INFLUENCE OF FORESTS ON STREAMS

INFLUENCE OF FORESTS ON STREAMS

In a written discussion on “The Influence of Forests on Streams,” for the Engineering Association of the South, L. C. Glenn, Ph.D., professor of geology in Vanderbilt University, takes issue with some of the other geologists.

“It is sometimes claimed that forestry advocates propose to reforest large areas of agricultural lands, when such is by no means the case,” he says. “Wherever lands subserve a more useful purpose or are more valuable for agriculture, no one desires to see them become forested. Within the mountains themselves some 20 to 30 per cent, of the area is level and fertile enough to be classed under even present careless conditions of farming as agricultural lands and should remain as such, and as better methods of agriculture come into vogue additional areas of steeper lands may be safely brought under cultivation. In some places in the Southern Appalachians the writer found the opponents of forest reserve legislation telling the people that if the reserves were established everybody would be driven out of the country and it would be turned into a primeval wilderness, when nothing could be farther from the truth. It is not proposed to touch the rolling farm lands in the middle and lower parts of stream basins. There are problems of erosion on such lands, it is true, but they are properly agricultural problems, and not forestry ones, and are to be solved not by reforestation, but by introducing better methods of agriculture. Almost all opponents of reforestation devote much space to refuting the argument that forests increase the rainfall of a region. This is a question about which opinions differ, and although both the logic of the case and the probable preponderence of opinion are favorable to the contention that forests do increase somewhat the rainfall, it is an argument that no one has put forward as a reason for congressional action in establishing forest reserves, and is stressed by no one even as an abstract question. The writer believes that while forests probably do increase somewhat the rainfall, this increase in a well-watered region like the Southern Appalachians is so slight as to be incapable of positive proof and so unimportant practically as to be negligible. Whether the arid plains of China and other parts of the world are such because of the destruction of the forests, or the forests have died because of increasing aridity, as the writer rather believes, is not a matter of practical consequence in the South, as conditions are so very different.

“Forestry is not advocated as a panacea for all ills, as some of its opponents would have the public believe. Within its limitations it is a powerful agent for good, and none but legitimate claims are made for reforestation by those active in aiding the establishment of national forest reserves in the Southern Appalachians and in the White mountains. Of the broad, general problem of the desirability and beneficial influences of forests, the especial one of the relationship of forests to stream flow is but a single, though a very important phase. Under the climatic conditions that prevail in the Southern Appalachians, forests exert a beneficial influence on stream flow:

  1. By retaining much of the rainfall or melted snow through the absorptive capacity of the deep bed of humus that is so generally found in these forests.
  2. By thus decreasing both the total amount and the rapidity of the immediate run-off, and thus exerting a beneficial influence in preventing flood production.
  3. By feeding this retained water out gradually to springs, and thus maintaining a good low-water flow during droughts.
  4. By preventing the erosion of the soil on steep slopes, and thus preventing the filling of the stream basins with eroded material and the consequent increase in the frequency and height of floods.
  5. By further preventing, through prevention of erosion, the silting of navigable channels and interference with navigation.

“The region of the Great Smokies, the Balsams, the Pisgah range, or the Taxaway and Highlands country in North Carolina furnish many excellent illustrations of streams in forested regions. The mountains about Burnsville and Bakersville or Asheville, or in places near Hendersonville and Waynesville, show opposite conditions.

“The frequent occurrence of local thunderstorms with some considerable precipitation in small areas may, in cases of general drought, contribute somewhat to the maintenance of the main stream’s flow, but these local storms are not of such frequent occurrence in any given large river basin as to maintain by themselves, or even come anywhere near maintaining, the low-water flow of the main stream. In a given basin, like the Upper Ohio, for instance, often many days at a time would elapse during prolonged dry seasons without the occurrence of enough of such local thunderstorms anywhere in the basin to materially affect the extreme low-water discharge of the river, and sometimes during droughts in the Ohio river basin there are so many weeks together during which no rain whatever falls anywhere within the entire basin that if the streams depended during such periods on the local thundershowers alone, the last water thus falling would have ample time to flow down the entire length of the river and out at its mouth and leave its bed entirely dry before the next local rain came. It is clear that the low-water flow of a stream during droughts is very largely and in some cases almost entirely dependent on the springs within its basin, and that as they fail it will fail.”

On the subject of eroded material Professor Glenn says: “Once initiated, it soon develops gulleys that furnish so much sand, clay and cobbles to the streams that they soon become overloaded and are unable to carry away the waste. This waste is finally spread over the alluvial flood plain, converting it into a barren waste of sand or loose stones. The waste then begins working down stream, first filling milldams and deep holes, and soon gets down into the navigable parts of the great river systems, such as the Tennessee, and is there making more difficult the problem of maintaining a navigable channel, as may be readily seen by examining that river at low-water and studying the growth of its sand, gravel, and boulder bars and of its tow-heads and islands. The waste filling causes an immediate change in the mountain stream in regard to the frequency and height of floods. When, under normal forested conditions, the channel was deep, a heavy rainfall was necessary to raise the stream to the bank—full stage: when the channel has become well-nigh filled with eroded material, much less rainfall will put the stream out of its banks and cause a flood, or, in other words, floods become more frequent. The same amount of rainfall will necessarily cause a higher flood when the channel is filled with eroded material than when it was free from it, partly because the capacity of the channel to hold water is destroyed, but more especially because the filled channel is not such an efficient agent for the rapid removal of flood waters. They pile up, as it were, and rise higher than formerly. Their height is further increased by the gulleys on the eroded slopes and the bare surface of the cleared land delivering the storm waters to the streams almost as rapidly as they would flow from housetops or along city gutters. This rapid delivery of the water from the steep slopes adds greatly in raising floods to abnormal heights. Floods in steep, denuded, and eroded basins assume much of the character of floods caused by cloudbursts, not only in their very rapid rise and great velocity, but also in their destructive violence and rapid decline to ordinary stages again.

