New England Waterworks Association Convention

New England Waterworks Association Convention

The twenty-eighth annual convention of the New England Waterworks Association, held last week at the Park Avenue hotel, New York, was, as anticipated, a pronounced success. The register showed 140 active members present, and there was a large representation of associates and guests to bring the total nearly up to that of the last meeting held in this city four years ago. Mr. George S. Rice, engineer of the subway system, introduced by President Thomas, opened the proceedings Wednesday morning, by briefly announcing the program arranged by the local committee, and extended a hearty welcome to the members. The regular order of business was then taken up. Secretary Kent announced the following applications for membership, and they were duly elected. Active members: H. R. Cooper, superintendent, Thomsonville, Conn.; M. Blair, New York City, assistant engineer high pressure system; E. Kloberg, assistant engineer same department; E. E. Minor, New Haven, Conn.; G. R. Jones, filtration department, Washington, L). C.; I. M. de Verona, chief engineer waterworks, New York; John J. Philbin, superintendent, Clinton, Mass.; Charles E. North, Montclair, N. J. Associate: Frank E. Davis, Boston; Glauber Brass Manufacturing Company, Cleveland ; Standard Water Meter Company, Brooklyn ; Gamon Meter Company, Newark; New York Lead Wool Company, 93 Nassau street, New York, John Simmons Company, New York. The first paper was then read by William W. Brush, engineer of distribution. His subject, which was illustrated by many stereopticon views,

“The New York Water Supply.”

Probably a majority of you know the city of New York is divided into five boroughs, known as Manhattan, Brooklyn, Bronx, Queens and Richmond. These boroughs, with the exception of Manhattan, are made up of many communities. There were about 25 separate systems of water supply used to serve the people of Greater New York, and some of these systems are still in use. It would lie very tiresome to attempt to describe in detail all these systems, and I, therefore, will give my attention to the new system, which is the first that has been designed to serve all Greater New York. This new system will enable the various parts of the city to obtain the necessary supply that may be required. 1 can probably give you a fair idea of the water supply works of the city by following closely a number of illustrations which I have here, because it is a little difficult to give a clear description without the aid of these slides. The largest borough in population and the smallest in area is the Borough of Manhattan, and this slide shows the rela tive location of the borough. The Borough of Manhattan obtained its supply in the latter part of the eighteenth century and the early part of the nineteenth century from wells. The Croton watershed lies north of New York and the supply is obtained from a reservoir formed by the new Croton dam, with which many of you are familiar. This dam is located on the river and joins the Hudson. The next slide shows a discharge over the spillway of the main dam. The main nart of the dam is 1,000 feet in length. This picture, together with the following, have been arranged to illustrate the unnecessary waste of water in the Croton shed and the futility of going to the Catskills for an additional supply. Next slide shows the old Croton dam w’hich is about three miles above the new Croton dam. This was constructed in 1840 and the supply was drawn through the gatehouse and into the aqueduct, and this dam is now submerged by the new reservoir. This picture illustrates the site of the dam. There are about fourteen auxiliary reservoirs at the Croton reservoir, these reservoirs being constructed on the various branches of the river. The available supply is estimated at a minimum of about 33G.000.000 gallons per day. This supply is delivered to the citv through two aqueducts the original aqueduct, known as the old aqueduct, is shown, and has its invert at an elevation of 153 feet. The Croton aqueduct is about thirty miles long from the reservoir to the gatehouse. Its main dimensions are nearly 13½ by feet. These aqueducts come together just about three miles north of the Harlem river in the large distribution reservoir known as the Jerome Park reservoir. Only the west basin has been completed. This basin has a capacity of 750,000,009 gallons, and the cast basin would have 50 per cent additional capacity if completed. The Croton supply is very good, comparatively pure, but it is advisable that the supply should be filtered. The new Croton crosses the Harlem river between the High bridge and the Washington bridge, which is at 181st street. The crossing is not as imposing as that of the old Croton, but the capacity is three times that of the old Croton. The Borough of Manhattan is divided intothree districts of distribution; the low surface obtains its sunnly from the lower level reservoir, and the high grounds of the city at an elevation of 240 feet. In connection with the distributing works of the city there a high pressure system to be used for fire service. The area covered by the high pressure fire service system in Manhattan is part of the office building, dry goods, wholesale and retail sections, together with some manufacturing and business sections.

