freezing ingredients must not be mixed with the solution for depressing its freezing point.

SECTION IV

FOAM EXTINGUISHERS

(If and 2 1/2 Gallons)

Approved Hand Fire Extinguishers made in two principal sizes: one having liquid capacity of approximately 2 1/2 gallons, and the other liquid of 1 1/2 gallons. Chemicals used are bicarbonate of soda and a foam producing agent dissolved in water for outer compartment and aluminum sulphate dissolved in water for inner cylinder.

Method of Operation:

Extinguishers should be carried to the fire by means of the top handle and, to be used, must be inverted. When the two solutions mix as a result of the above operation, foam is produced and pressure is created within the container which expels the foam through the hose. While the stream is usually most effective when directed from a distance, it may be used close to the fire. In case of necessity it can be directed effectively from a distance as great as 30 to 40 feet.

Suitability:

These appliances are effective on incipient fires in ordinary combustible materials (such as wood, paper, textiles, rubbish, etc.), i. e., on Class “A” fires where the quenching and cooling effect of quantities of water or solutions containing large percentages of water is of first importance.

They are effective on fires in small quantities of inflammable liquids, greases, etc., in vats or other open vessels or on floors, etc., i. e., on Class “B” fires, where the foam formed by the mixing of the two solutions may be retained as a blanket on the burning material.

There use in connection with fires in electrical equipment is not recommended.

The force, length and duration of the stream are not dependent upon the operator. These appliances are readily operated while being carried about. The 1 1/2 gallon extinguisher is intended primarily for use by women and children.

When located where low temperatures may be encountered these appliances must be protected against freezing in an approved manner, as described under “Maintenance.”

Distribution:

  1. Unit of Installation:—One 2 1/2 gallon or two 1 1/2 gallon extinguishers are considered as a unit.
  2. Aea per Unit:—Extinguishers should be provided where ordinary combustible materials or inflammable liquids or greases are involved, in the proportion of one unit for every 2.500 square feet of floor area or greater part thereof, figuring each room, gallery, basement, etc., separately. They should be so placed that the distance to be traveled from any pointy to reach the nearest extinguisher will not be greater, than approximately 35 feet. Ordinarily extinguishers should not be grouped in numbers larger than the specified unit, except in such properties as churches, schools, hotels, arcade and office buildings where corridor distribution and grouping may be necessary to some extent.
  3. Additional units should be provided where unusual quantities of ordinary combustible materials are involved and where the special hazards on which they are effective exist. These additional units should be located as near as practicable to the hazard to be protected and in every instance they should be so placed that the distance to be traveled from any such hazard to reach the nearest unit will not be greater than 15 feet.

  4. Arrangement:—Extinguishers should be conspicuously located where they will always be readily accessible and so distributed as to be immediately available in event of fire. They should be hung on hangers or set on brackets or shelves so that the top of the extinguisher is not more than 5 feet above the floor.

Maintenance:

Extinguishers must be recharged annually as well as immediately after use. In recharging these extinguishers all parts must be washed thoroughly with water and the water drained through the hose.

Extinguishers must be examined frequently to make sure that they have not been tampered with or removed from their designated places; to detect any injuries; and to see that the orifice of the hose nozzle is not clogged. It is impossible to indicate just how often examination should be made, but a careful inspection on the part of the plant inspector should be made at regular intervals.

At least once yearly, before emptying and recharging, the extinguishers and all their parts (including gasket and hose) must be examined for deterioration or injuries due to misuse and the orifices of the hose nozzles examined to see that they are not clogged. Parts which are not in good condition must be replaced. At these inspections all extinguishers must be emptied and recharged and date of recharging and signature of the person who performed it written on the tag attached to each extinguisher. This work must be done under capable supervision. On these occasions several extinguishers should be discharged as if at a fire and before an assembly of the occupants of the building. These exhibitions are valuable in the knowledge they give employees and other persons of the operation of the appliance. Each extinguisher should, where practical, be emptied by discharging it.