“Rainfall records and flood-gauge readings are often appealed to by those arguing on either side of the question. The writer believes that a much more reliable and logical basis for belief in change of stream regimen is to be found in the accumulation of a large body of facts by wide observation and then holding to the legitimate inductions to be derived therefrom. The discharge of a river cannot be determined by, and does not vary with, the gauge heights alone, since the velocity of the current is also an essential factor in this determination and this velocity, while varying in certain respects with the depth of the current as expressed by the gauge heights, also varies independently of the gauge height, but depends on the steepness of surface slope of the advancing flood wave. A flood of more sudden rise and consequently steeper front slope at the same gauge height will have greater velocity and will discharge much more water than a flood of slow rise but of the same height. The front part of any flood wave has a greater velocity for the same reason than the hinder part, and, hence, as the wave advances down stream its length increases and its height and velocity diminish independently of any changes in width or slope of the stream channel. On this account floods in the lower part of a river rise more slowly, reach less heights, and subside more slowly than they do in the upper parts of the same stream.”

A New Fire Menace.

Twice during a single week a fire of large proportion has attacked the old Brooklyn Bridge, and firemen are being brought to realize the existence of a new peril with which they will be asked to cope. The second fire was on the Manhattan end of the bridge, on the south roadway, and was started by an exposed electric feed-wire. The high-power current carried by the wire ate its way in a few minutes through a 14-inch steel girder, melting portions of the metal for 10 feet of its length. According to engneers, another similar occurrence might badly weaken an important strand and cause an indescribable disaster.

Traffic was suspended and firemen under the direction of Battalion Chief Brogan undertook the work of extinguishing the flames. Water could not be used because of the nature of the fire, and sand was unavailable. The problem was solved by ripping up planks, running along the burning ties, and extinguishing them by chemicals. The current was then shut off, the damage repaired, and traffic resumed. Although the fire was of no great consequence in so far as damage was concerned, it is important in that it may lead to the prevention of a more serious accident.

When interviewed regarding the fire, Chief Croker said:

“New things develop in fires almost every day, and this seems to be a question for the electrical engineers to take up at once and find a solution. Elctric fires are hard to combat. The blaze on the bridge was extinguished when I got there yesterday, and I did not make a close examination of the place.

“There seems to be no limit to the extent to which an electrical current will burn metal, if uninterrupted. If it will burn through one inch of steel it will go on burning indefinitely, or as long as the current lasts, and there is no reason why it should not burn through fourteen inches of steel or any other number of inches.

“I do not know how close the feed wires are to the immense supporting cables of the bridge, but I believe a wire could not do a great deal of damage before discovered. But such a question is a serious matter and should be taken up at once.

“Not long ago, at a demonstration of an extinguisher at the plant of the Edison company, I saw a current of electricity burn through a steel beam in a surprisingly short time.”

Doubling Pittsburg’s Filtration.

Mayor Magee, of Pittsburg, received a report recently from Engineer George A. Johnson, a sand filtration expert, of New York, that the output of the Aspinwall filtration plant can be doubled by preliminary treatment of the water at the intake pipes and the use of a coagulant in the sedimentation basins. This would give a sufficient supply of filtered water to meet the needs of the Northside, and to provide for future growth of the city for years to come, at the same time eliminating the expenditure of several millions for additional beds. If the plan is adopted the first saving will be $900,000. which is now planned to go into the coming bond issue for water meters and additional land for more filterbeds. As it would provide plenty of water, the meters, which were to be put on to en force saving of the fluid would not be needed.

Work is well under way on the new water plant for Dodge City, Kan.

Death of Mrs. M. Merry weather.

Mrs. Sarah Edwards Merryweather, the relict of M. Merryweather, of Long Acre, London, died July 29. Mrs. Merryweather lived during the reign of six British sovereigns, including one whose rule extended over 63 years, and she attained the unusual age of 95 years. Her husband was born as long ago as 1790. To firemen of former generations the name of Mrs. Merryweather was well known on both sides of the Atlantic, and she never lost, till extreme old age, her interest in the service. Mr. Merryweather died in 1872. Six children were born to the marriage—three sons (Richard Moses, James Compton and Henry), all of whom became partners in the fire engine business; and three daughters. Mrs. Merryweather was of a happy disposition, most genial in her intercourse with her friends. With no desire to accumulate money, she gave away during her lifetime a large portion of her means, and it was especially noticed that some few years before her death, having become possessed of a considerable pecuniary legacy, she disposed of the whole of it in works of charity within a few weeks. She kept herself informed to the last of the progress made in the construction of fire-extinguishing machinery, and not long ago, at her request, a motor, “Fire King,” was taken to Claremont House for her inspection.

Vitriol Kills Two Children.

Two children died from burns and ten others and nine men, their rescuers, were terribly burned by vitriol which flooded them when a Philadelphia fire department wagon in which the children were riding broke down a few days ago. Many of those burned will be disfigured for life. So powerful was the acid that the clothes of the victims was eaten from their bodies as though by magic. The disaster occurred when a supply wagon driven by Richard Grear, a fireman, and the father of five of the child victims, was unset through the breaking of an axle. Grear’s duty was to deliver the daily supply of vitriol and oil to the various engine houses for the use of the chemical equipment. The round of his calls took him near his home at 826 Hutchinson street, at which place he stopped to get some money for his lunch. His own children and others of the neighborhood crowded about him clamoring for a ride. The big fireman knew the ironclad regulations of the fire bureau, which forbids any except those in the employ of the bureau to ride on the wagon bearing such dangerous cargo, but he could not resist their anpeals. With the breaking of the axle the load of humanity and vitriol fell, some into one corner of the wagon and some over into the street. Fourteen glass carboys containing the vitriol, more destructive than carbolic acid, burst and engulfed the swarm of children with its flaming fluid. Grear was thrown in the thick of the crush, the acid splashing all over him. For a moment the children and Grear writhed and tossed in excruciating pain. Scores of citizens who went to their aid were also badly burned. The children were taken to the hospital, where two died shortly afterward. Others may not survive.

Lancaster to Improve Waterworks.

