New England Water-Works Association.

New England Water-Works Association.

Twelfth Annual Convention.

THE twelfth annual convention of the New England Water-works Association was opened in Horticultural hall, Worcester, Mass., on Wednesday afternoon, the 14th inst. Mayor Marsh was introduced by President George F. Chace, immediately after the convention was called to order at 3 o’clock, and delivered a most interesting address of welcome, as follows :

Mr. President and gentlemen of the convention : It gives me great pleasure to welcome you to this city. Worcester is often referred to as the heart of the commonwealth, and we, her citizens, are proud of her position as the second city in the State, if not in New England. I am asked again and again to account for Worcester’s prosperity, with a location so far from tide water and a population of 100,000 people. The answer is the admirable railroad facilities and the local nature of our industries. There are five big railroads centering here, and the connections to the East, West, South and North are nearly perfect. Our industries are all controlled by resident capital, and the money made here is spent here, almost to a dollar.

Worcester’s water supply is obtained from two independent sources, each of which is in itself ample for the domestic and manufacturing purposes of the city. The quality of the water is of a high standard as to purity, and the service for fire purposes is probably unsurpassed by that of any city in New England.

I applaud the objects of an associa*ion like yours. It is a society for the renewal of friendships and the making of acquaintances. In these days of progress and competition, men cannot be too well informed on the branches of industry in which they are engaged. Your association, with its instruction and mutual exchange ol information, does more than anything else to improve the water-works department of cities and towns than anything else I can think of, and Worcester is glad that you have chosen the city for your convention this year.

Messrs. Batchclder and Brady are the two busy B’s in our water department, and any further assistance or co-operation in the carrying out of your present plans I know will be eagerly extended by them on behalf of the city.

President Chace responded, thanking the Mayor for his cordial welcome.

The reading of the minutes of the last meeting was the next business, but this was voted dispensed with and applications of new members were considered. Secretary Coggeshall read a list of applicants and by vote of the convention they were unanimously elected through a single vote cast by the secretary. The new members were :

Resident active—George E. Crowell, proprietor waterworks, Brattleboro, Vt.; Andrew B. Goodwin, treasurer and superintendent Water Supply Company, Southbridge ; Horace Kingman, superintendent, Brockton ; William J. Luther, superintendent and engineer at Attleboro ; George L. Mirick, assistant engineer, Everett; Joseph E. Selfe, water commissioner, Wellesley Hills ; F. J. Shepard, treasurer, Derry, N. II.; John C. Sullivan, registrar, Holyoke.

Associate members— Neptune Meter Company, New York ; Benjamin C. Smith, French’s pipe cutting machine, 275 Pearl street, New York ; Weir Meter Company, “ water meters,” 7 Dodge street, Salem.

Non-resident active members—B. A. Eardley, registrar Pacific Improvement Company’s water-works, Pacific Grove, Monterey county, Cal.; William E. Griffith, secretary water commission, Cumberland, Md.; R. S. Lea, McGill university, Montreal ; Fred D. Pickles, engineer and superintendent, Winona, Minn.; William B. Taft, assistant with S. C. Babcock, Glen Falls, N. Y.; W. G. Zich, superintendent, Waierford, N. Y.; A. Prescott Folwell, civil engineer, Atlantic Highlands, N. J.

The president then delivered his annual address.

Brethren of the New England WaterWorks Association ;

It is with deep regret that I have to announce that we have lost one of our number by death since the last meeting. Augustus W. Locke of North Adams, Mass., died May 14, 1893, at the age of forty-six. He had been a member of this association since June 13, 1889, and was also a member of tbe Boston society of civil engineers. He was an able and genial man, much beloved by those who knew him well.

It has been customary for the president, at the annual meeting, to give in his address a summary of the work of the association. But the work of the past year is known to the members through the issues of the journal, and its growth in numbers and financial resource is shown by the reports of the secretary and of the treasurer.

The members know the value of the organization ; they know its work. How shall its value become better known to the public at large and its influence be extended?

The organization began with a meeting of twenty-one water-works superintendents and registrars at Young’s hotel, Boston, April 19, 1882.

What is a water-works superintendent ? What are his duties and qualifications?