I he protected district runs from Chambers street on the south, covering the Bowery, then up to 23rd street, over to the Hudson river and back to Chambers street. The system consists of 24inch main extending along the most important portion of the district. The type of hydrant which is used for the high nressure you can recognize as being much larger than the low pressure type. Brooklyn is supplied from Manhattan by the East river, ft has its own system of supply, which was first introduced in 1859 at which time the population was about 250,000. The watershed is on the south side of Long Island. The original supply extended up to about the site of the present watershed. The construction east of that was made in 1890. and the new works run to within 800 feet of the Suffolk county line. Brooklyn has practically no storage reservoir. • One of the old pumps was built in 1807, and {lumps about 15,000,000 gallons per day. This will be replaced by a new pump at a later date. The Brooklyn distribution is divided into three zones. The greater portion of the supply, about 90 per cent., is delivered at an elevation of 170 feet, the intermediate system is at an elevation of 20 feet, and the high service, 278 feet. The Boroughs of Queens and Richmond obtain their supply from driven wells. The Croton system can give about 336,000,000 gallons per day. That is only slightly in excess of the present consumption. In Richmond the supply is inadequate and will be augumented by a supply from New Jersey by contract with a private company. The main feature of the works in the Catskills is the Ashokan reservoir, which is the largest reservoir used for water supply purposes. The Ashokan reservoir is located on Esopus creek, and will have a total capacity at the flow level, which is at an elevation of 590 feet, of 128,000,000 gallons, or about four times the capacity of the new Croton reservoir. There are about four types of aqueduct construction to be used. The tunnel will probably go to its greatest depth in crossing the Hudson river. It is, of course, a little difficult to show in general outline all the water supply of a large city like New York in the time that is available but 1 know that you will all be very much interested in a trip that you intend to take up to Ashokan reservoir and Olive bridge dam and the works therein. I thank you very much for your attention.

Under discussion, Mr. Gardner wanted to know how the dikes were constructed. Mr. Brush called upon Mr. Finn to reply to this question and he gave a complete outline of how the work was done. Professor Bemis inquired as to what objection there was to using salt water entirely. Mr. Brush replied that the use of salt water is detrimental to the life of the valves and also the pipes and a greater amount of damage would be caused to the quarters where a fire occurred. The supply for the entire city is only about onefifth of a day’s supply and, as to use all salt water would cause a corrosion of the valves, it was considered advisable to use fresh water, having the salt water as a secondary system. As long as the fresh water was available it was considered advisable’to use it. Professor Bemis inquired the effect on the supply mains. Replying, Mr. Brush said: “The size mains adopted in Brooklyn are 48-inch; Manhattan has 36 and 30-inch mains; the Olive street station is connected to a 30 and 36-inch main; the Gansevoort station has a 36inch main. One pump is more than ample for a fire, and Manhattan has had three large fires during the past season which were controlled by high pressure system without any difficulty, and it was not necessary to put in service more than three or four pumps.”

The next paper presented was

Odors and Tastes in the Water Supply of Holyoke.

Engineer James L. Tighe then presented a paper on the topic, “Odors and Pastes in the Water Supply of Holyoke.” Mr. Tighe is city engineer of Holyoke, Mass., and the paper was a complete discussion, and its bearing on similar conditions elsewhere made it highly informative.

The introduction to the more technical part of the paper reviewed the history of the Holyoke water supply and in doing this gave an accurate picture of the popular attitude toward the public water supply. The favor of the public ranged all the way from ultra-superlative praise to charges of utter filth. In the face of such criticism the painstaking work of scientific investigation was carried on; and, from a time when water conditions were the subject of mere guesses and surmies until knowledge of the minute and oftimes microscopic plant life of the various reservoirs was classified, the work of investigation was prosecuted.

The result was the identification of Uroglena, Symura, Anabena, Chlamydomonas and others, and the characteristics of each of these genera noted. Of the Chara and Nitclia, closely allied to the filamenteous algea, but distinguished therefrom in their resemblance to the higher plants by having stems, branches, Icavclcta, etc. Of these last mentioned genera Mr. Tighe said:

“These two genera, which make up the bulk of the Characas order are found growing more or less in quiet fresh waters in temperate regions all over the world, and it was in the common species of Chara, known as “Chara Vulgaris” that the important fact of vegetable circulation was first discovered. 1 he nlants of both Chara and Nitella grow in some places to a length of from three to four feet, while their stems are not much thicker than a stout needle. Each plant or stem is attached to the bottom by slender thread-like rootlets, and has branches regularly arranged in circlets or whorls, each whorl consisting of an equal number of branches which, according to the species, may be of any number from five to twelve.

The species, as found in the high service, grew in irregular matt-like patches all over the bottom and sides of the reservoir except where the depth of the water exceeded about 20 feet. 1 he largest plants measured about two feet in length and had whorls of eight branches spaced from an inch to an inch and a half apart; the distance decreasing as the whorls went from the rootlets to the top of the plant. The areas of the patches, as were found when the reservoir was emptied, varied from a few square feet to several thousand, the maximum measuring about 50 feet by 120 or 6,000 square feet. The growth at this place seemed to be the most healthful and luxuriant in the whole reservoir and was exactly at a depth of 13J4 feet below the surface of the water. It was at a place, too, which one would expect to be the last to find vegetable growth of any kind whatever, because the bottom here was a peninsula running out from the south end of the dam proper that was excavated to hardpan and rock, not for the purpose of removing vegetable matter of which there was none, but for the construction of the dam for which the material was excellent, it being of a hard gravelly character.