Lancaster, Pa., a city of about 50,000 population, has just decided to expend the sum of $75,000 on its waterworks plant. Among the improvements will be the construction of a permanent dam that will resist the ice floes, prevent the pollution of the water supply by back-water from sewers, and to eventually provide for a storage of 150,000,000 gallons of water during the dry season. The surplus flow from this dam, it is believed, will generate power enough during a part of the year to pump the water to the filter plant. There are three pumps at the pumping station, two of which, known as the 10,000,000-gallon and the 12,000,000-gallon pumps, are canable of pumping into the standpipe, and one known as the 6,000,000-gallons, which is capable of pumping the reservoir only. In case of an accident to either of the larger pumps, the entire high-service district is denendent on one pump. If a centrifugal pump is installed at the reservoir of sufficient capacity to pump from the reservoir into the standpipe, this pump in conjunction with the 6,000,000-gallon pump at the station could suoply the city several days, as the reservoirs contain nearly a day’s supply; or it could supply the town from the reservoir for one day, if the pumping station were entirely out of service. It is proposed to install this pump in the small brick building at the reservoir and operate it by an electric motor. The operation of the plant by electricity will be the most satisfactory for an emergency plant of this kind, as it admits of the pump being put into service immediately; in fact, it can be so connected that it can be started from the pumping station or from a fire station, in case of a lack of pressure in the mains during a large fire. Water mains are to be extended, and the water pressure in all parts of the city increased, so as to supply consumers at the highest points, and increase the efficiency of the fire department. At the regular monthly meeting of city councils, held August 3, 1919, an ordinance was passed authorizing the creation of a loan by the city in the sum of $75,000. The work and plans were laid out by Superintendent and Engineer F. H. Shaw.

High Pressure at Philadelphia.

A completed section of the new high-pressure fire main system in the northeast, or mill, district of Philadelphia is to be put into service early this month. After two years of preparation and construction the engineer has turned over the big engines and piston pumps at the Seventh street and Lehigh avenue pumping station, which will furnish the power for the service, and the entire machinery ran with a smoothness as if it had been performing daily work for years.

The new high-pressure fire service, it is said, will add to the fire extinguishing plant of the city the most complete and powerful firefighting apparatus in the world. The new pumping station is directly connected with the Delaware avenue and Race street high-pressure pumping station, and the two stations can be operated together or singly. Their combined capacity is 35,000,000 gallons per day, at a constant pressure of 300 pounds per square inch near the pumping stations to 250 pounds per square inch at any point between the two stations. The area of the city protected by this combined high-pressure service extends from Walnut street to Allegheny avenue and from the Delaware river to Broad street. The new Lehigh avenue or Eairhill high-pressure service will cost when finished about $2,000,000. Money for the work has been provided out of various loans as follows: $10,000,000 loan, $500,000; $5,739,000 loan, $700,000; $8,000,000 loan, not yet sold, $500,000, and out of the recent $5,000,000 loan, $300,000.

New Pump For Lincoln Water Works.

The city clerk of Lincoln, Neb., has been directed to advertise for bids on a new engine and pump to be installed in the well at the A street station. This pump is to be electrically driven, and will have a capacity of 2,000,000 gallons a day. It is intended to supplant the FairbanksMorse pump now in operation at the well, which only a few years ago did service both as a lifting engine and to keep up the pressure in the mains. It had a capacity of 1,500,000 gallons originally, but is said not to exceed 1,000,000 now. This will be taken apart and moved into the pumping station to act as a reinforcer and duplicate of the triple expansion engine, which is now overloaded, although it pumps 3,000,000 gallons a day at its maximum. The plan is to connect the new pump with the mains and with the reservoir. Thus in emergency times the city will have three pumps all putting water into the mains at one time. The combined capacity of the three would be 6,000,000 gallons. It was originally intended to place the old engine from the F street station in the pumphouse on A street, but it is found to be so nearly worn out that it can no longer be used. Another reason for haste in securing the new engine is that the foundation under the huge centrifugal pump in the big well is becoming undermined, and it will soon be necesary to stop its work for repairs.

New Apparatus for Cohoes.

The fire department of Cohoes, N. Y., is to be greatly strengthened by the addition of a La-France aerial hook and ladder truck, a La France combination chemical and hose wagon, and a Westinghouse gasoline fire engine. The prices paid were: $5,400 for the hook and ladder truck; $1,495 for the combination chemical and hose wagon, and $4,000 for the Westinghouse gasoline engine. The engine is now being built at Schenectady. The new hook and ladder truck will be one of the most up to date trucks in use in that vicinity. It will be modern in every respect and a big improvement over the truck now used. The new apparatus will be equipped with a 75-foot aerial ladder as well as 12, 16, 20, 24, two 30’s and a 45-foot ground extension ladder. All the apparatus is to be delivered in time for annual inspection in October.

Norfolk Waterworks Dispute.

Unless the water company should agree to withdraw its injunction proceedings against the city of Norfolk, Va., before July 28, the city water will be turned off, and the water company must depend on its own supply to give its customers water, according to the resolution of the common council. This resolution permits the Norfolk County Water Company to take water from the city’s mains, paying for it at the rate of 9 cents per 1,000 gallons, from the expiration of the present agreement, until October 1, providing that the company will agree to withdrawn its injunction proceedings against the city. W. W. Moss, representing the water company, declined absolutely to accept the terms of this offer, saying that his company was willing to accept a small amount of water at 9 cents per 1,000 gallons, but that it was not willing to accept any other conditions than the price.

Death of C. W. Black.

Readers of this journal will regret to learn of the death of C. W. Bldck, president and general manager of the Seagrave Company, of Columbus, Ohio, last week. Mr. Black was the head of the company for some years, and it was through his consistent methods of doing business that it gained so high a position in the manufacturing of fire apparatus. Quiet and unpretentious, Mr. Black accomplished much in building up a large patronage, and he was always regarded as a conscientious and fair administrator of the affairs of the large establishment over which he exercised such impartial control with undoubted success. He was most enthusiastic in his conduct of the business, and by his sudden calling away he leaves many behind who will mourn the loss of a true friend.

Mine Rescue Stations.

