New Method of Sinking Wells
A recently invented method of sinking wells and constructing the casing and other parts aims to seal the well hole through the ground around the screen to a depth sufficient to assure the maintenance of the well water in pure condition. To accomplish this the cavity in the ground is filled with a material, for example clay, to a depth down into a water impervious stratum in the ground.
Accordingly, the well-screen (17) is sunk in the usual manner, but through a cavity or recess in the ground near the surface and lined with a supplemental water-tight casing (16) surrounding the upper part only of the well-screen, such cavity and outer shell extending a limited distance down into the ground into or through such clay stratum.
During the latter portion of the well-screen driving operation, clay or other suitable, practically water-tight, sealingmaterial is introduced into the space between the top part of the well-screen and the shell and is fed down gradually with the former, additional clay being inserted as required so that when the screen has reached its final position, a wall of such clay or other appropriate material will fill the cavity between the screen and shell and will extent downward from the surface of the earth into or through such clay layer or stratum.
The sinking or downward driving of the well-screen causes the removal of more or less of the fine material, such as sand, surrounding it, and this is progressively replaced by inserting gravel, stones or other relatively coarse material,
which forms substantial voids, thus tending to keep the perforations of the screen from becoming clogged.
The introduction of the clay or other scaling material into the cavity at the top would, unless especial means were provided. prevent the further or continued filling in of such surrounding gravel, but this clay seal or stopper or plug is desirably supplied with one or more upright pipes (22) extended therethrough through which the coarse outer material may be fed down until no further quantity is needed whereupon these pipes or tubes are filled with concrete or other water-proof material whereby the well is effectively sealed or closed against the seepage thereinto of polluted or impure surface water.
In the illustrations Fig. 1 is a vertical, sectional view showing the well partly completed and indicating the well-screen as only part way driven or sunk into the ground; Fig. 2 is a similar view illustrating the completed well; Fig. 3 is a top plan view of the finished well; and hig. 4 is a perspective view of one only of a pair of clay retaining elements used in the driving of the well.
When the screen has been sunk to a depth sir that its further descent will equal approximately the combined thicknesses of two strata 11 and 12, then two substantially semi-circular retainers or closures 21, 21 are fitted around and on opposite sides of the screen and caused to descend with it, the annular space above them being fitted progressively with clay or similar practically water-tight material.
As these members move down with the screen clay or the equivalent material is added so that by the time they reach the bottom of the clay stratum 12, the whole casing 16 around the screen will be tilled with such scaling material.
When the curved parts or members 21, 21 have completed their descent to their final or ultimate positions indicated in Fig. 2, they are anchored against further downward movement by bars or retainers 23 clamped to their upper ends and of sufficient or adequate length^to rest on the surface of the ground surrounding the well as shown in Fig. 3.
After the last charges of such gravel or other coarse material have been introduced into or through the upright pipes or conduits 22. the latter are filled or sealed with concrete or equivalent material to assure them of foul or unclean surface water, which if permitted woutd find access to the water in the well-screen through its perforations or slots.
The undesirable or dangerous surface water cannot find access to the underlying strata in the earth through the clay layer 12 which prevents passage of water through it.
Also due to the presence of the shell 16 it cannot enter the larger aperture at one time forming the top of the well, and it cannot pass down between the inner surface of such outer shell or wall and the upper imperforate portion of the well-screen, because this space is effectively closed or sealed or plugged by the clay stopper or closure between them and the concrete filled pipes.
The process is the invention of William H. Cater, Chicago, I11., whose application for a patent was filed on June 23, 1923, the serial number being 647,264. The patent was granted on December 9, 1924, the number being 1,518.390.
Decatur’s Water Department Profit $4,543 for Past Year The annual report filed by Orval Harruff, city engineer and superintendent of the Decatur, lnd., water department reveals that that department made a net profit of $4,543.59 in 1924, or 2.83 per cent, on the invested capital of $160,208.72. The profit in 1923 was $5,904.46.
Englewood, Col., Council Votes Down Water System Issue—The proposed ordinance authorizing the issuance of $476,000 in bonds to finance a new water works system at Englewood, Col., was voted down by the city council of that place recently after a petition had been presented to the council by a prominent citizen who said it carried 1,160 signatures, representing 7,159 out of 13,500 lots in the city, protesting against the proposed ordinance. Plans for annexing the suburb of Englewood to Denver is now being considered by a special committee of the city council.