But this luxuriant growth in this sterile place was not all, for as if to show contempt for and independence of anything of a vegetable or organic character, these water weeds grew luxuriantly on the stone pavement of the dam where there was nothing for the rootlets to derive nourishment from except the selected gravel that filled the interstices of the pavement.

Authority states that the rootlets arc for simply holding the plant in place and are not otherwise necessary to its life, since food is absorbed as in algae, directly by the body of the plant from the water in which it lives. Be this as it may, the writer, in trying to raise these plants in glass jars, was only successful where an adequate quantity of silt or mud was placed in the jars, as the plants did not thrive but died in the ones where the silt was but scantily placed.

Mtil. perhaps, one of the most important pecunoticeable about this plant was the strong odor therefrom on its being taken out of the water. To many persons who observed this odor, it seemed to resemble most nearly that from the skunk. The botanist, it seems, has paid no attention to this property of Cliara, although he has described the pig-pen characteristic of the plant when decaying. This is the more singular, too, since the odor is decidedly strong in the youngest shoot in which decay is out of the question. In the water front the tap the odor detected would remind one of sulphuretted hydro gen while in the reservoir no odor or taste could be detected in the surface layers of the water or until the lower layers were reached and then not nearly as strong as from the tap water. As the summer advanced, the quality of the water gradually became worse and in the middle of August became so foul that the reservoir had to he shut off entirely and the Whitin’* street reservoir, which is onlv about to feet lower in elevation substituted to supply the high service district. So far as is known, C liara is not common in the reservoirs of New Eneland, and up to this time was known only to give trouble in one reservoir in Massachusetts. This was in the town of Lenox, where a irrowth of Cliara, as stated by Mr. 1. J. Newton, superintendent, has been chronic in the reservoir for the past ten or twelve years. In 1808, the taste and odor oh served in the supply were attributed to this organism. as have those also which have been observed in the supply from time to time ever since.

After the trouble was traced to this plant, the reservoir was emptied and from six to twelve inches in height of the bottom, which is of a clayey character, was removed. This, however, did not prevent the growth of the organism as in the following vear it appeared again and, within two years after, grew as luxuriant as it ever grew before the reservoir was cleaned.

When odor and taste are observed in the water here, the remedy is to draw the supply tn or near the surface of the reservoir and the inlet has been arranged so that this can be done at any time. A peculiar remedy, though, to get rid of the Chara, was the stocking of the reservoir with carp which, the superintend ent states, feet I upon the young plants, and thus destroy their growth.) flow much of a deli cacy or nutrition these fish can find in such plants can he judged from the analysis made by Mr. Whipple, in the llazen and Whipple Laboratory, of the plants found in the high service reservoir which contained, besides water and a little organic matter, 0,22 per cent of phosphates, 0.36 per cent, of alumina. 0,56 per cent, of sodium. 0.U5 per cent, of iron, 2 per cent, of magnesium, 2.til per cent of potassium, 2.77 per cent, of manganese. 2.00 per cent, of silica and 23 V. per cent, of lime. As is seen, the chief mineral constituent of these plants is lime, hence, is it not strange to have such a growth in a water comparatively free from lime, if the hardness of the water is any indication of this salt, which is only slightly over 2 parts in 100,000 parts. (On Clark’s scale).

As the reservoir was unfit for use. it was drawn off in the ball and kept empty during the winter months, m order to see what effect this, together with the ball and kept empty during the winter afterwards, Again, because of no odor or taste being detected in the upper strata of the reservoir and because of the feed or inlet pipe to the gatehouse being at a depth of 18 feet below high water mark, it was thought advisable, in case there should he any recurrences of the trouble, to he able to draw the supply from or near the surface of the reservoir and consequently a brick well was constructed around the end of the inlet pipe to serve this purpose. The drawing off in the ball and re-tilling of the reservoir in the Spring have proven to be a wise procedure, because the quality of the water from the time the reservoir was put in commission again, which was in the middle of June last to the present time, has been excellent.

The organism Chlamydom* nas, which was present in such large numbers in the reservoir last year, were not found at all this year, and while the emptying of the .reservoir or frost, or both together, did not kill or annihilate entirely the Chara. its growth had been affected so much that traces only of the organism have been found in (In reservou so tar this vear.