The answer to these questions must vary with the population and other conditions of the town or city where the office is located. The smaller the town the smaller will be the superintendent’s salary, and the more manifold his duties. He may be obliged to run the pumps, collect the water rates, lay pipes, keep records, be draftsman, foreman of laborers, steam engineer, civil engineer and clerk, all in one, with a salary not at all commensurate with the extent of his duties. If in a large city his duties will consist mainly in directing by due oversight, the work of a body of skilled subordinates in a thorough and efficient administration of the affairs of the water-works under his charge.

With this preface may it not be profitable for a few minutes to attempt to outline the qualifications of an ideal superintendent ? He must, first of all, be self-reliant, not selfconceited.

The self-reliant man knows his own powers and limitations. He will insist, in a dignified manner, upon proper deference and respect to his rightful authority, and inspire confidence in his own ability. At the same time he will often seek advice from a competent source, and in emergencies and critical cases, while prompt to act. never be hasty, rash or foolishly obstinate.

The self-conceited man overrates himself and underrates his fellows. He strives to carry out his pet plans, not because they have been carefully considered and are the best, but because they are his.

The superintendent, if able to have a corps of assistants, must know enough of the details of their duties and enough of human nature to be a judge of their fitness to perform the tasks assigned them. He should know’ how to ‘ size up” a man so as to decide whether, notwithstanding some faults and weak points, he is. on the whole, a success, or, on the other hand, whether, although possessing ability and skill, he has some radical defect of character which unfits him for his place and calls for his discharge. The more the superintendent knows of mechanical and civil engineering the better. He must, at least in a general way, be responsible for the care of much valuable machinery, and, in the growth of cities and towns, much construction work must fall to the lot of waterworks men. It is important that the superintendent have sufficient engineering skill to give weight to his opinions in regard to all water-works construction.

Of even more importance is it that he should have a thorough knowledge of water. There are many experts in steam, civil and mechanical engineering, many expert chemists and botanists. But the number of men who understand water, the conditions of its purity, the sources of its supply, the causes of contamination, the best methods of distribution, the changes which water undergoes under the varying circumstances of light, heat, soil, air, depth and contaminating elements, and who, at the same time, can make their fellow men believe they understand water—this number of men is at present small.

Whatever the sciences of geology, botany, chemistry and bacteriology can teach in regard to the quality of water, should be known to the superintendent. He must be a student, a reading man, of practical common sense, of courage, patience and perseverance.

Above all else he should be a gentleman, that by his bearing he may win the good will of the public whom he serves, for the highest ability is useless to one who cannot command the support of the community whose confidence is essential to his success. Who among us would claim to possess all the qualities I have described ?

Yet, although no one of us reaches the standard here set forth, the New England Water-works Association as a body does possess the ideal superintendent. By our meetings, our journal, our discussions, our harmonious interchange of thought and experience, we are as one man, the ideas and powers of each welded together into one perfect whole, ready to meet any emergency and to carry forward any enterprise of water-works maintenance or construction. At least, if such is not the present actual state of the case, such a condition is attainable from the character of the membership of the association.

What we most need is to make the strength of which we are ourselves conscious, become a living reality to the world at large.

The general public should understand that problems of water supply which the ordinary citizen is utterly incapable of solving and upon which his opinions are valueless, it is the business of the members of the New England Water-works. Association to study and solve.

In other professions, like that of the teacher and the phy sician, he who does not belong to any organized body of his fellows, is considered behind the times and non-progressive, and is likely to lose professional standing.

It should be understood that the New England Waterworks official who has no connection with this association,who does not read its journal, is behind the age and unfitted to administer the affairs of water-works.

We should interest the public press to spread before the people more fully than has yet been done, the work of this association.

I have found intelligent citizens who did not even know of its existence.

A body of 412 members, embracing all shades and kinds of water-works engineering experience, chemists, botanists and other scientists, is competent to teach the people many valuable things about water supplies, and if we may judge by the absurd statements sometimes seen in the daily press, there are few questions of which the common people are more ignorant than upon a question of a proper public water supply. This shows the need of such societies as ours.

Brethren, if we continue to work together to enlarge our membership, increase our fund, add to our stock ot knowledge and thus increase our usefulness, we have before us as an organized body, a long and prosperous life.

The report of the executive committee was read by Secretary Coggeshall, which was accepted.

Treasurer Nevons submitted the annual report of the finance committee. It was accepted.

For the special committee appointed to consider the question of uniformity in the preparation of the annual report, Desmot d Fitzgerald of Boston submitted a report.

