Evanston, I11., has recently undergone an investigation at the hands of the National Board of Fire Underwriter engineers. The report shows the city to have a population of 26,000, and to cover about six square miles. The gross fire loss for the past five years, as given in the records of the fire department, was $222,573, the annual losses varying from $25,205, in 1911, to $63,365 in 1909, and the number of fires from 152 in 1909 to 236 in 1908. The average loss per fire was $235, a low figure, and the yearly number of fires 189. The average number of fires per year for each 1,000 population was 7.6, a very high figure, and the annual loss per capita $1.78, a moderate figure. The city owns and operates its water system, Commissioner of Public works John H. Moore being in charge. The supply is taken from Lake Michigan, treated with chloride of lime, and delivered by direct pumpage. The city is practically level, elevations ranging from 8 to 10 feet above the city datum, which is 2.27 feet below mean lake level. Since 1910 supply has been obtained through thirteen 42-inch, screened, upturned pipe-ends on the lake bed, 5,600 feet east of the pumping station; from these a 42-inch line, chained to piling near its extremity, extends 3,000 feet, branching into a 30-inch line and a 36-inch line, which continue 2,000 feet to a 30-foot settling well at the station, the 30-inch line connecting direct and the 30-inch through a by-pass and a 6-foot tunnel. Supplied front the settling well by a 5-foot tunnel with bulkhead, and also supplied direct from the 30inch line by gated branches, are two pump wells, one 22 feet and the other 17 feet in diameter. The 2,000,000-gallon and 12,000,000-gallon pumps have 10 and 30-inch suctions, respectively, from the larger pump-well; the 5,000,000-gallon unit takes water from the smaller well through a 20inch line. Ordinarily all the supply is taken through the 30-inch intake line and the tunnel connection to the settling well. During periods of exceptionally cold weather in the past winter, some trouble was experienced with anchor ice at the intake, reducing supply for a period of two hours one day to a rate of 1,500,000 gallons per day diver is readily available and is sometimes sent out to remove ice formations. Ihe intake lines have a capacity of about 22,000,000 gallons a day, under a head of about 6.5 feet, as limited by elevation of connections at the pumpwells and settling well.

Pumping Station.—Built in 1874. extended in 1888 and 1895, and remodeled in 1896. Elevations of the operating floor for the two larger pumps is 9.6; for the smaller unit, 14.4. The pumping equipment consists of three Holly units; two are compound, duplex, double acting, crank and flywheel and of 12,000,000 and 5,000,000 gallons capacity; the other is a 2,000.000-gallon, inclined, quadruplex unit. The first two, which are in fair condition, were purchased in 1888, and in 1896, respectively, and the last in 1874. In winter, when the consumption is low. the 5,000,000gallon pump is generally used, and the 2,000,000gallon unit added during periods of higher consumption. During the heavy summer draft the 12.000,000-gallon pump is usually operated. A discharge line from each pump connects to the distribution system through a 11-inch line and a 30-inch line, properly gated and connected to prevent more than one pump being put out of service by a break. Boiler equipment comprises two Deary fire-tube boilers, each of 80-horsepower, installed in 1871, and an Oil City water-tube boiler, provided with Hawley down draft furnace, built in 1896, and of 200-horsepowcr. The two former are operated together and alternate with the larger unit. Steam pressure averages 90 pounds; single line of steam piping to each unit. The average daily pumpage for the past five years, based on pump plunger displacement with no allowance for slip, is given as approximating 6.000,000 gallons, which includes the consumption of Wilimette, an adjacent town of 5.000 population, which is supplied through three-6-inch meters. The maximum consumption occurs during the hot summer months from 4 to 8 p. m., and is mainly due to sprinkling; the average summer rates exceed those of the winter by 30 to 40 per cent.; maximum monthly average is 9.300,400 gallons per day, and the maximum daily rate. 12,072,800 gallons; hourly rates of 16.000,000 gallons, as measured by speed of pumps, have been observed. There are approximately 5,650 services, about 20 per cent, of which arc metered, including all large services except those for fire protection. Large services consist of fifteen 4-iuch taps, three 6-inch and one 8-inch. The larger taps are for fire lines and sprinkler equipment; most of the 4-inch connections are reduced to 2 and 3 inches inside of property lines. A recording gage is installed