The solutions must be mixed thoroughly outside the extinguisher and in exact accordance with instructions on the extinguisher.

Property owners must keep on hand a quantity of chemical charges supplied by the manufacturer for use in such extinguishers so that extinguishers may be promptly recharged after use.

When located where temperatures lower than 40 Fahrenheit may be encountered, placing an extinguisher in a tight wooden cabinet containing a heating unit (such as a sufficiently large electric lamp), which is kept in continuous operation during the cold weather, will usually serve to keep the contents of the extinguisher from freezing. Installation shall conform to the National Electric Code. Such a cabinet must be conspicuously marked to show that it contains a Fire Extinguisher. Anti-freezing ingredients must not be mixed with the solutions for depressing their freezing point.

SECTION V

PUMP TANK EXTINGUISHERS

(2 1/2 and 5 Gallons)

Approved Hand Fire Extinguishers made in two principal sizes: one having liquid capacity of approximately 5 gallons and the other liquid capacity of approximately 2 1/2 gallons. Extinguishing agent used is water or an anti-freezing solution consisting of granulated calcium chloride (free from magnesium chloride) mixed with water in definite proportions (see table following), depending upon the lowest temperature likely to be encountered.

Method of Operation:

Extinguishers should be carried to the fire by means of the top handle and the pump operated. While the stream is usually most effective if used dose to the fire, in case of necessity it can be directed from a distance of 30 to 40 feet.

Suitability:

These appliances are effective on incipient fires in ordinary combustible materials (such as wood, paper, textiles, rubbish, etc.) i. e., on Class “A’’fires where the quenching and cooling effect of quantities of water or solutions containing large percentages of water is of first importance.

They are of value on incipient fires in floors soaked with oils and greases, etc., where the quenching and cooling effect of the water may be utilized; but are not effective on fires in inflammable liquids, greases, etc., in vats, open vessels, etc., where the blanketing effect is essential.

Their use in connection with fires in electrical equipment is not recommended.

The force, length and duration of the stream are dependent upon the operator. These appliances cannot be operated while being carried about. They are not readily handled by women. The five gallon size is attended for use largely in industrial establishments where persons of amide strength, usually men, will employ them.

When located where low temperatures may be encountered these appliances must be protected against freezing in an approved manner as described under “Maintenance.”

Distribution:

  1. Unit of Installation:—One 5-gallon or two 2 1/2 gallon extinguishers are considered as a unit.
  2. Area per Unit.—Extinguishers should be provided where ordinary combustible materials are involved, in the proportion of one unit for every 2,500 square feet of floor area or greater part thereof, figuring each room, gallery, lasement, etc., separately. They should be so placed that the distance to be travelevd from any point to reach the nearest extinguisher will not be greater than approximately 35 feet. Ordinarily extinguishers should not be grouped in numbers larger than the specified unit.
  3. Additional units should be provided where unusual quantities of ordinary combustible materials are involved. These additional units should be located as mar as practicable to the hazard to be protected and in every advance they should be so placed that the distance to be traveled from any such hazard to reach the nearest unit will not be greater than 15 feet.

  4. Arrangement:—Extinguishers should be conspicuously located where they will always be readily accessible and so, distributed as to be immediately available in event of fire. They should be hung on hangers or set on brackets or shelves so that the top of the extinguisher is not more than 5 feet above the floor for the 2 1/2 gallon size and 3 1/2 feet for the 5 gallon size.

Maintenance:

Extinguishers must be kept full at all times and be refilled immediately after use. In recharging these extinguishers all parts “must be washed thoroughly with water and the water drained through the hose.

Extinguishers must be examined frequently to make sure they have not been tampered with or removed from thir designated places; to determine (with a hydrometer) whether or not the specific gravity of the solution is such as to insure against its freezing at the lowest temperature which may be encountered; and to replace the liquid which has evaporated or is used. Containers should be kept tightly covered so as to retard evaporation. So much depends on climatic conditions and temperatures that it is impossible to indicate just how often examinations should be made, but a careful inspection on the part of the plant inspector should be made at regular intervals.