Dexter Brackett of Boston moved that the report be accepted and the recommendations of the committee carried out. Mr. Fitzgerald suggested that it might be well to have the recommendations put into practical shape by the executive committee, and that this body be vested with full power to act. ‘£here were times during the year when the association was in ♦ytter shape than at other times to carry out the ideas of the report, and hence the advantage of leaving the question in the hands of this committee.

Mr. Brackett agreed to Mr. Fitzgerald’s suggestion. He was ready for anything that would bring about the results desired. If all the members of the association could be impressed with the importance of the tabulation of statistics, according to the plan agreed upon at the Springfield convention in 1885, there would be many additions to the eighteen cities and towns that were now making their reports on the new plan. Most of the data of value in water reports is contained in the tables provided, and when scattered throughout the different pages of a report was practically valueless to water-works and supply men.

The rapid increase in consumption in many of the cities and towns during the last five years gave additional importance to the uniform arrangements of reports, and the association could do no better work than to gather in additions to the form adopted in 1885.

The motion of Mr. Brackett, first amended in line with Mr. B’itzgerald’s suggestion, was then unanimously adopted.

Under the head of papers and discussions John Thompson, hydraulic engineer of New York city, read a paper on “ Is the game worth the candle ”—a discouise on the use of water meters.

There was a brief discussion over this paper. Dexter Brackett agreed in nearly every thing brought out by Mr. Thompson. Regarding the loss in the use of meters he thought it was proportionately small with the amount measured. There was one point in the paper that Mr. Brackett considered misleading, and that was relative to the small proportion of the number of services metered. This was misleading, as it made no reference to the quantity of water used. In Boston seven per cent of the taps were metered and twenty-seven per cent of the total consumption also. In New Bedford twenty-five per cent of the consumption was metered. In the last city with 143 meters more water was measured than in Fall River with 3700 meters. Mr. Brackett argued that with large meters the loss by inaccuracy was very small.

Charles K. Walker of Manchester, N. II., thought where the supply was limited it might pay to put in meters.

Just before adjournment Hiram Nevons distributed photographs of a caliper he had devised for the measurement of water pipe thicknesses.

The afternoon session adjourned at 4.35 until 7.30 r. M.

WEDNESDAY EVENING SESSION.

The evening session was called to order at 7.45, with about seventy-five of the members present. Two interesting papers were read ; one by W. E. McClintock of Boston on “Waterpipe trenches versus good roads,” and the other by Professor Dwight Porter of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, **Boston, on “A description of the Hydraulic Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the work done therein.” Both of the lecturers illustrated their papers by stereopticon views.

There was a brief discussion w’hen Mr. McClintock had finished. His idea of ramming ditches in their layers and without water was not held to be practicable by many of the speakers.

F. L. Fuller of Boston spoke of the difficulty of getting contractors to do the work as thoroughly as the standard called for in the paper. The contract price was generally too low to allow of any extra work, and with the towns it was extremely difficult to get money enough appropriated to do the work at all without considering the extra expense for the careful work in ramming mentioned by Mr. McClintock.

Hiram Nevons said that the method in his city, Cambridge, wras to fill with earth for about a foot, and then to flood with water and ram at the top. The work in his city had been done in a very satisfactory manner, for if it had not the water department was sure to hear of it.

J. H. Decker of New York city and [D. W. French of the Hackensack high service, Weehawken, N. J., both agreed on the advantages of using water in filling the trench.

Before the meeting adjourned the greeting of the association was sent (on Mr. Nevons’ motion) to William M. Hawes, water commissioner of Fall River, who was unable to attend the convention.

Adjournment was had at 9.35.

MEETING OF ASSOCIATE MEMBERS.

The meeting of the associate members was held at 5 o’clock in the small upper hall. About twenty were present. Anthony Smith of Newark, N. J., was chosen chairman, and D. W. H. Washington of New York city, secretary. Charles H. Baldwin of Boston stated for information that the expense of the exhibition was sustained by the association, the arrangement and managemeftt of the same having been left entirely to the associates, whose committee the speaker had been appointed last year. The original plans of the committee had been for all exhibits in the rooms at the Bay State House, but the fire of Saturday morning had compelled heroic measures to have any exhibition at all. The hall at the top of the Horticultural building was engaged, and considerable work had to be performed to bring about the present success which the extent and nature of the exhibit indicated. On motion of Albert S. Glover of Boston the thanks of the associates were voted to Mr. Baldwin and the association for their work in providing the exhibit.