Coder discussion Mr. Hill inquired if “dur ing the stilly watches of the night, did or did not someone squirt a little copper sulphate.” Mr. Tighc replied that he did not think so, stating that the State Board does not allow Massachusetts the use of copper sulphate. The State Board of Pennsylvania suggests the use of copper sulphate. The cost of stripping the basin was given as between fifty and seventy-five thousand dollars. The report the committee “to prepare a standard specification for lire hydrants” was postponed.

Thursday Morning Session.

The report of the Committee on Standard Specifications for hire Hydrants was presented. A letter was read m the chairman of the committee regretting his inability to be present at tinconvention to present the report, and stating that a more complete report would lie presented at a later date. Commenting on this subject Mr. (iriswold. of New York City, said: ‘‘I am interested in the proposition, and would say the National bite Protection Association has a committee having that matter in charge, and I am here to suggest co-operation with our committee which would only he too glad to co-operate with the committee of the New England Association. I would suggest that von lay this matter before your committee.

“Waterworks Accounting,” by Harvey S. Chase, was not presented, owing to the absence of Mr. Chase.

The next paper in order was presented by Dr. John C. Otis, of Poughkeepsie, X. Y., oil

“The Poughkeepsie Waterworks.”

Mr President and Gentlemen of the New England Water Works Association:

In presenting this report of the first sand filtration plant used in this country I feel that I should extend my thanks to the superintendent of the Poughkeepsie waterworks, Mr. Robert J. Harding, for the data and technical points of my paper. Previous to the installation of the PoumiKeepsie filtration plant, the city, then a city of about 18.000 population, had been dependent upon cisterns and wells for their water simply. The result was that we had serious epidemics of typhoid and a great deal of malaria. During 1808 and 1805) the legislature of the State of New York passed an act allowing the city of Poughkceosie to uistal a water and sewage system. Immediately a hoard of commissioners was appointed and they called in consultation a foremost authority on sand filtiation. Mr. J. B. Rand was appointed engineer in chief and Mr. Davis was appointed resident engineer. Immediately the question of where the supply was to he taken from was raised. There are several creeks in Poughkeepsie, and the water was investigated and all was done to decide on the best supply. It was finally decided after serious consideration to take the water supply from the Hudson river. To show you the condition of the professional mind on river contamination at that time it is interesting to quote from Mr. Rand’s report to the Board of Commissioners. He says the evils resulting from the use of water contaminated with sewage are too well-known to admit of much discussion, and having the best plan for the welfare of the people in mind would prevent us from taking water from any source which had received sewage. It is very true that not much harm can he done hv this discharge, hut who can say how much time is required to destroy these germs and how much harm may come from it. It is. however, stated that numerous cases may he directlv traced to the use of water polluted by sewage. The final waterworks arrangements were completed and installed in 1871, consisting of a pumping station and filter, a force main to a reservoir on College Hill with a capacity of 12,000.000 Gallons. 264 ft. above and 7.700 feet from pump-well, and connected to it by an 18-inch cast iron pipe and distributing system. Flic pumping machinery was made by H. R. Worthington, and consisted of two pumping engines and boilers. Three million gallons was the daily capacity of this machinery ; one was for the filter bed and the other for the distribution. The first inlet pipe to the pump-well was a box conduit inclosed in a box and set around with concrete. This was changed to a 107 feet of 24-inch cast iron pipe in 1877. It weighed thirty-five tons. The filtering works consisted of an unfiltered bed in three compartments and was 25×60 feet and 12 feet deep. The new filter beds consist of a simile basin with an area equal to that of both basins comprising the • Id bed. It was usual to allow the filters to remain out of commission for the whole winter season. Our city has had a reputation for typhoid fever. I have a table showing the number of deaths for each year, giving the number of cases reported by the health department. In IH07 we had 168 cases; 1908, after further improvements to our filters, we had 142 cases; in 1J().’. after still further improving our methods of filtration, we had 122. This table which I have quoted showed that malarial diseases were lieginning to disappear. In the fall of 1908 the Hudson river was so salted it was unpleasant to drink. !t has occurred about once in twenty years. It may he perfectly clear and still be so ilc that it would he suicide to drink it. After consultation with Messrs, llazen and Whipple, it u;is deemed necessary to construct a sedimentation basin. This was started in operation on December 29. 1907. Alum as a coagulant was used during this period until May 27. The alum was added to the raw water through the suction pipe. Typhoid cases dropped from 168, 1907, to 142 cases in 1908, and 122 cases in 1909. At the inlet end of the sedimentation basin a disinfectant was added. The summer of 1908 was a dry seasi n for New York State. The Hudson river became very* low and salt water reached Poughkeepsie. The filters failed to respond and Mr. Geo. C. W hippie was called in and he recommended chloride of lime. This was done at once with most satisfactory results. The application was begun iti February. In December, 190S, the average bacteria in filters was 199; January the average bacteria was 182, with seven cases of typhoid; February, 117, with a^ain seven cases of typhoid; April 16, with two cases of typhoid; May 24, 1 case of typhoid; June 18, 1 case of typhoid; July 16, 2 cases of typhoid. We have recently established a price for water which with our thoroughly metered service will furnish water to meet all requirements. The total receipts from the sale of water from 1872 to 1908, inclusive, amount to $1,077,643. New pumps in 1892 cost $26.0(10; new filter. 1896, $29,748; new •ntake, $7,869; reconstruction of filters, 19041905. $60.ooo; sedimentation basin and chemical laboratory, $45,000; original construction to December 21. 1874. $542,022.75. We are already using methods by which we shall make the Poughkeepsie waterworks pay not only running expenses, hut wili pay off in time its bonds, and 1 think that this is the only proper wav to run a city waterworks. The water is pumped from the Hudson river to the inlet end of the sedimen tation basin. As required, alum, as a coagulant, is added to the raw water in the suction of the pump. A disinfectant is added to the water at the inlet end of the sedimentation basin. The water then passes through the outlet to the intermediate basin, and is distributed througc filters, it then passes into clear water well and through that back to pumping station to large pump and is pumped to reservoir, 300 ft. above filters.