At least once yearly the extinguishers must be examined as to condition of operating parts and for deterioration or injuries due to misuse and the orifices of the hose nozzles examined to see that they are not clogged. A drop of oil should be put on the piston rod packing. Date of inspection and signature of person who performed it should be written on the tag attached to the extinguisher. This work must be done under capable supervision. Extinguishers which are not in good condition must be replaced. On these occasions several of the extinguishers should be discharged as if at a fire before an assembly of the occupants of the building. These exhibitions are valuable in the knowledge they give employees and other persons of the operation of the appliance. Each extinguisher must be given an operating test. Where calcium chloride solution is used, it may be discharged back into the container.

When located where low temperatures may be encountered granulated calcium chloride free from magnesium chloride, must be mixed with water for depressing its freezing point. The following table shows approximately the temperature at which water will freeze when calcium chloride (free from magnesium chloride) is added in proportions shown:—

Anti-freezing solution must be mixed thoroughly outside the extinguisher and in exact accordance with proportions given above. About a tablespoonful of lime should be added to each 2 1/2 gallons of anti-freezing solution to prevent corrosion.

Where anti-freezing solutions are employed, property owners must keep on hand a quantity of granulated calcium chloride (free from magnesium chloride) in an airtight receptacle’so that extinguishers may be promptly refilled after use.

Common salt or chemicals other than that specified above must not be used in these extinguishers for any purpose.

SECTION VI

CALCIUM CHLORIDE EXTINGUISHER

(2 1/2 Gallons)

(Internally Generated Pressure)

Approved Hand Fire Extinguishers made in one size having liquid capacity when properly charged of approximately 2 1/2 galolns. Extinguishing agent used is an anti-freezing solution consisting of granulated calcium chloride (free from magnesium chloride) mixed with water in definite proportions.

Method of Operation:

Extinguishers should be carried to the fire by means of the top handle and to be used should be inverted. When the slow burning safety fuses are ignited inside the inner chamber as a result of the above operation, pressure is created within the container which expels the solution through the hose. While the stream is usually most effective if used close to the fire, in case of necessity it can be directed from a distance of 30 to 40 feet.

Suitability:

These appliances are effective on incipient fires in ordinary combustible materials (such as wood, paper, textiles, rubbish, etc.), i. e., on Class “A” fires, where the quenching and cooling effect of quantities of water or solutions containing large percentages of water is of first importance.

They are of value on incipient fires in floors soaked with oils, greases, etc., where the quenching and cooling effect of the water may be utilized: but are not effective on fires in inflammable liquids, greases, etc., in vats, open vessels, etc., where the blanketing effect is essential.

Their use in connection with fires in electrical equipment is not recommended.

The force, length and duration of the stream are not dependent on the operator. These appliances are readily operated while being carried about.

These appliances do not need to be protected against freezing as thev employ an extinguishing liquid having a freezing point of 40 degrees below zero, Fahrenheit.

Distribution:

  1. Unit of Installation:—One 2 1/2 gallon extinguisher is considered a unit.
  2. Area per Unit:—Extinguishers should be provided where ordinary combustible materials are involved, in the proportion of one unit for every 2,500 square feet of floor area or greater part thereof, figuring each room, gallery, basement, etc., separately. They should be so placed that the distance to be traveled from any point to reach the nearest extinguisher will not be greater than approximately 35 feet. Ordinarily extinguishers should not be grouped in numbers larger than the specified unit, except in such properties as churches, schools, hotels, arcade and office buildings where corridor distribution and grouping may be necessary to some extent.
  3. Additional units should be provided where unusual quantities of ordinary combustible materials are involved. These additional units should be located as near as practicable to the hazard to be protected and in every instance they should be so placed that the distance to be traveled from any such hazard to reach the nearest unit will not be greater than 15 feet.

  4. Arrangement:—Extinguishers should be conspicuously located where they will always be readily accessible and so distributed as to be immediately available in event of fire. They should be hung on hangers or set on brackets or shelves so that the top of the extinguisher is not higher than 5 feet from the floor.