On motion of Mr. Baldwin, Mr. Glover was elected a committee on the part of the associates to arrange for the exhibit at next year’s convention.

John K. P. Otis of Worcester gave notice of the excursion given by the Union Meter Company on Friday, and expressed the hope that all the delegates would remain over and enjoy the trip. Then the meeting adjourned.

THURSDAY MORNING SESSION.

Thursday proved a very severe one for those who put in an appearance at the meeting, being very warm, but the members stuck to business heroically and put in a good day’s work.

The first business was the report of the nominating commit* tee. The report was accepted and the secretary casting one vote as instructed by the convention, showed the following officers elected for the ensuing year :

President, George E. Batchelder, Worcester.

Vice-presidents, J. S. Mascy, Gardner, Me.; C. K. Walker, Manchester, N. H.; F. H. Crandall, Burlington, Vt.; G. A. Stacy, Marlboro; B. 1. Cook, Woonsocket, R. I.; S. E. Grannis, New Haven, Conn.

Secretary, R. C. P. Coggeshall, New Bedford.

Treasurer, Hiram Nevons, Cambridgeport.

Senior editor, Dexter Brackett, Boston.

Junior editor, W. H. Richards, New London.

Executive committee, F. F. Forbes, Brookline ; A. II. Salisbury, Lawrence ; P. Kicrnan, Ball River.

Finance committee, J. C. Whitney, Newton ; T. W. Sawyer, Milford ; J. L. Harrington, Cambridge.

The place of holding the next annual convention was left to the executive committee with full power to act.

The reading of papers was then proceeded with, commencing with that by John C. Chase, engineer and superintendent of the Clarendon Water Company at Wilmington, N. C., on “ An experience with a stand-pipe.” He said :

The system of water-works which the writer has in charge, was constructed some twelve years ago, and was among the very first built on the franchise plan.

Two local capitalists were interested in the scheme by an outside party, whose chief end was, apparently, to secure the contract for constructing the works.

A valuable concession and contract, for a term of thirty years, was secured from the city, and, in due time, the same was transferred to a company organized under legislative charter.

The works were built without any engineering advice, so far as the owners of the system were concerned, except that furnished by the interested contractor.

A local surveyor was employed, and given the title of engineer, but it is hardly probable that he had ever seen a waterworks plant, and all he appaiently did was to sign such certificates as was prepared for him, and draw his pay.

One feature of the system was a stand-pipe twenty feet in diameter, and seventy feet in height, which was nearing completion when the writer arrived to take charge of the works.

This structure was a plate-iron cylinder, made of sheets three feet in width, and having a 6×6-inch angle iron on the lower edge, with the horizontal leg turning outward.

It was erected on a masonry foundation without any anchorage and without any bottom, the latter being replaced with an internal layer of cement concrete about one foot hick.

The parties who furnished the material say that they “gave the contractor a price for the complete structure, which was afterward reduced in consequence of leaving out the iron bottom. which was his own suggestion.”

The cause of this change was well understood by the writer, but it does not call for explanation in this connection.

The concrete bottom did not prove to be water tight and was taken out.

The next move of the builder was to pick out a recess under the bottom of the angle iron and pour a lead joint entirely around the outer circumference, expecting to be able, by caulking, to make a tight joint between the metal and the masonry.

As might have been expected, this was a lamentable failure, and recourse was had to a new layer of concrete.

Before this was in condition to use the contractor deposited, with disinterested parties, a sum of money sufficient to provide an iron bottom in case the concrete was not satisfactory orxlid not remain tight for a period of six months, and having, in the meantime, disposed of his stock interest, retired from the scene, stating, however, that he was going to arrange for the immediate putting in of an iron bottom, in order to release the funds deposited.

Nothing further was heard from him, and the six months clause turned out to be merely a device to embarrass the water company in the use of their property, lmt, in due time, they gained possession, and the first question was how to complete the work in a water-tight and workmanlike manner.

The treasurer of the company, who was also one of the largest stockholders, was a lumber manufacturer, and like the historic tanner, who believed that there was “ nothing like leather,” saw no reason why a wooden bottom would not be the correct thing, and proceeded to carry out his ideas, although the writer did not approve of the device.

This is one of the few cases where the “ practical man ” has scored an apparent victory over the engineer.

The bottom was made of two thicknesses of three-inch, yellow pine plank, laid so as to break joints, all joints being filled with oakum and then coated with pitch.