The recently organized Federal Bureau of Mines has fitted out, on specially constructed railroad cars, two portable rescue stations, to be ready for emergency calls for assistance in mine disasters. The first of the new cars to be built will be assigned to Billings, Mont., as its general headquarters, and will answer emergency calls anywhere in Montana and northern Wyoming. Headquarters for the second ear have not been assigned as yet, but its field of operation will be the coal fields of western Colorado and eastern Utah. These cars will be fully equipped with all modern mine rescue apparatus, including oxygen helmets, which permit men to enter mines filled with poisonous gases, a supply of oxygen in tanks, safety lamps, a field telephone outfit with 2,000 feet of wire, automatic resuscitating outfit and first aid to the injured paraphernalia. There will also be sleeping quarters on the cars for the mine experts, each crew to be in charge of a foreman in the employ of the Bureau of Mines.

In addition to this, branch rescue stations have been established at Birmingham, Ala.; Huntington. W. Va.; Wilkesbarre, Pa.; Trinidad, Colo., and Rock Springs, Wyo.

Personal.

R. D. Swart has been appointed a member of the Duluth water board to fill an unexpired term.

George Clark has been appointed superintendent of the Chatham, N. Y., waterworks, to succeed John Sharp, resigned.

Chief Davoe, of Fall River, Mass., has been in command 30 years. He commenced his fire service in 1859, becoming a captain in 1865.

Andrew W. Beith, foreman of engine Co. 147, New York fire department, has been retired on his own application, having served more than twenty years, He will receive a pension of $1,250 annually.

Joseph F. Sullivan, president of the fire commission of San Francisco, has been appointed by Mayor McCarthy as police commissioner to succeed Harry P. Flannery. His place on the fire commission will be filled by Charles Laurister, formerly sheriff.

Meterage.

In Lincoln, Neb., the receipts from the municipal water plant for water sold last year amounted to $86,978.88, and from meters, penalties, etc., $21,148.39.

Since meters have been introduced in Hagerstown, Md., it is said that the consumption of water has fallen from 2,750,000 gallons to 1,250,000 gallons daily.

The board of public works of Ithaca, N. Y., has recommended the purchase of too additional meters and the adoption of a new schedule of rates for metered water.

There are in the neighborhood of 4,000 water takers in Joliet, Ill., and as only a small number of these services are metered, it is thought that much of the water is wasted.

Hartford, Conn., has installed 414 new meters during the past year, making a total of $11,461 now in operation in that city. During the same period 450 additional service pipes were laid, making a total of 11,584 in use at present.

The quarterly statement of the Dubuque, Ia., water department from April 1 to June 30 shows that receipts from metered services were $13,244,17, as compared with $1,945.02 from services with flat rate. From the sale of meters $1,152.95 was received.

At the last meeting of the Ravenna, Neb., council, a petition signed by more than one hundred citizens, asking for the installation of meters, was read. It is felt that such action would do much toward overcoming the water scarcity experienced during the summer. A committee has been appointed to visit neighboring cities, where meters are used, to investigate the cost of installation.

It has been recommended that $30,000 be spent in Springfield, Ill., for meters. The water rate to conumers who do not have meters will be raised twenty-five cents per thousand gallons.

In order to conserve the supply and to insure fire protection, meters will be attached to all water connections in Wichita, Kan., according to action recently taken by the local company. The consumption during the summer has sometimes been 4,000,000 gallons per day over the normal.

An Oregon daily has this to say in favor of meters in connection with the present water supply in Portland: “Statistics prove that unmetered cities use about three times as much per capita as do metered cities. This means that two gallons of water on a flat basis is wasted to every gallon consumed. Where there is no meter, there is waste. The history of every city in the world proves it. If to-day Portland were universally metered, there would be abundant water. It is the waste that is robbing many a suburb of its rightful supply. The same waste, as long as the city remains but partly metered, will always keep the supply reduced in the heated season. We open the faucets in winter to keep the water pipes from freezing, and open them in summer to keep the water cool. If the city authorities will meter every service there will be water enough for every user.”

Water Bids Opened.

WASHINGTON, D. C.—The following bids for furnishing cast-iron water pipe have been received by District Commissioners: For furnishing is tons of 3-inch east-iron pipe, 50 tons of 4-inch, 102 tons of 6-inch, 2,252 tons 8-inch, 1,753 tons of 12-inch, and 786 tons of 20-inch: Glamorgan Pipe Foundry Co., Lynchburg, Va., $29.80. $25.85, $21.85, $24.85, $21.60, $24.60; United States Cast Iron Pipe and Foundry Co., Pittsburg, $26.30 for all sizes; Standard Cast Iron Pipe and Foundry Co., $31.08, $26.08, $25.08, $25.08, $25.08, $25 08; Lynchburg Foundry Co., $29.95, $26.04, $25.40, $25.40, $25.40; and the Camden Iron Works, Camden, N. J., $33.60, $28.50, $26.25, $26.25, $26.25, $25.50

WILMINGTON, DEL.—Bids for furnishing castiron pipe have been opened as follows: United States Cast Iron Pipe and Foundry Co., Pittsburg, 6 and 8-inch, $23.90: 12 and 16-inch, $22.40; Standard Cast Iron Pipe and Foundry Co., Bristol, Pa., pipe, $23.20: special castings, $49; R. D. Wood & Co., $22.00 flat.

LAFAYETTE, GA.—The city has awarded the contract for constructing a water and light plant to J. B. McCrory & Co., of Atlanta.

LODI, CAL.—A CONTRACT for furnishing pipe has been awarded to the Crane Co., of San Francisco. at $17,337.

NEWBURYPORT, MASS.—THE contract for installing a 50-horsepower Hornsby-Ackroyd oil engine and a Deane pump has been awarded to the Deane Steam Pump Co., of Holyoke, at $5,080.

NORFOLK, VA.—The N. and W. Ry. Co. has awarded a contract to the American Water Softener Co. of Philadelphia for constructing 15 water-softening plants, ranging in capacity from 12,500 to 13,000 gallons per hour.

SUTTON, NEB.—The contract for the construction of a new plant has been awarded to the Catz-Craig Engineering Co., of Omaha, at $19,470.

