NORTHFIELD WATERWORKS SYSTEM
A large portion of this article by F. L Fuller, C. E., Boston, appeared in FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING of June 19. Since that time the accompanying illustrations have been sent, which will be appreciated by the readers of this journal. In order, therefore, to make them all the more valuable, so much of the article as is illustrated by them is reproduced: “The newly completed waterworks system at Northfield, Vt., is a good example of an efficient, modern, and in every way satisfactory municipal equipment for the domestic supply of its inhabitants and the protection of their property. The supply is from springs issuing from elevated hillsides, some of which are more than 1,000 ft. above the town. The watershed of these springs contains only a very sparse population, which is probably decreasing, being the occupants of a few scattered farms. The present supply, which is not entirely developed, is probably sufficient for some years to come, if used through meters, as it unquestionably should be.” The writer, however, points out that it will not be easy for the people, who have been accustomed to the use of water under very wasteful condi tions, to “accept the limitations of the meter system, forgetting that the purchase of waterrights, and collecting, storing, and distributing the water they are using, have involved much expense,” all the more that they are now offered facilities for fire protection and the like in addition to a domestic supply. As the village is largely composed of wooden buildings, liable at any moment to be swept by fire, the advantages accompanying the new system are not only obvious. but are worth paying for—to say nothing of the large reduction in fire insurance rates. The “supply can be further increased by connecting some as yet unused springs, and, possibly, by excavating wells in porous material, provided such can be found in sufficiently large areas and of suitable depth. There are two sets average pressure at seventy-seven hydrants is 130 lbs, per in., so that the system is certainly strong in this respect. The size of the distribution mains, which are of cast iron, is shown on the map. But little 4-in. is used, and only nine out of seventy-seven hydrants are on mains smaller than 6-in. in diameter. These nine hydrants are in the lower part of the village. where the pressttr – is large and the houses are low. All street mains have a cover of 5 ft. 6 ins. The 6-in. supply pipe from the intake to the distribution system is laid through the woods aid has a cover varying from 2½ to 4 ft.: but. as the water is constantly in motion, there is no danger of freezing. The system is well supplied with gates and hydrants, as will be seen by examining the map. Hydrants average about 450 ft. apart. There are 6.6 miles of pipe in the distribution system, and 1.5 miles in the 6-in. Whetstone brook supply line, which connects the former with the intake already mentioned—making a total of 8.1 miles. The total cost of the system was alxmt $84,000.” The nearness of the reservoir to the village (they are only yoo ft. from the distribution system) involves hut little waste pipe, and less frictionloss in the 12-in. main between the reservoir and the point at which a tire may occur. of springs connected with the distribution system. as shown on the map—one. furnishing the larger supply, at the northerly end of the village. Much of this water is furnished direct to the consumers before going to the reservoirs. These springs are all brought together in a covered concrete intake. 6 ft. in diameter, provided with a screen, an overflow pipe, and the necessary valves. It is at an elevation of 72.5 ft. above high-wat r level in the reservoir. This difference in level is sufficient to overcome the friction loss in the 6-in., 8-in., 10-in. and 12in. pipe between the intake and reservoir. The other, or southeasterly system of springs, is piped directly to the reservoirs, as shown on the map. By means of a bypass the water from these springs can flow directly to the village, without entering the reservoirs, or can be allowed to enter either, or both, as may be desired. The reservoirs, as shown on the map, are two in number, placed near each other and at the same elevation. They are about 46.3 ft. internal diameter and 20 ft. deep, having a capacity of about 250.000 gals. each. They are built of concrete, circular in form, and covered with a dome-shaped roof of the same material. The only reinforcing is a steel hand irhbedded in the top of the concrete circular wall to resist the thrust of the roof. These reservoirs can be used separately or in conjunction. Each has a waste, or overflow-pipe, and the waste can he regulated to occur mostly at the intake or reservoirs. as desired. The reservoirs are both built in solid slate rock, which underlies most of the hills in this section. Some of this excavated slate was used in the reservoir walls, forming boulder concrete of an excellent character. The elevation of the reservoirs is greater than is required even for fire-service in the village: hut. to protect the property of Norwich University, which is built on land considerably higher than the village, it was necessary. The
Governor Hughes, of New York State, acting on complaints that have borne no fruit through several State administrations, has begun a thorough probe into the pollution of State rivers and streams by pulp and sulphite mills. As an initial step, he ordered State Commissioner of Health Porter to make an investigation into the complaints that the discharge of acids into the river from the mills at Fort Edward, Glens Falls, and other points in the vicinity constitute a continued nuisance and menace to health. Riparian owners below Fort Edward went before Governor Hughes several weeks ago and declared that the acids from the mills had killed all the fish in the river and made the water unfit , for agricultural or domestic purposes.