How Defiance, Ohio, Treats Its Water
Some interesting figures are contained in the annual report of the municipal water works, Defiance, Ohio, of which Henry C. Campion is superintendent. The feature of the method of water treatment in the department is the use of alum softening to reduce the temporary hardness of the water. The reductions obtained by this means are interesting. The total alkalinity (methyl orange) of the raw water is 160 p. p. m. and of the filtered water 50 p. p. m. and the total hardness of the raw water is 232 p. p. m. while that of the ‘filtered water is 132. The cost of chemicals including lime, alum and chlorine covers a yearly average of $15.50 per million gallons of water treated. The plan of treating the lime softened effluent of a basin with carbon dioxide gas, which is another feature of this department, was continued without interruption throughout the year 1923. The following are the averages for the year of the results of daily tests:
All of the services of Defiance are metered except those for fire protection. This fact coupled with a water waste prevention campaign which was conducted during 1923 reduced the amount of unaccounted for water from 46 per cent in 1921 and 24.2 per cent, in 1922, to the small amount of 16 7 per cent, in 1923.