WASHINGTON, D. C.—The following bids have been opened by District Commissioners for furnishing 100 tons of cast-iron water pipe specials, 3 to 20 inches, in accordance with New England Waterworks Association specifications: Wetherly Foundry and Machine Co., Wetherly, Pa., $51.74, and the Standard Cast Iron Pipe and Foundry Co., of Bristol, Pa., $48. For furnishing above on bidders’ specifications: United States Cast Iron Pipe and Foundry Co., Pittsburg, $54.90, and the Lynchburg Foundry Co., Lynchburg, $52.75.

CLARKSBURG, W. VA.—The contract for furnishing pipe, hydrants and valves, to be used in connection with the construction of the new filtration plant, has been awarded to John I. Dick, of Scottsville, at $58,834. The bids were announced in FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING for July 13.

DONNELLY, MINN.—Bids for the construction of waterworks have been opened as follows: Des Moines Bridge and Iron Co., $6,490; T. W. Schruth, Fargo, $6,725; Rowat & Bennett, Willmar, $6,795; E. F. Webster, St. Cloud, $7,132; Danforth & Frasier, Rochester, $7,298, and W. D. Lovell, Minneapolis, $8,464.

GRAND RAPIDS, MICH.—Bids for supplying electrical pumps and machinery for the low lift pumping station at the filtration plant have been opened as follows: The Ft. Wayne Electric Co., $12,425; R. D. Wood & Co., $14,216, and the General Electric Co., $13,862.

BOULDER, COLO.—All bids for the construction of a rubble concrete masonry dam at the reservoir, together with gatehouses, valves, etc., have been rejected by the city council. The city will do the work.

BUFFALO, N. Y.—The Jacob-Dold Packing Co. has awarded a contract for the construction of a 68×40 reservoir to the Turner Construction Co., of New York.

CHICAGO, ILL.—The general contract for the construction of a 200×200-ft. pumping station at 104th street has been awarded to the Warner Construction Co., at $250,000.

CLARKSBURG, W. VA.—The contract for the construction of a mechanical filter plant, not including boilers, has been awarded to the New York Continental Jewell Filtration Co., of New York, at about $95,000. Bids were announced in FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING for July 13.

ATLANTA, GA.—THE Nichols Contracting Co. has been awarded a contract for constructing two coagulating basins, an intake tower and an overflow tower, at $28,478.

BANGOR, ME.—The contract for constructing a mechanical filtration plant has been awarded to the New York Continental Jewell Filtration Co., at $69,120. The Norwood Engineering Co. bid $75,200. The plan is to have a daily capacity of 6,000,000 gallons, with a 500,000-gallon clear water well. It will require 1,200 cubic yards of concrete and 60 tons of reinforcement bars.

Fire Bids Opened.

INDIANAPOLIS, IND.—Bids for furnishing an automobile combination hose and chemical wagon have been opened as follows: Howe Engine Co., Indianapolis, $4,950; Webb Motor Fire Apparatus Co., St. Louis, $4,500; Conduitt Automobile Co., $5,000; Grabowsky Power Wagon Co., Detroit, $4,500; American-LaFrance Fire Engine Co., Elmira, $5,150; Gibson Automobile Co., $4,500: and the Willis-Holcomb Co., $5,343.60.

LITTLE ROCK, ARK.—J. F. Williams has been awarded contract for building a fire station in the eighth ward, at $3,525.

MINOT, N. D.—The Plant Rubber Co. has been awarded the contract for furnishing 600 feet of double-jacketed hose at $1 per foot.

NORTH YAKIMA, WASH.—Bids for supplying an automobile combination engine and hose wagon have been opened as follows: The Webb Motor Fire Apparatus Co., St. Louis. $8,500; Robinson Fire Apparatus Mfg. Co., St. Louis, $8,6110, and the Waterous Engine Works Co., St. Paul, $9,250. The contract was awarded to the first named.

OAKLAND, CAL.—The following contracts have been awarded: For constructing a fire alarm and police telegraph building, Rickon-Erhart Engr. and Constr. Co., at $44,794. For furnishing a motor-driven fire engine, The Nott Fire Engine Co., at $9,500. For supplying 7,400 feet of fire hose—Bowers Rubber Co., 2,000 feet at $1.10, American Rubber Co., 2,000 feet at $1.10 and the Diamond Rubber Co., 3,400 feet at 90 cents.

WATERTOWN, WIS.—It is reported that the following contracts have been awarded: The GuttaPercha and Rubber Mfg. Co., New York City, 400 feet “Rescue Jacket” at 85c.; New York Belting and Packing Co., 350 feet of “Standard” at 85c.; W. P. Allen Mfg. Co., Chicago, 350 feel of “Vulcan” at 90c.; and the Bi-Lateral Fire Hose Co., of Chicago, 100 feet “Congo” at 95c.

WAUSAU, WIS.—The contract for a combination hose and chemical wagon has been awarded to the Seagrave Co., of Columbus, O.

WINSTED, CONN.—The contract for a fire auto has been awarded to the American-LaFrance Fire Engine Co., at $5,500.

OMAHA, NEB.—The contract for furnishing a combination hose and chemical wagon has been awarded to the Seagrave Co., at $5,450, and for supplying a horse-driven hook and ladder truck, to the American-LaFrance Engine Co., at $2,660.

OKLAHOMA CITY, OKLA.—The contract for furnishing one 55-foot water tower, with a turret nozzle attachment on the body; one extra first-size fire engine, two two-thirds size fire engines, two 50-foot combination city service hook-and-ladder trucks, two combination chemical and hose wagons (one extra first-size and one ordinary), one combination chemical automobile, to carry eight men, and to be known as the auxiliary corps, has been awarded to the American-LaFrance Fire Engine Co.

PALESTINE, TEX.—John Gought has been awarded a contract for the erection of a new fire building at $14,955.

QUINCY, MASS.—Bids for supplying apparatus have been opened, and the fire commission will recommend the purchase of a chemical engine from the Seagrave Co., of Columbus, O.

SEATTLE, WASH.—The contract for supplying 12,000 feet of 2 1/2-inch fire hose has been awarded to the Pacific Coast Fire Supply Co., at $9,120.

SHORTSVILLE, N. Y.—The contract for installing a new fire alarm system has been awarded to the Wheeling-Green Electric Co., of Rochester.

