MORTALITY RATES OF PHILADELPHIA

MORTALITY RATES OF PHILADELPHIA

In the absence of John A. Vogleson, Chief of the Philadelphia Bureau of Health, his paper, “Mortality Rates of Philadelphia in Relation to the Water Supply,” was read by Dr. Neff, Director of the Health Bureau. Data was prepared to show the marked diminution of typhoid lever in district after district where filtered water was introduced. In 1906 the average rate of typhoid fever in the city was 72 cases per 100,000 population, and in 1912 the rate was only 12.5 per 100,000. This great drop in the typhoid fever was accomplished only after the filters had been put in operation. Tables were also compiled to show decreases in death rate from other diseases. It was noted that the greatest decrease in death rate was among infants under one year of age.

Philadelphia was engaged in improving its water supply by construction of filtration plants and rearranging its water supply distribution system from 1900 to 1911. The typhoid fever rates of such districts as received filtered water in the early development of the improvements began to decline immediately after the introduction of filtered water, and followinc the completion of the last of the five filtration plants in 1911 the typhoid death rate for the entire city shows a consistent decrease from 72.4 per 100,000 in 1966 to 12.5 per 100,000 in 1912. Isolated sections of the city, notably West Philadelphia, with a population of 267,840, had a typhoid rate of 5.9 per 100,000 in 1912. A large percentage of the typhoid which formerly scourged Philadelphia was undoubtedly water borne, and the marked reduction of typhoid in this city is a notable sanitary achievement, due in by far the largest part to the filtration of the water supply. The average total mortality rate for nine years, 1862-70, was 2,291 per 100,000 and consistently declined to an average rate of 1,792 for the decade 1901-10, and still further declined to 1,522 per 100,000 in 1912, the lowest record rate in the history of Philadelphia.

Discussion

E. M. Hoopes, Jr., Water Department, Wilmington, Del.—I believe that the infant mortality rate under two years of age is a good indication of the general physical condition of the people or a municipality due to the water. Over 60 per cent, of the infant mortality has been reduced since the filters were installed in Wilmington. Tuberculosis also has apparently been reduced 35 per cent. The typhoid rate has shown the most remarkable change. In 1912 we had an apparent epidemic, as the filters were in bad condition. Since installation of the new system we have had a reduction in the number of typhoid fever cases of 60 per cent., and in deaths from typhoid fever of 53 per cent. We had fewer deaths last year from this cause than during any year since 1864, when the first records were kept. The final reduction to 54 cases last year was made when chlorination of the water was adopted.

R. W. Sherman—A former speaker stated that there were 54 cases per 100,000 population in his city and 12 deaths per annum. Will that gentleman kindly mention what the 54 cases were caused by ?

E. M. Hoopes, Jr.—A large per cent, of these cases was caused by milk and fruit; also quite a number are due to people drinking water at vacation resorts. For all of these the city must take the blame.

R. W. Sherman—We have traced no cases of typhoid in our city to tne city water. We do, however, find quite a lot of “vacation” typhoid at this season of the year when the people are returning from summer outings. A few cases have been traced to well water, and a few cases to milk. We had about 20 last year, which is a pretty good record for a city of 80,000 population.

Dr. Neff—The reduction in infant mortality is largely among babies under one year of age, and practically the entire decrease is among the poor. The better class of children under one year seldom use water, but drink only milk, whereas the poor use patented foods adulterated with raw water. It is estimated that at least 24 per cent, of the typhoid is caused by drinking polluted water. However, there are many other factors, such as flies, fruit, etc.; also eating vegetables after washing them in polluted water.

THURSDAY SESSION

The morning session was opened at 9:30 o’clock with a paper, “Methods of Locating Leaks in Water Mains,” by F. J. Hoxie, engineer and special inspector, Associated Factory Mutual Fire Insurance Companies, Boston, Mass.

Allen Hazen—The flow in the center of the pipe is, of course, more rapid than that near the walls, hence the coloring matter or any chemical solution will appear at the end before 100 per cent, of the water in the section of the pipe has been displaced.

R. C. P. Coggeshall—I believe the method laid out by Mr. Hoxie would work well in A mill yard where the flow is slow, but would not be very successful in the city mains, where the velocity of the water is usually great.

George A. Stacy—Some time ago had a break in a 16-inch main, and the road was flooded in the neighborhood. We located the section of a couple of blocks in which the break occurred, but could not find the break near where the water flowed onto the street. After quite a while the surface of the ground froze, and it was by noting a soft spot in the surface that the leak was definitely placed. I found, on examination, that the water left the main, entered a culvert and was discharged into the street quite a distance down from the break. A small town, a neighbor of our city, had an odd experience with a leak, and they asked me for a solution of their trouble. They had noted the large increase in the consumption during a certain period, but were at a loss to account for it. I told them to look over their water courses, but this they told me they had done several times; they also had several crossings over streams, and these had, likewise, been examined. I suggested to them that they meter the water at the head works and find if they had not been fooled in the consumption. This was not necessary, for they had already gauged the flow. One morning when they were inspecting the pipe line, they passed over a bridge above a small stream. Below the bridge they noticed muddy water, and on the upper siile clear water. Upon investigation they found that the lead joint had been blown from a connection in a lb-inch main and the water was working its way into the stream below the bridge.

