HOW TO FIGHT FIRES IN HIGH BUILDINGS.
In all our principal cities business buildings and those used for hotel, apartment, and office purposes, have generally a frontage of fifty feet, and go back, perhaps, over 100 feet—their height varying from seventy-five to 100 feet and sometimes much higher. Their elevator and stairway openings extend from basement up to, and under the roof, and internally they are commonly built without dividing walls— this being especially the case with the upper floors, which make up about one-half of the structure. In such buildings a basement fire quickly makes its way through, and under the roof,so that, despite the efforts of the fire department, which cannot throw water enough on the flames, the gutting of the whole premises is quickly effected—all the more, because the intense heat and the dense smoke force the firemen to beat a retreat. If, however, in such buildings a “Judge” automatic solid double stream and distributing nozzle (Loeffelholz & Co., Milwaukee, Wis.), is permanently affixed to the standpipe or fire escapes, it will at once enable the fire department or the individualpump connection, if present, to drown the fire out on whatever floor it started. The “Judge” Nozzle possesses this conspicuous advantage that it does not depend upon the heat units or any fusible link, or the like, but it is at all times under the direction and control of the chief officer at the fire. It throws a solid stream or is a distributing nozzle, which in either case works automatically through water pressure—the water being forced through the standpipe into the nozzle, causing the interior working to operate horizontally and vertically. Water delivered through this nozzle will cover a floor space of 40,000 feet, at the rate of from 400 to 600 gallons per minute; at the same time revolving either in a quarter or a half circle, according to the style of nozzle tip needed —being automatic, it requires no attention whatever in directing. With this nozzle the water can be delivered directly to the seat of the fire. It is especially adapted for grain elevators, high buildings of large area, halls, asylums, warehouses, packing houses, lumber and coal yards, saw, flour and oil mills, factories, malt houses, breweries, refineries, tanneries, mining shafts, tunnels, wharves, etc. In ship and coal bunker fires the “Judge” nozzle will accomplish the same result, and, when attached to a standpipe, it will control and put out fires in basements of large area, where it is impossible for human beings to live.