The surface of the concrete was leveled up with a bed of cement mortar, on which the bottom layer of plank was bedded. Short braces, bearing against the bottom of the second course of sheets, were put in, to keep the bottom from floating until it became tin roughly water-logged.

The leakage has been slight, and has not varied to any perceptible extent, except for a short interval after refilling the stand-pipe, when it has been emptied for any purpose.

As before stated, the writer did not approve of the method adopted, and claims no credit for its practical success.

It is perhaps unnecessary to say that notwithstanding the satisfactory result, he would not advise its future adoption, though a state of affairs requiring similar treatment can hardly be imagined to exist.

Inasmuch as the expense was less than one-fourth of the sum required for an iron bottom, the experiment was a financial success, and the members of this association are probably well aware that such results appeal far more strongly to the heart of the average capitalist than any amount of abstract theorizing from an engineering point of view.

The prospective removal of the structure to a different location is anticipated with pleasure, and it will give an opportunity to complete it in accordance with long tried and approved methods.

B urther comment is unnecessary, and each one can point the moral to his own taste.

In conclusion, it may be said that the stand-pipe was soon found to be of inadequate height, and an addition of twenty feet was made to the top.

The inside staging having been removed, and the outside one being considered unsafe, the extension was erected from a float containing a balance derrick, which enabled the sheets of a course to be raised and swung to the proper position in a very expeditious manner.

The rivets were driven on the inside and held on the outside by workmen suspended in a cage, carried by roller hooks traversing the top edge of the course of sheets, on whicli work was being done.

The riveting of the course having been completed, the seams were calked, and water then pumped in until the float was raised to the desired height for another course.

This method of construction has the advantage of testing the work as fast as completed, and the writer believes this to be the first time the method was used. It has been in frequent use since, and is of great advantage where the pumping machinery and connections are completed before the stand-pipe is erected.

William R. Hill, chief engineer Syracuse water works, was to have read a paper on “ The location, construction and laying of a 54-inch steel submerged pipe in Skaneateles lake for the Syracuse water works.” He was unable to be present, and his paper was read by Secretary Coggeshall. It was as follows:

This work consisted of about 6400 linear feet of single riveted steel pipe, having an internal diameter of 54 inches.

This pipe was made by the Groton Bridge and Manufacturing Company of Groton, N. Y., from J^ inch steel plates weighing 15 pounds per square foot and rolled at the mills of Carnegie, Phipps & Co., at Homestead, Pa.

The plates were each 6 feet wide and of such length as would form the proper circle of the pipe and the necessary lap of 2 ½ inches. Five of these 6-foot sections were then telescope joined and riveted to form a rigid section 29 feet 2 inches in length. The edges of the longitudinal seams and of the circular joints, both outside and inside, were beveled and hammer calked until they were made water tight without plugging or packing, the same as is usually done on first-class boiler work.

These 29-foot sections, after being tested and coated with asphalt, were shipped to the delivery grounds on the shore of Sxaneatc’es lake, where four of these sections were joined and nvcicd together, forming a rigid section about lib feet in length. On one end «f this long section, a spigot of 2% x ⅛inch steel was riveted, while on the opposite end there was a cast-iron bell. On the spigot there was a i x ⅝-inch wroughtiron hoop loosely encircling the pipe, and between this hoop and the steel spigot Mas placed a soft lead pipe.

The cast-iron bell was provided with 20 steel hook bolts with hexagonal nuts. After entering the spigot into the bell, the hook bolts were brought to bear against the wrought iron hoop, which in turn pressed against the soft lead pipe, causing it to upset and form a cold lead joint.

There were used on this line, seven universal flexible joints, made from steel plates, channels and angles, on the ball and socket principle, consisting of a turned cast-iron hollow zone or ball, working in a spherical lead lined steel socket, and capable of a deflection of 12 degrees, in any direction, from the axis of the pipe.

The accompanying drawings show a section of this joint as well as of the bell and spigot joint and also a length of the steel pipe.

The plates Mere of mild steel and of an ultimate tensile strength of from 55 000 to 65,000 pounds per square inch.

All plates were required to he able to stand the test of punching a row of holes -inch in diameter, pitched inches between centres, without causing cracks ; and to withstand the lest of enlarging to the extent of ⅛ their original diameters a row of punched rivet holes, centre pitched two diameters from the edge of the plate and three diameters apart, without cracking the sheets.