W. Hawley—We found quite a loss of water in a main crossing a stream, but we could not find the leak. We put a corpoiation cock in the main above the stream and poured a little bluing in it. It did not take very long to find where the leak in the main was.

Patrick dear, Water Department, Holyoke, Mass.—We have had a number of leaks in Holyoke which have been hard to locate. A private corporation had control of the water system befor the city took it over. Since the system has been in the hands of the city new mains have been laid, in order to get better pressure for certain sections of the citv. One consumer who was connected on the old mains wanted to get better pressure and, without the city’s knowledge, tapped the new main which pas_____ed his plant. He got better pressure all right, but the water flowed from the new to the old mains, and it took us a long time to account for the sudden increase in consumption.

Weston E. Puller, consulting engineer, New York City, read his paper on “Loss of Head in Bends,” and, as no discussion followed, the paper by George C. Whipple on “Decarbonation of Water,” which was presented at the March meeting of the association, was taken up.

[This paper will appear in a later issue-ED.]

M. B. Litch, Superintendent of Filtration, Steelton, Pa.—I have been experimenting a Steelton, Pa., to prevent the red water plague At present we use the lime method. A great deal of waste is continually evident in the Susquehanna River, due to the operation of coal mines above, and after rainstorms we find considerable sulphate hardness in the water. Under these circumstances there is a great deal of trouble in getting the alum mixed in it immediately after rains. The alum added to the water does not chemically react.

In the absence of reports from the committees on “Standard Specifications for Cast Iron Pipe,” and “Standard Specifications for Hydrants,” F. M. Griswold, of the National Fire Protection Association, New York, gave several suggestions for converting non-standard couplings for serviceable interchange with the National standard, demonstrating his points with models of the different couplings in use in various cities. Mr. Griswold’s opinion on this subject was given at some length on page 230 of FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING on September 17.

The evening session and convention concluded with the reading of a paper on “The City Tunnel and Conduits of the Catskill Aqueduct,’’ by Walter E. Spear, department engineer, Board of Water Supply. New York City, and a short discourse on water hammer b fohn C. Trautwine, Jr., of Philadelphia, illustrated by lantern slides.

On Friday the members of the association were taken on an excursion up the Delaware River, landing at the Torresdale filtration plant and the Gardner’s Point pumping station. At Torresdale full opportunity was afforded to inspect all details in connection with the operation of the plant, which is now filtering about 200,000,000 gallons of water per day. An hour’s time was allowed to visit the Gardner’s Point pumps, 12 in number, each with a capacity of 20,000,000 gallons per day. The boat also stopped at the plant of the Standard Cast Iron Pipe & Foundry Company, where the guests were shown through the works by W. F. Woodburn. eastern representative of the company. Following is a list of the members—active, associate and honorary :

Active Members in Attendance

F. C. Kimball, Summit, N. J.

T. H. McKenzie, Hartford, Conn.

J. W. Moran, Gloucester, Mass.

G. M. Bancroft, Reading, Mass.

N. R. Cooper, Thompsonville, Conn.

J. Waldo Smith, New York.

Timothy Woodruff, Bridgeton, N. J.

J. M. Anderson. Worcester, Mass.

G. S. Staples, Dedham, Mass.

John Mayo, Bridgewater, Mass.

F. L. Coie, Andover, Mass.

E. D. Eldredge, Anset, Mass.

George A. Stacy, Marlboro, Mass.

E. R. Dyer, Portland, Me.

J. W. Graham, Portland, Me.

J. H. Walsh, East Hartford, Conn.

P. R. Sanders, Concord, N. H.

George A. King, Taunton, Mass.

W. F. Sullivan, Nashua, N. H.

R. J. Thomas, Lowell, Mass.

Frank A. Barbour, Boston Mass.

Edw. S. Cole, Montclair, N. J.