Maintenance:

Exitnguishers must be recharged annually as well as immediately after use. In recharging these extinguishers all parts must be washed thoroughly with water and the water drained through the hose.

Extinguishers must be examined frequently to make sure that they have not been tampered with or removed from their designated places; to detect any injuries; and to see that the orifice of the hose nozzle is not clogged. It is impossible to indicate just how often examination should be made, but a careful inspection on the part of the plant inspector should he made at regular intervals.

At least once yearly, before emptying and recharging, the extinguishers and all their parts (including gasket and hose) must be examined for deterioration or injuries due to misuse and the orifices of the hose nozzles examined to see that they are not clogged. Parts which are not in good condition must he replaced. At these inspections all extinguishers must he emptied and recharged and date of recharging and signature of the person who performed it written on the tag, attached to each extinguisher. This work must be done under capable supervision. On these occasions several of the extinguishers should be discharged as if at a fire before an assembh of the occupants of the building. These exhibitions are valuable in the knowledge they give employees and other persons of the operation of the appliance. Each extinguisher should, where practical, be emptied by discharging it.

Chemicals other than those specified above must not be used in these extinguishers for any purpose.

The solutions must be mixed thoroughly outside the extinguisher in exact accordance with instructions on the extinguisher. The liquid should be luke warm (never hot) and put through a fine strainer before filling the extinguisher.

Property owners must keep on hand a quantity of the special charges suppplied by the manufacturer for use in such extinguishers so that extinguishers may be promptly recharged after use.

SECTION VII

SPECIAL TETRACHLORIDE EXTINGUISHERS

(1 and 1 1/2 Quarts)

Approved Hand Eire Extinguishers made in two principal sizes: one having liquid capacity of approximately one quart and the other of 1 1/2 quarts. Extinguishing agent used is a special non-conducting liquid with important components for depressing the freezing point, avoiding corrosion, etc.

Method of Operation:

Extinguishers should be carried to the fire, and to he used, must be operated in accordance with instructions which are prominent on the extinguisher. While the stream is usually most effective if used close to the fire, in case of necessity it can be directed effectively from a distance of 20 ft.

Suitability:

They are effective on fires in small quantities of inflammable liquids, greases, etc., in vats or other vessels or on floors, etc., i. e., on Class “B” fires, where the gas formed by the heating of the extinguishing liquid may be retained as a blanket on the burning material.

They are effective on incipient fires, in electrical equipment, i. e., on Class “C” fires.

Thes appliances are adopted for use on automoblies, motorboats, etc.

They are of value, on incipient fires in small quantities of ordinary combustible material (such as wood, paper, textiles, rubbish, etc.) where the gas formed by the heating of the extinguishing liquid may be utilized; but are not effective on fires where the quenching and cooling effect of water is of first importance.

The force, length and duration of the stream are dependent upon the operator. These appliances are readily operated while being carried about. The one quart extinguishers are readily handled by women. The 1 1/2 quart extinguisher is intended for use largely in industrial establishments where persons of ample strength, usually men, will employ them.

Care should be taken to ventilate small rooms and confined spaces immediately after using these extinguishers.

These appliances do not need to be protected against freezing as they employ an extinguishing liquid having a freezing point of 50 F. below zero.

Distribution:

  1. Unit of Installation:—Two 1 quart or two 1 1/2 quart extinguishers are considered as a unit.
  2. Area per Unit:—Extinguishers should be provided where inflammable liquids and greases, or electrical equipment are involved, in the proportion of one unit for every 2500 square feet of floor area, or greater part thereof, figuring each room, gallery, basement, etc., separately. Units should be so placed that the distance to be traveled from any special hazard on which they are effective, or from any point, to reach the nearest extinguisher will not be greater than approximately 15 feet. Ordinarily extinguishers should not be grouped in numbers larger than the specified unit.
  3. Additional units should be provided where the special hazards on which they are effective exist in an unusual degree. These additional units should be located as near as practicable to the hazard to be protected.