Strips cut from the sheets, lengthwise, were required ,to stand the test of cold bending double, flat under the hammer, without fracture. The plates had to be tough and pliable enough to allow of cold scarfing to a fine edge, at the laps, without cracking, and to be rolled to the circle of the pipe without cracking between tbc rivet holes and the edge of the plate.

The plates were shipped from the rolling mills to Groton on flat cars provided Mith roofs to protect the steel from rain. After being unloaded, the plates Mere laid out and hand pricked for punching from carefully made templets ; they were then passed to the punch and then to the chamfering machine, where l>oth the side edges of each p’atc were cut to curves, so that in bending the plate to the circle of the pipe, the end of the 6-foot telescope thus formed would be at right angles to the axis of the pipe and have an internal diameter of 54 inches and 54 inches, respectively. The edges of the plates at the lap Mere next beveled to a fine edge by hammering and were then passed to the rolls, which Mere so arranged that the plate was formed to the proper circle. As soon as they were thus formed, they were temporarily held in shape by bolts, and were then assembled for riveting.

At this part of the shop, there were two parallel hand car tracks, Just far enough apart to allow men to work handily between the two cars on which the pipe sections were placed. Over these tracks was suspended an Allen pneumatic riveter.

As soon as the rivets Mere driven on the pipe section on track No. 1, the riveter was swung over track No. 2, where in the mean time another section had been put in position by the assemblers. Then, while the riveters were working over track No. 2. the assemblers placed another section in position on tiack No, i. This rotation was kept up until five 6-foot sections had been riveted together, making a 29-foot section. These long sections were then placed on skids in another part of the shop, where the seatns were calked with a pneumatic tool and the pipes thoroughly cleaned from all scales or dirt. They Mere then inspected and taken to the dipping tank to receive the asphalt coating.

The dipping tank was made of ⅛ -inch steel plates and was 31 feet long by 5 feet 6 inches wide by 5 feet 6 inches deep, haying the bottom rounded and fitted with rolls to allow the pipe to he revolved in the bath. Extending underneath and supporting this tank, was a brick furnace fitted with an ordinary grate for burning wood.

The coating was a mixture o( the l,os Angeles Oil Burning Supply Company’s dry asphalt, grade D, and their liquid asphalt grade G. To start a dip, it was necessary to use three parts of D to one part of G ; but once started it was necessary to add the grade G only.

The temperature of the mixture M as tested by immersing in the boiling mass, a piece of H-inch steel plate about 6 inches square, which was allowed to remain therein about ten minutes, when it was removed and immediately cooled in ice cold water. If the coating did not then crack or fly off upon striking the plate with a hammer, and did not soften at a temperature of too degrees Fahrenheit, it was considered to be of the proper temper.

The pipe was then completely submerged in the bath, and left therein at least twenty minutes, or long enough for the steel to attain the temperature, not less than 2So degrees Fahrenheit of the mixture. It was then withdrawn, and the coating allowed to stiffen for a few moments, and then again immersed for a short time to thicken the coat.

The pipes were raised and lowered into the hath by means of a derrick. It required about 45 minutes to properly coat one of the 29-foot sections.

THE LAYING,

The contract for laying the submerged pipe was awarded to Messrs. Hingston & Chapman of Buffalo, N. Y. Before laying any pipe they constructed a catamaran 95 feet long, 30 feet wide and 6 feet deep This Mas made in two sections, each 95 feet long and 12 feet wide. The sides and ends of each section were formed entirely of 6-inch x 8-inch oak timber placed on top of each other and secured by bolts. These two sections were placed side by side and 6 feet apart and held in this position by five 12 inch x 14-inch oak timbers. Each section was covered by a plank floor, but the 6-foot space between the IM O sections was left open.

Over this opening were arranged three timber supports for the pulley blocks from which a length of pipe could be suspended.

The intake crib, 16 feet square and 12 feet deep, was constructed of 10-inch x 12-inch oak timbers, dovetailed and secured by ij^-inch rods. This crib, containing a short bell mouth section of the intake pipe having a flexible joint attached to its outer end, was built on board the catamaran, and after being carried out near where it was to be anchored, it was launched and floated in position between four guide piles. Stone ballast was then added until the crib sunk upon the broken stone foundation, which had already been prepared. After the crib had been placed, a section of the steel pipe, the ends of which had been closed bv oil canvas, was rolled off Ihe skids into the water and floated out to the catamaran, which was held in position by spud piles, over which the pipe was to be lowered. The pipe was then drawn into the open space between the two sections of the catamaran, where the timber saddle pieces were fastened to the pipe and the rope and tackling adjusted.