F. E. Bisbee, Auburn, Me.

A. W. Jepson, Bristol, Conn.

J. B. Longley, Lewiston, Me.

I. S. Wood, Providence, R. I.

G. G. Kennedy, Harrisburg, Pa.

F. J. Wise, Pittsfield, Mass.

H. A. Miller, Boston, Mass.

W. C. Hawley, Wilkinsburg, Pa.

J. L. Hyde, Westfield, Mass.

H. A. Sanderson, Westfield, Mass.

M. A. Sinclair, Bangor, Me.

E. A. Fisher, Rochester, N. Y.

B. C. Little, Rochester, N. Y.

A. W. Cuddeback, Paterson, N. J.

J. H. Gregory, New York City.

F. T. Kemble, New Rochelle, N. Y.

W. A. Spear, New York.

J. C. Whitney, Newton, Mass.

J. L. Tighe, Holyoke, Mass.

Philander Betts, Newark, N. J.

W. D. Pollard, Pottsville, Pa.

R. C. P. Coggeshall, New Bedford, Mass.

F. P. Washburn, New Bedford, Mass.

Nicholas S. Hill, Jr., New York.

F. F. Moore, Hawthorne, N. Y.

Janies Burine, Biddeford, Me.

C. H. Tuttle, Bristol, R. I.

T. H. Luce, Woodhaven, N. Y.

W. E. Hopper, Passaic, N. J.

George C. Whipple, New York City.

William W. Brush, New York City.

W. H. C. Ramsey, Johnstown, Pa.

R. W. Sherman, Utica, N. Y.

F. E. Winsor, White Plains, N. Y.

E. W. Clarke, Pleasantville, N. Y.

A. D. Flinn, New York City.

R. Serter, Albany, N. Y.

J. F. Sprenkel, York, Pa.

G. H. Shaw, New York City.

J. C. Trautwine, Jr., Philadelphia.

F. E. Hall, Worcester, Mass.

G. W. Batchelder, Worcester, Mass.

J. M. Caird, Troy, N. Y.

A. C. Blackmer, Plymouth, Mass.

J. Y. Blackmer, Beverly, Mass.

W. R. Conrad, Burlington, N. J.

G.A. Johnson, New York City.

F. E. Merrill, Somerville, Mass.

W. B. Fuller, New York City.

D. D. Jackson, New York City.

G. K. Crandall, New London, Conn.

A. I,. Glover, Brookline, Mass.

Dexter Brackett, Brookline, Mass.

C. E. Chandler, Norwich, Conn.

J. W. Kienle, New York City.

T. I. Carmody, Holyoke, Mass.

J. E. Sheldon, Holyoke, Mass.

T. J. Lynch, Holyoke, Mass.

A. E. Pickup, Holyoke, Mass.

J. F. Reagan, Jr., Utica, N. Y.

J. C. Rickards, Canton, N. C.

J. H. Dunlap, Iowa City, la.

E. B. Kontkovski, St. Petersburg, Russia

J. M. Diven, Troy, N. Y.

A. A. Reimer, East Orange, N. J.

A. B. Hill, New Haven, Conn.

Edw. E. Minor, New Haven, Conn.

C. E. Davis, Philadelphia, Pa.

Weston E. Fuller. New York City.

D. MacDonald, Middletown, Conn.

F. J. Hoxie, Boston, Mass.

M. N. Baker, Montclair, N. J.

Morris Knowles, Pittsburgh. Pa.

J. S. Buzby, Moorcstowm, N. J.

Allen Hazen, New York City.

L. M. Hastings, Cambridge, Mass.

William A. McKenzie, Wallingford, Conn.

M. B. Litch, Steelton, Pa.

F. W. Green, Little Falls, N. J.

Emil L. Neubling, Reading. Pa.

G. R. Ellis, Canandaigua, N. Y.

James A. Newlands, Hartford, Conn.