  4. Arrangement:—Extinguishers should be conspicuously located where they will always be readily accessible and so distributed as to be immediately available in event of fire. They should be hung in the special brackets supplied with the extinguisher so that the top of the extinguisher is not higher than 5 feet from the floor

Maintenance:

Extinguishers must be kept full at all times and be refilled immediately after use. In recharging these extinguishers no liquid other than the special extinguishing liquid should be used either for washing or filling them.

This item is very important: Liquid other than that supplied by the manufacturer of the extinguisher is liable to contain impurities which will render the appliance inoperative, in a very short time.

Extinguishers should l>e examined frequently to make sure that they have not been tampered with, removed from their designated places, or injured; also to see that they are kept full of extinguishing fluid at all times, and that the orifices of the nozzles are not clogged. So much depends on conditions that it is impossible to indicate just how often examination should be made, but a careful inspection on the part of the plant inspector should be made at regular intervals.

At least once yearly the extinguishers must be examined as to condition of pump or pressure and for deterioration or injuries due to misuse. At these inspections all extinguishers must be tested by discharging a portion of the liquid with the stream directed alternately upward and downward. The extinguishers which are not in good condition must be replaced; others should be refilled by pouring in enough liquid to replace that which was discharged. Date of recharging and signature of the person who performed it must be written on the tag attached to each extinguisher. This work must be done under capable supervision. On these occasions several of these extinguishers should be discharged as if at a fire and before an assembly of the occupants of the building. These exhibitions are valuable in the knowledge they give employees and other persons of the operation of the appliance.

Property owners must keep on hand a quantity of extinguishing liquid supplied by the manufacturer for use in such extinguishers, so that extinguishers may be promptly recharged after use.

SECTION VIII

SAND FIRE FAILS

Approved Fire Pails made of galvanized iron or steel or fibre, of 12 quarts capacity. Extinguishing agent must be in fine, dry, clean sand free from gravel, earth or other foreign substance (lake sand preferred), each provided with a scoop (of wood or fibre for electrical fires) for applying the sand to the fire.

Method of Operation:

Pails should be carried to the fire and the contents of the pail thrown or poured over the entire surface of the burning material, using the scoop as needed. Sand can be applied effectively only at short range from the fire.

Suitability:

These appliances are effective on fires in small quantities of inflammable liquids and greases, on floors, etc., but are not effective on fires in such materials in vats or other open vessels.

They are effective on incipient fires in stationary electrical equipment carrying low voltage, but are not suitable for use on fires in moving parts of electrical machines.

They are not effective on incipient fires in ordinary combustible materials (such as wood, paper, textiles, rubbish, etc.), i. e., where the quenching and cooling effect of quantities of water or solutions containing large percentages of water is of first importance.

Their use is limited to fires which may be readily reached by sand thrown from a pail or scoop. They are not readily handled by women.

These appliances do not need to be protected against freezing, if the sand is kept dry.

Distribution:

  1. Unit of Installation:—Five (5) pails are considered as a unit, but they should usually be supplemented by other kinds of first aid fire appliances.
  2. Note—Metal or wooden bins of four bushels capacity with partly collapsible front and provided with two or more shovels with handles of suitable length, may be employed as a unit in lieu of five filled pails.

  3. Unit of Travel:—Units should be provided where the special hazards on which alley are effective are found. Units should be located as near as practicable to the special hazard to be protected and in every instance they should be so placed that the distance to be traveled from any such hazard to reach the nearest unit will not be greater than approximately 15 feet. Ordinarily pails should not be grouped in numbers larger than the specified unit.
  4. Arrangement:—Units should be conspicuously located where they will always be readily accessible and so distributed as to be immediately available in event of fire. Fails should be hung on hangers, or set on shelves so that their upper rims will not be more than 5 feet nor less than 2 feet above the floor.

Maintenance:

Containers must be kept full at all times and be refilled immediately after use.