Our system at present is completely metered. Gentlemen, this completes the record of the Poughkeepsie waterworks, and we hope to keep on doing better and finally succeed in having a perfect water system. There is one question that arises to my mind in connection with this plant, and while l do not wish for a minute to he understood as even interfering and that my opinion should have any weight as to filtering water, which is net in my line of business, but while watching the course of these filters for several years, most intimately for the last three years, the question comes in my mind and I give it to you: Is sand filtration necessary to produce a perfectly healthy water when reinforced with mechanical filtration ?This is only a question that I ask you. and our records would seem to hear out an affirmative answer, but we have much better results to obtain.

Under discussion A. A. Reimer inquired as to the present population. Dr. Otis replying “About 30,000. It has gone up from 18.000 to about 20.000.” Mr. Potter rose to ask. “Has he any special reason for conclusion as to the abandonment of the sand filter as worked out in Poughkeepsie?” Replying, Dr. Otis said, “1 should like that it he distinctly understood that it is a question coming from a la* man in this profession. and 1 base my conclusion simply on a study of the statistic^ of our filter plant. So long as we would use sand filtration alone we did not produce a good water. Our water for most of the time really was much worse than our records show. 1 simply put this as a question coming from a layman.” Discussion then followed by Dr. Phelps, Messrs. Kimball, of New Rochelle, Potter and Bartow. Dr. Phelps recommended ozone as an ideal disinfectant and said there is every reason to believe that ozone will not always be so high-priced as it is to-day. there are no after effects, lie said he didn’t wish to say anything detrimental to the use of chloride of lime, as he had a firm belief in it. Ozone has already passed through successfully the experimental stage through which these other disinfectants are passing. Mr. Kimball wanted to know if the germs came hack a second time. .Mr. Potter said the verms which tire killed will not come hack. This refers to a secondary increase in bacteria. If we will our disease germs it doesn’t make any difference whether other germs grow. Mr. Bartow wanted to know whether they had any definite knowledge of detrimental results from the action of bleaching powders used. Dr. Otis answered, We have had no complaints of the taste of the water; in fact, we have never found any chlorine in our filtered water.” Dr. Phelps observed, “l regard the ill effects as imaginary rather than real, and that is what 1 have in mind. I refer to that popular clamour, however ill-founded.”

The report of the committee “To look after aud keep track of legislation and other matters pertaining to the conservation, development and utilization of the natural resources of the country” was called for. and M. N. Baker responded. In part Mr. Baker said the committee had practically nothing to report that has not already heen made public throughout the length and breadth of the country. Conservation is in the air. and some little achievement is being reported in the way of progress in the conservation of our natural resources. There are a number of com mittees who have this in hand. That is all the committee has to report at present. The meeting then adjourned until 8 p. m. The proceedings of Thursday evening and Friday’s trip to the Ashokan reservoir will he reported in a later issue.

W. C. HAWLEY Engineer and Superintendent. Wilkinsburg, Pa.

The Exhibits.

About thirty manufacturers of waterworks supplies took advantage of this opportunity to display their products, transforming the corridors and rooms oadjoining the main auditorium into an interesting exhibit hall. Meterage was to the fore, as usual, although Mr. F. N. Whitcomb, of the A. P. Smith .Manufacturing Company, of Newark, N. J.. in charge, gave attention impartially to all pertinent exhibits.

Cnion Water Meter Company presented an interesting display of King disk, Union rotary and Nilo velocity meters.

Neptune Meter Company placed on exhibition a large assortment of Trident and Trident-Crest frost-proof meters: also a water cart meter and a compound factory meter.