J. A. Tilden, Boston, Mass.

Associate Members

G. A. Caldwell, H. Mueller Manufacturing Company, Boston: George McKay, Jr., the Leadite Company, Philadelphia; J. G. McKay, the Leadite Company, Philadelphia ; E. E. Cook. National Meter Company, New York City; W. W. Van Winkle, Jr., Water Works Equipment Company, New York City; A. E. Warner, Engineering Record, New York; H. T. Miller, National Tube Company, Boston; W. E. Harveson, Simplex Valve & Meter Company, Philadelphia; C. C. Eebney, Simplex Valve & Meter Company, Philadelphia; A. C. Fisher, Simplex Valve & Meter Company, Philadelphia; V. E. Arnold, Pittsburgh Meter Company, New York City; A. J. Yeager, National Water Main Cleaning Company, New York City; M. M. Borden, Simplex Valve & Meter Company, Philadelphia; C. A. Vaughan, Gamon Meter Company, Newark, N. J.; W. F. Woodburn, Standard Cast Iron Pipe & Foundry Company, Malden, Mass.; C. L. Matheny, Camden Iron Works, Camden, N. J.; J. T. Mulgrew, Chapman Valve Manufacturing Company, Boston, Mass.; E. M. Shedd, Thomson Meter Company, Boston; J. A. Port, Henry R. Worthington, Philadelphia; Fred B. Mueller, H. Mueller Manufacturing Company, Decatur, Ill.; R. D. Wertz, Neptune Meter Company, Boston, Mass.; B. B. Hodgmar., National Water Main Cleaning Company, New York City; Samuel Harrison, Henry R. Worthington, Boston; T. D. Bausher, inventor of Bausher patented lead furnace and fuel, Reading, Pa.; S. Bernstein, Glauber Brass Manufacturing Company, Cleveland; William Ross, Ross Valve Manufacturing Company, Troy, N. Y.; J. G. Lufkin, National Meter Company, Boston; R. K. Tomlin, Jr., New York; W. S. Cetti, Thomson Meter Company, Brooklyn; T. C. Clifford, Pittsburgh Meter Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa.; T. D. Faulks, Neptune Meter Company, New York City; YV. J. Chellew, Buffalo Meter Company, Buffalo, N. Y.; R. L. Cook, Buffalo Meter Company, BuffaloJ. W. Turner, Pittsburgh Meter Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa.; L. Stuart, American Bitumastic Enamel Company; L. B. Darling, American Bitumastic Enamel Company, New York; C. H. White, McNale & Harlin, New York; L. P. Anderson. Union Water Meter Company, Worcester, Mass.; J. Gibson, American Bitumastic Enamel Company, New York City; N. L. Simms, Builders Iron Foundry Company, New York City; R. W. Conrow, the Central Foundry Company, New York City; F. S. Robinson, Eddy Valve Company, Waterford, N. Y.; Walter A. Hersey, Hersey Manufacturing Company, Boston; Lewis Lebengood, James Boyd & Bro., Inc., Philadelphia; A. R. Taylor, the Ludlow Valve Manufacturing Company, Boston; C. R. Wood, R. D. Wood, Philadelphia; C. L. Brown, Rensselaer Calve Company, Northboro, Mass.; T. C. McB de, Henry R. Worthington. Philadelphia; F. L. Northrop, A. P. Smith Manufacturing Company, East Orange, N. J.; F. S. Bates, Rensselaer Valve Company, Troy, N. Y.; C. E. Mueller, Hays Manufacturing Company, Erie, Pa.; A. C. Nieman, A. P. Smith Manufacturing Company, East Orange, N. J.; T. F. Halpin, A. P. Smith Manufacturing Company; E. D. Kingsley, Electro Bleaching Gas Company, New York City; O. P. Hanks, Hersey Manufacturing Company, New York City; W. Wenham, Hersey Manufacturing Company, New York City; B. D. Hutley, Hersey Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia; W. P. Oliver, National Meter Company, New York City; J. S. Holbrook, New York; E. T. Scott, Water Works Equipment Company, New York City; S. D. Higley, Thomson Meter Company, Brooklyn; J. L. Atwell, Thomson Meter Company, Brooklyn; S. R. Rickards. American Bitumastic Enamel Company, Philadelphia; J. W. McCormack, Lead Lined Iron Pipe Company, Wakefield, Mass.; R. R. Belville, Jos. Dixon Crucible Company, Philadelphia, Pa.; P. B. Fenton, Henry R. Worthington, Philadelphia; E. R. Glenn. Simplex Valve & Meter Company. Philadelphia; K. G. Martin, Central Foundry Company, New York City; Henry J. Hoeltje, Central Foundry Company. New York City; G. J. Hermiston. the American Bitumastic Enamel Company. Philadelphia; A. T. Prentice, R. D. Wood & Company, Chicago; W. H. Felix, the Central Foundry Company, New York City; J. E. Torhush, Henry R. Worthington, Philadelphia; E. K. Sorenson, New York Continental Jewell Filtration Company, New York City: Clinton Inglee, National Water Main Cleaning Company, New York City; C. L. Lincoln, S. E. T. Valve & Hydrant Company, New York City; E. J. Concannon. S. E. T. Valve & Hydrant Company, New York City: H. M. Simons, R. D. Wood & Co., Philadelphia: J. P. McKay, the Leadite Company, Philadelphia; Harry Myers, American Bitumastic Enamel Company, Philadelphia; T. E. Dwyer, Lead Lined Iron Pipe Company, Wakefield. Mass.; W. E. Dodds. Standard Cast Iron Pipe & Foundry Company, Bristol. Pa.; W. T. Hammond, Standard Cast Iron Pipe & Foundry Company; Edw. Otis, Union Water Meter Company, Worcester, Mass.; O. B. Mueller, H. Mueller Manufacturing Company, New York City; D. F. O’Brien. A. P. Smith Manufacturing Company. East Orange, N. J.; C. H. Morse. Henry K. Worthington, Philadelphia: W. H. Van Winkle, Water Works Equipment Company, New York City.

Honorary Members

F. W. Shepperd, publisher FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING, New York City.

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