at the pumping station at elevation 19; only charts for May, 1912, were available tor inspection; these showed a uniform pressure of 40 pounds. It was stated that this pressure is well maintained except at times of intake trouble from ice or at times of excessive draft, when the pressure is somewhat lowered to reduce consumption. Under normal conditions pressures are well maintained over the system, and are as given in Table 3. The 36-inch and 14-inch mains extend a few blocks west from ihe station. From the 36-inch line, an 18 and a 12-inch line branch south ; the former continues nearly to the southern limits, being reduced successively to 16 and 12 inches; the latter continues south through the principal mercantile district. The 15-inch line supplies a 12-inch north and south feeder two blocks beyond the end of the 36-inch main: the north line, reduced to 10 inches, furnishes the main feed to Wilmette; the south line continues to the city limits, connecting the parallel mains on the east through two 10-inch secondary feeders and supplying a 12-inch line to the western district Minor distribution is furnished largely by 6-inch pipe, with moderate amounts of 8 and 4-inch. Dead ends arc infrequent for a system of this size, and small mains are well supported with feeders except in the northwestern district. The gate valves open left-handed and, with few exceptions, are placed in brick manholes. All are direct acting, except a few large valves at the station, and are generally located 5 feet inside of property line. Measurements of valve locations arc kept in a book at the office. In a district including the principal mercantile and adjacent residential sections, the average length of pipe that would be affected by a break was found to be 960 feet, with six sections out of .36 in excess of 1,500 feet. Valves are inspected about four times a year. The fire department is notified by telephone when mains supplying hydrants are shut off. The oldest pipe has been in service for 38 years; all is tar-coated cast iron. Very few 4-inch lines have been laid in recent years and some have been replaced with 6-inch. Mains are in fair condition, but contain some sediment, as noticed during fire flow tests; several blowoff valves to sewers are provided for flushing. A cover of 5 1/2 feet is now specified, but many of the older mains were not laid as deep, resulting in considerable trouble from frozen services; during recent years about 30 per cent, of the old pipe has been lowered. Pipe is bought under standard specifications, the weights agreeing closely with Class C of the American Waterworks Specifications and suitable for a working pressure of 130 pounds; it is inspected at the cars, hammer tested at the trench and subjected to domestic pressure before backfilling. There arc 77 miles of pipe. There were 607 hydrants in service June 1, 1012, mainly of the Ludlow and R. D. Wood makes; not all open in the same direction. A few have one 2 1/2-inch outlet, about 30 per cent, have one 4-inch and two 2 1/2-inch outlets, and the remainder have two 2 1/2-inch outlets. Branches are 6 inches in diameter, except those supplied from 4-inch mains, which have 4-inch branches; practically all have gate valve on branch. About 10 per cent, of the hydrants have gates on outlets; much trouble is reported from them and during tests it was noticed that several could be opened only about half way, resulting in very poor streams. In many districts hydrants drain into sewers; elsewhere they are set on a block of wood or stone and surrounded with brick to aid in draining. Hydrants are gone over twice a year and inspected daily in the closely built districts during treczing weather. Those operated by National Board engineers were found to he in very good condition. In a district including the principal mercantile and an adjacent residential territory, the area served by each hydrant was found to averaue 175.000 square feet, and the linear spacing, 380 feet. Tests of 20 hydrants in six well distributed groups were made by National Board engineers in June, 1912. to determine the supply available for fire protection purposes. Tests were made between the hours of 9:30 a. in. and 1:30 p. m. under normal pressure at the pumping station, with the 12,000,000-gallon pump in operation, and when the consumption was between 5,000,000 and 6,000,000 gallons per day. An adequate supply was obtained in the principal mercantile district and in all other tests, except No. 5, located in the northwestern district; this gave a slightly inadequate quantity at very low pressure, indicating the need of strengthening the system in that locality. The system is provided along the southern boundary with three 6-inch unmetered connections to the Chicago system, which could furnish a small supply at low pressure.