ATLANTIC CITY, N. J.—The Corbett Supply Co., of Trenton, has been awarded a contract for fire equipment by the Atlantic City Steel Pier Co.

BEACH, N. D.—The Nott Fire Engine Co., of Minneapolis, has been awarded a contract for supplying two Victor chemical engines of 40 gallons capacity, at $800.

CROOKSTON, N. D.—The contract for furnishing 1,000 feet of fire hose has been awarded to the Chicago Fire Hose Co., at $1.10.

CHEYENNE, WYO.—The contract for furnishing 1,000 feet of 2 1/2-inch fire hose has been awarded to the Manhattan Rubber Mfg. Co., of Passaic. N. J., at $1.05 per foot. Other bids were received from the Eureka Fire Hose Mfg. Co. of New York, Fabric Fire Hose Co. of New York, and the New Jersey Car Spring and Rubber Co., of Jersey City.

DETROIT, MICH.—Chittenden & Kettingham have received a contract for constructing a 2-story brick ladder house oil the Boulevard at $19,000.

GRAND RAPIDS, MICH.—The contract for a new fire engine has been awarded to the Nott Fire Engine Co., of Minneapolis, at $6,000.

HAVRE DE GRACE, MD.—C. C. Smith, of Stafford, has been awarded the contract for constructing a $6,000 fire house.

Electric Control of Water Valves.

Monster iron gates, operated by electricity and which can be controlled four miles away in the office of the water superintendent at Glens Falls. N. Y., are to be built near the reservoirs which supply the city with water. A tract of land between Glens Falls and the reservoirs has been purchased and a gate house will be built. Under the new arrangement it is hoped to conserve the water supply in the reservoirs. The pressure will be kept at a given point, and this can be reduced or increased as occasion demands, such as a big fire, when the full pressure will he required. In the event of a scarcity of water the pressure will be reduced, the household consumption thus being brought down to a minimum.

Pumping Items.

Gainesville. Fla., will install a 1,200-gallon centrifugal pump and 100-horsepower motor.

The Spencer, N. C., Water Company is installing a new 10-horsepower engine at its plant, which will increase the supply by 35 per cent.

City officials of Logan, Ia., are busy with the preliminary work of installing a new engine, pump and other machinery in the municipal plant.

The city Cuero, Tex., has closed a contract for a complete electrical pumping outfit, the total price being approximately $9,000. The installation of this machinery will result in a great reduction of rates.

A temporary structure has been erected over the new electric pump recently installed in Hancock, Mich. Plans and specifications are being drawn for a permanent station.

The Illinois Valley Gas and Electric Company will install pumping machinery in their station in Morris for the purpose of pumping the city supply. As it is agreed to pump the water at a rate of 5 cents per 1,000 gallons, the contract should result in an annual saving of $5,000 to Morris.

A new pump has been installed in the city waterworks at Sisterville, W. Va.

Delphi, Ind., has purchased a new pump for the city plant from the Dean Steam Pump Company of Holyoke, Mass.

The water supply of Stroudsburg, Pa., will be greatly improved by the installation of a large steam pump at the pumping plant.

Of the six pumps in place, at Houston, Tex., states a local paper, two are in such poor condition that they are seldom used; three are totally inadequate and in poor repair; and practically the whole burden of supplying water to the people of the city is thrown upon the new 28,000,000-gallon pump acquired a few years ago.

The work of installing a new 10,000,000-gallon pump is well under way at the city station in Oklahoma City. For the past year the old pumps have been overworked, 23 miles of mains having been laid and 3,000 homes supplied since July, 1909.

A new pump has been installed at the third artesian well in Belvidere, Ill., and the amount of water obtained equals that from either of the other two wells. With the three pumps in action the capacity without overcrowding is 1,200 gallons per minute. This makes 1,728,000 gallons for the 24 hours. The two pumps have recently been furnishing from 700,000 to 800,000 gallons per 24 hours. The increase in water supply amounts to 400 gallons a minute.

The pumping capacity on Cincinnati’s high service is 36,000,000 gallons. On certain days during the summer the consumption has reached a 33,000,000-gallon rate.

A street railway company in Wausaw, Mich., has made a proposition to the city for substituting electricity for steam in pumping the city supply of water.

For several days Anderson, Cal., has been threatened with a water famine because of the breaking of a pump at the principal well of the system. Two new pumps have been ordered from a San Francisco firm, the one to he used as an auxiliary in case of an accident to the other.

A report shows that about 400,000,000 gallons less water were pumped in Wheeling, W. Va., during the past year than in the preceding For the year the average daily consumption was 14,633,531 gallons, and during the year a total of 5,341,239,500 gallons were pumped.

The municipal board of Newark, N. J., will receive at an early date a pump with a capacity of 50 gallons per minute. In attaching this to one of the wells and operating it by electric power, it will supply 70,000 gallons per day, which will be an increase of 25 per cent, over the present village supply of water.

One of the large pumps that supplies Ft. Worth, Tex., with artesian water from the Holly waterworks station is out of service in order that a broken valve deck may be repaired. Should the duplicate Holly pump be placed out of commission by accident it will be necessary for the city to revert to the use of river water.

The recommendations of the water department in Springfield, Ill., for the purchase of two 10,000,000-gallon pumps and three new boilers, have been adopted by the city council. When the proposed 12,000,000-gallon pump is installed in Grand Rapids, Mich., the city will have total pumping facilties of 35,000,000 gallons per day, twice the present average daily consumption.

Tne pumping station and machinery at Lockport, N. Y., have been increased in efficiency by the installation of additional fire protection. Perforated pipes are being installed along the roofs and automatic metal fire curtains at every window and door.

The report of A. F. Willman, superintendent of the board of public works, of Negaunee, Mich., for June showed that the pumps registered 10,000 strokes more in June than during that month last year, showing that much more water was used because of the drought than in June, 1909.

During the last two weeks there has been an average per capita of from 173 to 178 gallons of water consumed daily in Allentown, Pa., while an average of 60 gallons should amply supply.

On July 7, 8,227,000 gallons were pumped; July 9, 8,837,588 gallons; July 11, 9,107,664 gallons, or 178 gallons for every man, woman and child in the city; July 12 8,735,376 gallons, and July 13, 8,881,532 gallons.