Upon removing the oil canvas bulkheads, the pipe filled with water and, supported by the ropes, it was lowered into position at the lake bottom. Before the ropes were removed, the divers entered the spigot into the bell, adjusted the hookbolts and by screwing up the nuts, upset the lead pipe and formed the joint.

The booms from which the pipe was suspended, were so constructed that the pipe could also be moved longitudinally. As the catamaran was made so large and of such heavy timbers there was no trouble experienced from unsteadiness, except when the water was very rough ; however, under ordinary conditions, the contractors were able to lay one of the 116-foot sections in one day.

The total cost of the steel pipe, including the flexible joints, delivered on the skids at Skaneateles lake, was $8.80 per linear foot, and the contract price for laying the same was $2.50 per linear foot.

Owing to the trench not being dredged, the pipe laying was suspended last fall and there still remains about 2000 feet of pipe to be laid in the lake.

This dredging is now nearly finished and the pipe laying will be resumed about the first of July.

All of the 30-inch cast-iron pipe for the conduit line from the lake to Syracuse will be delivered by August 15, and pipe laying is now in progress on all four sections of this line. The work on the new distributing reservoir is also well under way, but will not be completed until the fall of 1894.

It is expected, however, to have Skaneateles lake water into the present reservoir before the end of the current year.

“ The Works of the East Jersey Water Company for the Supply of Newark, N. J.,” by Clemens Herschel, hydraulic engineer of New York city, which was printed in last week’s issue of FIRE AND WATER, was then read.

Charles A. Allen of Worcester asked for the price charged per million gallons for the delivery of water, and was told $40. This was according to the contract, but no water to this extent had yet been purchased. The price agreed upon for the works was $6 ooo.ooo.

Mr. Stearns of the State Board of Health followed with a piper by Thomas M. Drown, M. D., professor of chemistry in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, on “ The Purification of Water by Freezing,” and then the topics for discussion were considered.

Dexter Brackett opened the discussion on “ Details of Pipe Casting and Coating.”

Mr. Billings argued that it was for the pipe founders to settle the form of casting pipe. They were the ones to say whether the bell end should be up or down, and Mr. Brackett’s paper practically took this position.

C. A. Allen of Worcester thought that a standard for special castings would be a good idea, and suggested that the society might exert an influence to bring such a thing about.

F. A. Fuller was convinced that the pipe cast with the bell end down was the best pipe, and thought this opinion almost universally held. He also believed that the pipe made now Mas of good quality, and if some method or plan could be devised to insure uniform thickness, there would be nothing more desired in the pipe line.

Mr. Noyes, Newton, then introduced the subject, “ The Filling of Service Pipes by Sediment and Belieoculation.” He related Newton’s experience. In 1876 considerable tarcoated iron pipe Mas laid. It had filled rapidly with these substances, and Mas now almost useless. Some enameled wrought-iron pipe had been used, but the best service had been obtained with lead and galvanized iron pipe. With the latter pipe there was no filling or corrosion.

F. A. Fuller agreed with Mr. Noyes relative to the tarcoated pipe. He had found it very poor material. In his city cement lined iron and lead pipes Mere proving to be the most serviceable.

Mr. Fuller suggested that a lead-lined iron pipe might make a good one, and hoped to see this experiment tried.

President Chace of Taunton said that cement-lined iron pipes had given general satisfaction in a ten or twelve years service, though occasionally they M-ere a little troublesome at first. He spoke of cels stopping the water, and also referred to the character of the water as having much to do with the life of the material used in service-pipe. He hoped when Taunton was through using the river water mixed Mith something else, that the city would have less trouble from filling by sediment and tuberculation.

Water-Registrar BroM’n of Fitchburg had an eel story to tell, and when he had finished the eel measured three feet six inches. He added a word for cement lined iron pipe, and testified to its good qualities in cold weather.

Mr. Chase of Wilmington, N. C., approved of galvanized iron pipe. The pipe in the Southern cities were affected by the tannic acid in the M ater, and many good pipes for the North might not prove satisfactory under changed conditions.

This closed the discussion, and after the thanks of the associate members had been received for courtesies extended, the meeting adjourned.