Fire Department

The fire department is organized on a full paid basis under the supervision of a committee of the council consisting of three members. The force consists of a chief, an assistant chief, three captains, three lieutenants and 27 men. Chief Carl Harrison was appointed to his present position in 1995 and has been connected with the department 15 years; assistant chief, John Sweeting, has been connected with the department since 1887, and assistant chief since 1905. The chief is appointed by the mayor for a two-year term ; all other appointments are made by the chief for indefinite terms, from a list prepared by the civil service commission; the name first on the list is taken for new appointments; for promotions the chief may select the three highest. Age limits are 21 and 30 years, minimum height 5 feet 7 inches, and minimum weight 110 pounds. The expense of maintaining the fire department for 1911, not including $0,000 expended for automobile engine, was $38,893, or $1.49 per capita. There are 16 men at headquarters and nine at each of the other stations; men are allowed one day off in three, two hours daily for meals, and 14 days annual vacation. On days off they are required to act as relief men for one meal hour, unless other arrangements are made. The minimum number of men on duty at headquarters is 10, and at each of the other two stations six. Members are supposed to respond to alarms on days off. Watch is maintained at headquarters. Apparatus is in three stations, all located within one mile of the center of the city, as follows: Headquarters, Grove street near Sherman street. Apparatus consists of a Robinson 91-horsepower 6-cylinder combined engipe and combination hose wagon, having a 40-gallon chemical tank and carrying 1.200 feet of 2 1/2-inch hose and a 22-foot extension ladder; a one-horse chemical engine with two 60-gallon tanks and an 85-foot La France spring-balanced three-horse aerial truck carrying 12 ladders, with a total length of 370 feet. Company 2, Chicago avenue and Kedzie street. Apparatus consists of a second size Metropolitan two-horse steam fire engine and a combination service truck carrying nine ladders, with a total length of 184 feet, a box holding 850 feet of 2 1/2inch hose, and a 40-gallon chemical tank. Company 3, Railroad avenue near Lincoln street. Apparatus consists of a third size Ahrens two-horse steam fire engine and a city service truck carrying eight ladders, with a total length of 157 feet, and a box holding 850 feet of 2 1/2-inch hose. Two two-horse hose wagons are in reserve: one is to be loaded with 1,000 feet of hose and kept in reserve at headquarters. The engines were tested June 11, 1912, by engineers of the National Board of Fire Underwriters. In general the tests showed that pumps were in good condition ; the engineer of Engine 3 showed the need of practise in heavy running. The automobile delivered 1,022 gallons, 136 per cent, of its rated capacity, at a net water pressure of 114 pounds, and 787 gallons, 105 per cent., at 145 pounds. Engine 2 delivered 669 gallons, 95 per cent, of its rated capacity, at a net water pressure of 122 pounds, and showed 7 per cent, slip; Engine 3 delivered 493 gallons. 82 per cent, of its rated capacity at a net water pressure of 97 pounds, and showed 5 per cent. slip. The equipment carried is mainly satisfactory. Each company carries at least one nozzle 1 1/4 inches and one 1 1/8 inches in diameter; two carry smoke masks and hose rollers: each carries door openers and a hurst hose jacket. Each ladder truck carries two hand pumps. The aerial truck carries a good equipment of minor tools and a life net, a marine torch and a twowav deluge set having tips ranging from 1 3/8 to 2 inches in diameter. The large suctions carried by two of the engines are not provided with reducers for connecting to hydrants without steamer outlets. All hose is 2 1/2-inch, mostly double-jacketed cotton, rubber-lined: it is tested annually at 250 pounds pressure and hose found defective is rclined. If not used at a fire, it is shifted on apparatus once a month. In addition to the hose carried by apparatus, there is 1,050 feet of spare hose at headquarters. 1,250 feet at Station 2 and 1,500 feet at Station It. The fire department is well organized and the number of men satisfactory. Appointment of members for an indefinite term is commendable, but the appointment of the chief for two-year terms is liable to result in the department being placed under the command of an incompetent officer. The number of companies is inadequate, but through the substitution of automobile apparatus the present distribution of companies can furnish satisfactory protection for the city. The present apparatus is in good condition. Ladder service is excellent, chemical and engine capacity are satisfactory, and the amount of hose is adequate. Minor equipment is fairly satisfactory. Appliances for the handling of powerful streams are too few and a turret nozzle would increase the efficiency of the department. Drills held are of little value. Inspections of buildings are satisfactory. Response to alarms is well arranged.

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