Pittsburg Meter Company showed the line of meters made by their company, including the Keystone and Eureka models.

Thomson Meter Company added to the interest of the occasion with an impressive array of Lambert meters.

Ilersey Manufacturing Company were among the prominent exhibitors with Mersey, Mersey disc and Mersey detector meters.

National Meter Company were in evidence with their well-known Crown, Empire, Gem, Nash and Premier meters.

11. R. Worthington meters, branded as Worthington duplex piston, Worthington disc and W orthington turbine, occupied a prominent space.

Gamon Water Meter Company, although new in the held, had an attractive display of meters. The company has chosen Watch Dog as the trade name for their product and ex plained its construction in a neat booklet.

Mueller Manufacturing Company presented waterworks tools in endless variety, attracting special interest with their meter-testing apparatus, Standard gas-tapping machine and Heaver die stocks.

A. P. Smith Manufacturing Company brought to notice their tapping machine, water gates, sleeves, valves and removable plugs, with an interesting assortment of smaller supplies.

East Jersey Pipe Company showed two ends of 30-inch pipe joined together. The company claims that their taper field joint makes possible a carrying capacity 20 to 25 per cent greater than any form of riveted pipe. This pipe is made in 30-foot lengths, the end of one section being tapered to tit the adjoining section. The pipe was of 7/16-inch stock, and 47,000 oounds pressure was required in a test to rupture the plate, the joint remaining un disturbed as if welded. Sections of bars and illustrated circulars of tests were also on dis play.

Mays Manufacturing Company added to its regular line of waterworks and plumbing sup plies the Hays curb-box, made to take tin Minneapolis patent cock, the McNamara by drant and a gate valve attachment for differ ent sized curb boxes.

Glauber Brass Manufacturing Company pre sented a large and interesting display of gen eral waterworks supplies, including all classes of cocks and service connections of excellent material and workmanship.

I’nited States Cast Iron Pipe and Foundry Company had a representative display of vari ous sizes of pipe, which received a generous share of attention.

National Water Main (leaning Company furnished evidence, in the shape of pipe sec tions before and after cleaning, that their machine does its work thoroughly and insures maximum carrying capacity in any pipe.

Lead Lined iron Pipe Company had an AI exhibit of lead lined pipe, elbows, pump column pipes, unions, cocks, valves, etc.

Chapman Valve Manufacturing Company exhibited a large variety of valves in all sizes and for all needs. A neat folder contrasted the 1799 wooden valve with the HUM) Chapman model.

Ross Valve Manufacturing Company offered for inspection samples of their product in the form of reducing and regulating valves, feed water filters, relief valves and filter gauges.

Kennedy Valve Manufacturing Company featured their quick-operating lever valve; also displaying types of “Standard” valves with screwed, Hanged and bell ends.

R. D. W ood & Co. presented circulars de scribing their well-known Mathews hydrant and other waterworks supplies manufactured by their company.

Other exhibitors were:

National Lead Company. New York City.— “Leadamant” piping, a lead composition pipe.

New York Lead Wool Company.—Lead fiber product for calking.

Fairbanks Company, New York City.-—Hydrants, valves and scales.

John Simmons Company, New York City.— Seagrave cut-off valve.

Weber Subterranean Rump Company, New York City.

Waterworks Equipment Company, New York City.—Ellis pipe-cutter.

A list of those present, as far as obtainable at the time of going to press, is appended :

Attendance.

Samuel A. Agnew, superintendent. North Seituate, Mass.

Kenneth Allen, Chief Sewerage Commission, New York.

J. M. Anderson, Worcester, Mass.

M. N. Baker, president, Montclair, N. J., Editor “Engineering News.” New York.

Charles H. Baldwin, Boston, Mass.

Arthur F. Ballou, superintendent, Woonsocket, R. I.

Lewis M. Bancroft, superintendent, Reading, Mass.

Frank A. Barbour, C. E., Boston Mass.

Edward Bartow, Diivctor State Water Survey, Urbana, III.

George B. Bassett, C.E., Buffalo, N. Y.

George W. Baichetder, Commissioner, Worcester, Mass.

Edward W. Mentis, superintendent, Cleveland, O.

Fred. D. Berry. secretary, Hartford, Conn.

Charles R. Bettes, engineer, Ear Rockaway, N. Y.

Forrest E. Bisbee. superintendent, Auburn. Me.

Albert Blntivelt, Chicago, Ill.

Charles A. Bogardus. superintendent, Chicopee, M ass.

Ohas. L. Bowker, superintendent, Brunswick, Me.

Wm. W. Brush, Engineer of Distribution. New York City.

James Burnte, superintendent, Blddeford, Me.

T. Carmody, commissioner, Holyoke, Mass.

G. L. Chapin, commissioner, Lincoln. Mass.

.J. H. Child, superintendent, Wallingford, Conn.