The following figures furnished by an official at the pumping station in Flint, Mich., show the remarkable increase in 12 months, the comparison being between the week of June 19 in 1909 and the same week this year: Water pumped week of June 19, 1909; June 19, 3,800,000 gallons; June 20, 3,572,000 gallons; June 21, 3,395,750 gallons; June 22, 4,100,000 gallons; June 23, 3,773,000 gallons; June 24, 4,379,000 gallons; June 24, 4,379,000 gallons; June 25, 3,901,000 gallons. Water pumped week of June 19, 1910: June 19, 6,414,750 gallons; June 20, 6,445,750 gallons; June 21, 6,901,000 gallons; June 22 6,887,750 gallons; June 23, 6,143,000 gallons; June 24, 6,612,000 gallons; June 25, 6,819,000 gallons. With the new pump in working order it will be possible to pump more than 10,000,000 gallons with the four engines without taxing the capacity of any.

Notes on Filtration.

It is said that in Berlin and in several English cities where filter plants have been in operation for more than ten years, the beds and subsoil have been found so impregnated with bacteria precipitated from water, that the filterbeds themselves threaten in time to become a serious menace. The beds should, therefore, he renewed at periods of no great duration.

On account of the unsatisfactory condition of Buffalo’s water supply and the excessive number of dangerous bacteria contained, Col. Francis G. Ward commissioner of public works, has determined to make a test of hypochlorite of sodium or calcium for purification. It is believed that it will be necessary only to use it for a few days at a time, when the water is contaminated by adverse conditions in the lake.

Although Sandusky, O., recently paid $125,000 for the construction of a filtration plant, it will soon be necessary to appropriate an additional sum for its repairs, because of settling foundations and crumbling walls. Reinforced walls may be placed on the inside of those now giving way. At present 200,000 gallons of the 500,000 gallons filtered during each ten hours is finding its way back into the bay.

The filtration report of Consulting Engineer Fuller will be presented for the consideration of the Montreal council at an early date. Before that time it will be translated into French and printed in two languages.

A novel filtration scheme has been adopted in Brownwood, Tex. In an effort to secure a pure supply, water from a well system will be filtered through fine gravel beds along the banks of a bayou.

W. I. Klein, of the New York Continental Jewell Filtration Company, is in charge of the construction of a new plant for Bangor, Me., which will be the last section of a general system planned by the city for many years. When the plant is completed water will be pumped from the river to the head house, where the proper proportion of chemicals for purifying are added. The water then passes into the existing coagulation basin, and the sedimentation of organic matter and impurities settles, this being due to the coagulation. The water then passes by gravity onto reinforced gravity filters, where the remaining impurities are deposited, the clarified water passing to clear water storage basins in the lower building and thence to the clearer water basins in the building on the river side of the road, from whence it is pumped to consumers.

Work on the new filtration plant for Toronto is progressing slowly because of the impossibility of securing more men. Although there is occupation for almost 700 men, Allen Hazen, the consulting engineer, has been able to secure only 250.

Work has been commenced on a new filtration plant for Eugene, Ore.

Lynn, Mass., has selected Henry Fuller, of New York, for designing and supervising the construction and operation of the proposed $250,000 purification plant. Mr. Fuller will receive for this work approximately $12,000.

Active work has been started on the contract for the Lloyd E. Smith filtration plant for the Parkersburg, W. Va., water system.

Bids will be asked on several propositions for the improvement of the Grand Forks, N. D., water supply, including the installation of a rapid sand filter of the mechanical kind, with suitable settling basins, the mechanical filter superimposed on the present plant, or the use of precipitants and the softening process, or a combination of three elements. It includes also the possibility of enlargement of the present system of slow sand filtration.

Health officers of Dayton, O., have been inspecting the filtration system of the Thomas & Gast packing plant in Urbana. The equipment of the private plant is said to be a model one, and is used as a pattern for similar hygienic devices in many cities.

The arbitrators in the dispute between the city of Pittsburg and the T. A. Gillespie Company, who built the filtration plant at Aspinwall, recently announced that the city must pay the company $700,591.25, the net result of the conflicting claims. The ground of the claim of the Gillespie Company was that it had been hampered and delayed in the work by the unwarranted interferences of the city filtration department. The various contracts provided that disputes should be submitted to arbitration, and, according to their terms, no appeal can be taken.

Meetings to Come.

August 10-12.—Upper Peninsula Firemen’s Association, Annual Tourruiment, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.

August 16-19.—Firemen’s Association of the Stale of New York, Thirty-eighth Annual Convention, Watertown, N. Y.

August 16-18.—Wisconsin Paid Firemen’s Association, Annual Convention; La Crosse, Wis.

August 18-19—Seven County Firemen’s convention, Athens, Pa.

Aug. 17-20.—National Firemen’s Association, twelfth annual convention, Rochester, N. Y.

August 22.—New York State Fire chiefs’ Meeting and Banquet, Syracuse, N. Y.

August 23-26.—International Association Fire Engineers’ Convention, Syracuse, N. Y.

August 23-26.—League of American Municipalities, Annual Convention, St. Paul, Minn.

August 24-26.—Virginia State Firemen’s Convention, Alexandria, Va.

September 5—Greene County Firemen’s Association, twenty-second annual convention, Tannersville, N. Y.

September 5.—Rhode Island State Firemen’s League Annual Muster, Manville, R. I.

September 6-9.—Association of Municipal Electricians Annual Convention, Rochester, N. Y.

September 6-9.—Pacific Coast Association of

September 14-15.—Connecticut State Firemen’s Association, twenty-seventh annual convention, Waterbury, Conn.

Fire Chiefs, 18th Annual Convention, Stockton, Cal.

September 21-23.—Massachusetts State Firemen’s Association, thirty-first annual convention. Howell, Mass.

September 21-23.—New England Water Works Association Convention, Rochester, N. Y.

Sept. 20-22.—Central States Waterworks Association meeting, Indianapolis, Ind.

September 28.—New Hampshire State Firemen’s Association convention, Meredith, N. H.