Containers should be examined frequently to make sure that neither they nor their scoops or shovels have been tampered with or removed from their designated places and to see that the sand is not damp or caked. They must be kept full of sand at all times by adding sand to replace that which is used. Containers should preferably be kept covered. So much depends on conditions that it is impossible to indicate just how often examinations should be made, but a careful inspection on the part of the plant inspector should be made at regular intervals.

At least once yearly the containers and scoops or shovels must be examined for deterioration or injuries due to misuse. Containers and scoops or shovels which are not in good condition must be replaced. At these inspections several pails or shovelfuls should be emptied as if at a fire and before an assembly of the occupants of the building. These exhibitions are valuable, in the knowneldge they give employees and other persons of the most efficient method of using the appliances.

Property owners must keep on hand a quantity of clean, dry, fine sand so that containers may be promptly refilled after use.

SEXTION IX

SODA-AND-SAWDUST

Receptacles of special type (a substantial bin about 1 1/2 by 1/2 by 3 1/2 ft. high with reinforced edges and with sides tapered downward) made of galvanized iron or steel; of 8 bushels capacity, each provided with two or more scoop shovels with handles of suitable length. Extinguishing agent must be clean, dry sawdust, free from dirt, chips, shavings and other foreign matter thoroughly and evenly mixed with bicarbonate of soda in the proportion of 10 lbs. of soda to one bushel of sawdust.

Method of Operation:

The door near the bottom of the receptacle should be let down and the contents of the receptacle shoveled rapidly onto the fire. In applying this mixture to burning oil or grease, the mixture must be distributed, by the operator, over the entire surface of the fire, as it will not spread of its own accord. The mixture can be applied effectively only at short range from the fire.

Suitability:

These appliances are effective on fires in small quantities of heavy inflammable liquids, greases, etc., in vats or other open vessels or on floors, where the mixture is applied rapidly and is spread over the entire surface provided it may be retained as a blanket on the burning material.

They are not effective on incipient fires in ordinary combustible material (such as wood, paper, textiles, rubbish, etc.), i. e., where the quenching and cooling effect of water or solutions containing large percentages of water is of first importance.

Their use in connection with fires in electrical equipment is not recommended.

Their use is limited to fires which may be readily reached by mixture thrown from a shovel.

These appliances do not need to be protected against freezing if the soda-and-sawdust mixture is kept dry.

Distribution:

  1. Unit of Installation:—One receptacle is considered a unit, but should usually be supplemented by other kinds of first aid fire appliances.
  2. Note.—Pails are not recommended for use as containers for soda-and-sawdust mixture.

  3. Unit of Travel:—Units should be provided where the special hazards on which they are effective txist. These units should he located as near as practicable to the special hazard to be protected and in every instance they should be so placed that the distance to be traveled from any such hazard to reach the nearest unit will not be greater than approximately 15 feet. Ordinarily receptacles should not be grouped.
  4. Arrangement:—Units should be conspicuously located where they will always be readily accessible and so distributed as to be immediately available in event of fire.

Maintenance:

Containers must be kept full at all times and be refilled immediately after use.

Containers must be examined frequently to make sure that neither they nor their shovels have been tampered with or removed from their designated places, and to see that the mixture is not oily, damp or caked. They must be kept full of mixture at all times by adding mixture to replace that which is used. Containers should be kept closed. So much depends on conditions that it is impossible to indicate just how often examination should be made, but a careful inspection on the part of the plant inspector should be made at regular intervals.

At least once yearly the containers and shovels must be examined for deterioration or injuries due to misuse. Containers or shovels which are not in good condition must be replaced. At these inspections several shovelfuls should be emptied as if at a fire before an assembly of the occupants of the building. These exhibitions are valuable in the knowledge they give employees and other persons of the method of using the appliances.

The soda-and-sawdust must be mixed thoroughly in exact accordance with the proportions given in the above.

Property owners must keep on hand a quantity of bicarbonate of soda and a quantity of clean, dry, fine sawdust so that containers may be promptly refilled after use.

(To be continued)