Charles 10. Childs, inspector. Somerville, Mass.

Michael F. Collins, superintendent, Lawrence, Mass.

William R. Conard, Burlington, N.

John H. Cook, engineer, Paterson. N. J.

Geo. K. Crandall, engineer. New London, Conn.

George E. Crowell, president, Brattleboro, Vt.

Allan W. Cuddeback, superintendent, Paterson. N. J.

N. J.

Carieton E. Davis, engineer. New York City.

J. M. Diven. superintendent, Charleston, S. C.

John Doyle, Worcester, Mass.

Michael J. Doyle, commissioner, Holyoke, Mass.

W. G. Dryden. superintendent, Montreal. Can.

Ebon RDyer, superintendent. Portland, Me.

Edward D. lOidredge, superintendent. Onset, Mass.

Robert N. Ellis, manager, Jacksonville, Fla.

Alfred D. Flinn, engineer, Yonkers, N. Y.

Richard J. Flinn, M.E., Boston, Mass.

John H. Flynn, Boston. Mass.

A. Prescott Folwell, Editor “Municipal Journal, New York.

Halsey French, engineer, New York.

Stephen DeM. Gage, biologist, Lauwrence. Mass.

Frank J. Gifford, Fall River, Mass,

D. H. Gtldersnn. superintendent, Haverhill, Maar.

Albert 8. Glover, Boston, Mass,

W. B. Goentner, Willow Grove, Pa

James W. Graham, Portland, Me,

Robert J. Harding, superintendent, PnughkiPsic N. Y.

Wm. H. Hart, Bridgeport, Conn,

W. superintendent, llkilistilirg, III

Wm. R. Hill, engineer, Albany, N. Y.

Burt It. Hodgtuan, C.B., New York.

Horace 5. Holden, Nashua, N, H.

Danh lD. Jackson, director of Inborn lorn s, New York.

J. Wm Kay, superintendent, Milford, Mass.

I-. W. Kent, superintendent, Newport, it. I

Willard Kent, manager, Narragansett Ph r, It. I.

Frank c. Kimball, engineer, Boston, Mass.

Georg A. King, superintendent, Taunton. Mass.

F. T. Kemble, New Jtochclle, N. Y.

John J. Kirkpatrick, superintendent, Holyoke, Alass.

Francis H. Luce, superintendent, Woodhaven, N. Y.

J. L. Ludlow, engineer, Wlnston-Sab-m, N. C.

Hugh McLean, commissioner, Holyoke, .Mass,

Henry it. Maclten, engineer, New York.

Wm. M. Marple, engineer, Scranton, Pit.

A. E. Martin, superintendent, Springfield, Mass.

Wm. P. Mason, Troy. N. Y.

It MacDonald, superintendent, Middletown, Como.

George F. Merrill, superintendent, Greenfield, Mass.

Leonard Metcalf, engineer, Boston, Mass.

Harold T. Murphy, engineer, Springfield, Mass.

James A. Newfande, chemist, Middletown, Conn.

Frank L. Northrop, Boston, Mass.

Alexander Urr, superintendent, Oloversvlll, N Y,

John C. Otis. Poughkeepsie, N. Y.

Krmon M. Peek, engineer, Hartford, Conn.

Edward L. Peene. superintendent, Yonkers, N. Y.

Earle B. Phelps, chemist, Boston, Mass.

A. E. Pickup, Holyoke, Mass.

Wm. I Pollard, manager, Pottsville, pa.

Frank L. Rector, chemist, New York.

George S. Rice, engineer, New York.

Percy R. Sanders, superintendent. Concord, N. H.

A. L. Sawyer, Haverhill, Mass.

Samuel V. Senior, engineer. Bridgeport, Conn.

JO, Sheldon, commissioner, Holyoke, Mass.

Melville A. Sinclair, superintendent, Bangor, Me.

J. Waldo Smith, engineer, New York.

Phil S. Smith, superintendent, Montpelier, Vt.

George H. Snell, superintendent, Attleboro, Mux

H. T. Sparks, superintendent. Brewer, Me.

John F. Sprenkel, manager, York, Pa.

George T. Staples, superintendent, Denham, Mass,

George A. Taber, engineer. New York.

Harry I.. Thomas, assistant superintendent, Hlng

ham. Mass.

Robert J. Thomas. superintendent, Lowell, Mass.

Wm. H. Thomas, superintendent. Utngham. Mass.

James L. Tlghc, engineer, Holyoke. Mass.

James A. Tilden, engineer, Hyde Park, Mass,

D. N. Tower, superintendent, Cohasset, Mass.

Louis L. Tribus, engineer. New York.

Arthur 8. Tuttle, engineer. NewYork.

Elliott S. Tucker, commissioner, Wlnchendon, Mass.