September 20-23.—Kansas State Volunteer Firemen’s Association meeting, Eureka, Kan.

September 28—New Hampshire State Firemen’s Association, thirteenth annual convention, Mere-

October 6.—Wilmington department celebration. fifty companies taking part, Wilmington, Del.

October 11-16.—American Society of Municipal Improvements, Seventeenth Annual Convention, Erie, Pa.

The following notice has been issued by Secretary McFall; This is the last call for Syracuse. Will you be there? More chiefs than ever before assembled at an annual meeting will be present. More firefighting apparatus will be exhibited. More automobile firefighting apparatus will be shown than at any previous convention. In short, this is the ONE meeting for a live, hustling, ready and anxious-to-learn chief. From Syracuse it is but four hours to Niagara Falls, the world’s most beautiful cataract. To the Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence River is but a run of three hours. A most delightful side trip after the close of the meeting would be a trip to Niagara, thence down Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River to the Thousand Islands —a few days’ rest before returning home. The topics to he discussed, the entertainment to be furnished by Chief Quigley, and the hotel rates have been given in a previous circular.

RAILROAD Rates.—The railroads operating in the New England States and New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, District of Columbia, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan and Illinois, east of Chicago, Peoria, Keokuk and St. Louis, and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec, have announced a rate of one and three-fifths fares for the round trip on the certificate plan. Tickets on sale Friday, August 19; return tickets can he purchased in Syracuse up to and including Tuesday, Aug. 30. When purchasing your ticket upon leaving home, he sure and have the agent give you a certificate; a fee of 25 cents will be charged by the validating agent for each certificate validated at Syracuse.

The Western and Southeastern Passenger associations, controlling rates west of Chicago and St. Louis, and south of the Ohio and Potomac rivers, decline to grant a reduction. Members in this territory are advised to consult their local agent as to the most advantageous rate— either a straight one-way ticket to Syracuse, or a local ticket to Chicago, St. Louis, Cincinnati or Washington, and then buy a ticket on the certificate plan to Syracuse.

HOTEL RATES.—THE Onondaga Hotel, headquarters, European plan, $1.50 to $0 per day. The Yates, European plan, $1.50 to $4 per day; American plan, $4 to $6 per day. Hotel St. Cloud, American plan, $2 to $3.50 per day. Hotel Jefferson. American plan, $2 to $3 per day. Vanderbilt Hotel. American plan, $2.50 to $4.50 per day. It is suggested to those attending to engage their hotel accommodations without delay.

SECRETARY,—THE secretary will have his office at the Onondaga Hotel, and will open and be ready for registering the members on Monday, August 22.

Committees.

George W. Horton, president of the International Association of Fire Engineers, has issued the following list of committees to act at the Syracuse convention:

COMMITTEE ON CREDENTIALS.

Chief Charles E. Swingley, St. Louis, Mo.; Assistant Superintendent Salvage Corps J. J. Cashman, Jr., Brooklyn, N. Y.; Chief Patrick Byron, Troy, N. Y.; Chief J. J. Wood, Paducah, Ky.; Chief G. W. Arnett, Lambertville, N. J.

COMMITTEE ON EXHIBITS.

Ex-Chief Fillmore Tyson, Louisville, Ky.; Chief Edward F. Dahill, New Bedford, Mass.; ex-Chief William F. Conran, Amityville, N. Y.; Chief C. J. Latter, Columbus, Ohio; Chief R. A. Maxson, Gloversville, N. Y.

COMMITTEE ON STATE VICE-PRESIDENTS.

Chief John Stagg, Paterson, N. J.; Chief Chas S. Allen, Trenton, N. J.; ex-Superintendent Salvage Corps J. O. Glanville, St. Louis, Mo.; Chief Charles Little, Rochester, N. Y.; ex-Chief D. E. Benedick, Newark, N. J.

COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS AS TO COURTESIES EXTENDED CONVENTION.

Superintendent Salvage Corps George R. Stillman, Philadelphia, Pa.; Chief John A. Mullen, Boston, Mass.: Chief E. S. Hosmer, Lowell, Mass.; Chief T. W. Haney, Jacksonville, Fla.; Chief G. W. Petty, Alexandria, Va.

COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS AS TO DECEASED MEMBERS.

Chief M. S. Humphreys, Pittsburg, Pa.; Chief Rufus R. Fancher, New Haven, Conn.; Chief H. F. Magee, Dallas, Tex.: Fire Marshal Pennsylvania Railroad, Herbert Heston, Philadelphia, Pa.; Chief F. J. Wagner, Washington, D. C.

Headquarters at The Onondaga.

The Onondaga hotel, which will be the headquarters of the International Association of Fire Engineers in Syracuse, is a new, absolutely fireproof structure and represents with its furnishings an investment of $1,250,000. It contains 325 rooms for guests, four large restaurants, large banquet hall, seating up to 500 persons, together with a number of smaller ones of varying capacities up to 150 each. It is provided with five electric elevators, four hydraulic lifts, complete pneumatic tube system connecting all departments, its own ice-manufacturing and refrigerating plant, vacuum cleaning system, electric light and power plant. The heating and ventilating system is most comprehensive and of the best approved modern type. The hotel is located in the very heart of the business section of Syracuse, but one block in either direction from the county court house, post office and Federal building and within five minutes of the two railroad stations. It is under the general direction of Frederick W. Rockwell, proprietor of the Ten Eyck Hotel, Albany, an indication of the character of its conduct and management.

Reservations should be applied for at once in order to secure good locations. Address the Onondaga, Syracuse, N. Y.

TRANSPORTATION.

Special excursions from New York and Chicago to Syracuse have been arranged so that delegates may have an opportunity of traveling in the most pleasant manner from places contiguous to these cities.

THE NEW YORK TRIP Aug. 22, will be viaThe Albany Day Line on the Hudson to Albany and thence by rail to Syracuse. The boat leaves Desbrosses St, Manhattan at 8.40 A. M. arriving at Albany at 6 P. M. and Syracuse at 11 P. M. The fare from New York to Syracuse is $4.95. Meals may be had on board the boat and the fine sail on the Hudson will make a most restful and pleasant trip. Further information may be had on application to the office of FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING.

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