The afternoon Mas devoted entirely to the excursioitT&rranged by the local M-ater department. *.

In the evening but one paper Mas read, that on “ Recent practice in pumping machinery,” by F. W. Dean, mechanical engineer of Boston, was delivered, illustrated with stereopticon vieM’s.

Other new members were elected : Joseph L. Kenney, superintendent of the water-works at Lewiston, Me., and Frank L. Northrup, superintendent of the water-works at Milford, were elected to active membership.

The following motions were unanimously carried :

By Dexter Brackett of Boston : That the thanks of the association be extended to the water department of the city and to the Union Meter Company for its share in adding to the comforts and pleasures of the members while in town.

By Secretary Coggeshall : That a vote of thanks be extended to the retiring president, George F. Chace of Taunton, for his earnest efforts and happy success as a presiding officer.

President Chace thanked the members for the expression of their appreciation of his services. If there was any credit to be given, it was to the members who had so cordially aided the president in his work. He then introduced Water Registrar George E. Batchelder, the president for 1893.

President Batchelder, on taking the chair, said :

Gentlemen of the convention—Accept my thanks for the honor you have conferred upon me, in choosing me as your president for the ensuing year. It certainly is a great honor to be elected president of a society composed of the representative men of the country. My predecessors have set me a good example in one thing, the brevity of their speeches, and this is fortunate.

I only wish to add that, in spite of the disadvantages incurred by the Bay State hotel fire, you have accepted the situation and have made the best of circumstances, which is very gratifying to the committee of arrangements. I thank you again and await your pleasure.

The convention then adjourned.

The following members were in attendance at the convention :

ACTIVE MEMBERS.

Everett L. Abbott, New York ; Charles A. Allen, Worcester ; Frank A. Andrews, Nashua, N. H.; R C. Bacot, Jr., Hoboken, N. J.; Chas. II. Baldwin, Boston; LeM’is M. Bancroft, Reading, Mass.; Geo. E. Batchelder, Worcester; Jos. F. Beals, Middleboro, Mass.; William R. Billings, Taunton, Mass.; Dexter Brackett, Boston ; John G. Brady, Worcester; Arthur W. F. Brown, Fitchburg, Mass.; James Burnie, Biddeford, Me.; George F. Chace, Taunton, Mass ; E. J. Chadbourne, Neponset, Mass.; Charles E. Chandler, Norwich, Conn.; John C. Chase, Wilmington, N. C.; William F. Codd, Nantucket, Mass.; R. C. P. Coggeshall, New Bedford, Mass.; II. W. Conant, Gardner, Mass.; Byron I. Cook, Woonsocket, R. I.; George K. Crandall, New London, Conn.; George E. Crowell, Brattleboro, Vt.; Edwin Darling, Pawtucket, R. I : Francis W. Dean, Boston ; J. H. Decker, New York ; Ngjthaniel Dennett, Somerville, Mass.; Charles R. Dyer. Portland, Me.; Eben R. Dyer, Portland, Me.; Horace L. Eaton, Somerville, Mass.; Desmond FitzGerald, Brookline, Mass.; Wm. E. Foss. Brighton, Mass.; D. W. French, Weehawken, N. J.; Albert S. Glover, Boston ; A. B. Goodier, Southbridge, Mass ; Frank E. Hall, Quincy, Mass.; A. R. Hathaway, Springfield, Mass.; Ansel G. Hayes. Middleboro, Mass.; Clemens Herschel, New York ; James II. Higgins, Providence, R. I.; Horace C, Holden. Nashua, N. H.; David B. Kempton, New Bedford, Mass.; Jos. L. Kenney, Lewiston, Me.; E. W. Kent and Willard Kent, Woonsocket, R. I.; Geo. A. Kimball, Boston ; Horace Kingman, Brockton, Mass.; Wilbur F. Learned, Watertown, Mass.; Joseph A. Lockwood, Yonkers, N. Y.; Thomas W. Mann. Holyoke, Mass.; W. E. McCiintock, Boston; William McNally, Marlboro, Mass.; George L. Mirick, Everett, Mass.; Janies W. Morse, Natick, Mass.; Hiram Nevons, Cambridge, Mass.; Edward C. Nichols, Reading, Mass.; Frank L. Northrop, Milford, Mass.; Albert F. Noyes, West Newton, Mass.; A. G. Pease, Spencer, Mass.; ‘John F. Philbin, Clinton, Mass.; Edward II. Phipps,

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