John H. Walsh, superintendent, East Hartford, Conti.

John C. Whitney, commissioner, Newton, Mac e

Frederic 1. Winslow, engineer. Boston, Mass.

George E. Winslow. Waltham, Mass.

Irving 8. Wood, engineer, Providence, R. t.

Timothy Woodruff. superintendent, Bridgeton. N. J.

Luther C. Wright, superintendent, Northampton, Mass.

Honorary Members.

Rudolph Herirtg, engineer, Now York.

Erederiik W Shepperd. “Fire and Water Engineering,” New York.

Frederick P. Stearns, engineer, Boston. Mass.

Associates.

George 8. Hedge, Harold L. Bond Co., Boston. Mass.

A. 13. Coulters, Builders’ Iron Foundry, Frovldence, R. I.

Frank Barry, Chapman Valve; Company, Sprint?field, Mass

T. P. Morrissey,Chapman Valve Company,Springfield, Mass.

K. K. Mentser, Blast Jersey Pipe Company, New York.

J’. J. NHKIO, Hays Manufacturing Company, F.rie, Pa.

Cliarles K. Mueller, Hays Manufacturing u’ompany, Brie, Pa.

Win. C. Sherwood, Mersey Manufacturing Company, H. Boston, Mass.

Walter Mersey, Mersey Manufacturing Company,

8.Boston, Mass.

Weldon D. Griffin, Mersey Manufacturing Company, 8. Boston, Mass.

Wm. Martin, Kennedy Valve Company, Elmira, N. Y.

Oscar B. Mueller, II. Mueller Manufacturing CcmpHny, Decatur, Ill

F. B. Mueller, H. Mueller Manufacturing Company, Decatur, 111.

Arthur C. Pilcher, H. Mueller Manufacturing puny. Decatur, III.

F. W. Crulkshank, M. Mueller Manufacturing Company, Decatur, III.

10. W. Auburger, if Mueller Manufacturing Company, Decatur, 111.

W. P Oliver, National Meter Company, New York.

I. G. Lufkin. National Meter Company, New York.

11. L. Weston, National Meter Company, New York.

A. c. Fisher, Glauber Brass Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Ohio.

Samuel Davis, Glauber Brass Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Ohio,

D. M. Buell, National Waver Main Cleaning Company. New York.

II. II. Kinsey, Neptune Meter Company, New York.

Fred A. Smith, Neptune Meter Company, New York.

c, A. Vaughan, Neptune Meter Company. New York.

It. K. Milligan, New York Continental Jewill Filtration Company.

T. C. Clifford, Pittsburg Meter Company, K. Pittsburg, Pa.

V. K. Arnold, Pittsburg Meter Company, lv Pittsburg. Pa.

Charles L. Brown, Rensselaer Manufacturing Company, Troy, N. Y.

William Ross, Ross Valve Manufacturing Company, Troy, N. Y.

Adam Ross. 2d, Ross Manufacturing Company, Troy, N. Y.

Fred. N. Whitcomb, A. P. Smith Manufacturing Company, Newark, N. J.

D. F. O’Brien. A. P. Smith ManuC leCu ht ? Company, Newark, N. J.

J, L. Atwell, Thomson Meter Company, Brooklyn, V. Y.

lid w ard M. Shedd. Thomson Meter Company. Brooklyn, N. Y.

W. L. Oetti, Thomson Meter Company, Brooklyn, N. Y.

S. D. liigloy, Thomson Meter Company, Brooklyn, N. Y.

L C. Anderson. Union Water Meter Company, Worcester, Mass.

F. K. Mali, Union Water Meter Company, Woret-ster, Mass.

Frank W. Nevins, U. S. Cast Iron Pipe & Foundry Company, New York.

Thomus K. Dwyer. Lead Lined Iron Pipe Company. Wakefield, Mass.

J. W. McCormack, Lead Lined Iron Pipe Company, Wakefield. Mass.

Krnest C. Gamon, Gamon Meter Company, Newark. N. J.

Chas. R. Wood, R. D. Wood & Company, Philadelphia, Fa.

William Woodburn, R. D. Wood & Company, Philadelphia, Pa.

Samuel Harrison, H. K. Worthington, New York.

.1, Watson Sims, H. K. Wortliington, New York.

A. M. Braidwood. li. U. Worthington, New York.

F. J. Swenson, H. R. Worthington, New York.

F. J. Smith, H. R. Wortliington, New York.

Ktlward B. Hanson, National Lead Company, Boston, Mass.

H. M. Hein. New York Lead Wool Company.

W. 11. Van Winkle, Jr.. Water Works Equipment Company, New York.

T V. Forster. John Simmons Company. New York.

Charles H. White, Fairbanks Company, New York.

W, O. LeCompte. Jenkins Brothers, Boston, Mass.

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