OPENING OF METROPOLITAN SYSTEM.
ON the afternoon of New Year’s Day, Gov. Wolcott turned the water into the new pipe line of the Metropolitan water system. The ceremony took place at the Chestnut hill pumping station at Brookline, Mass. There were present the members of the Metropolitan water board, with Engineer Dexter Bracket and Desmond Fitzgerald, superintendent of the western division of the Boston water department Chairman Sprague in his address adverted to the provisions and requirements of the Metropolitan water act of 1895. whereby the Metropolitan board took possession of Chestnut hill reservoir and pumping station, and all the lands, reservoirs, dams, aqueducts, pumps, and ether property hitherto held by the city of Boston westward of Chestnut hill reservoir, for the purpose of supplying and storing water, and of protecting its purity, and also the portion of the Mystic water works situated westward of the main line of water pipes which has been laid under the detection of the Metropolitan water board, continuously, from this pumping station to Spot pond in Stoneham. The property taken is a large one It is situated in the counties of Suffolk, Norfolk, Middlesex, and Worcester. In future the reservoir and dam, which are to be constructed on the south branch of the Nashua river, above Clinton, arc to be known as the Wachusett rcser voir and the Wachusett dam—each is an important work. The reservoir and dam in Southboro, which was begun by the city of Boston, end has now been practically completed by the Metropolitan water board, arc to be known as the Sudbury reservoir and the Sudbury dam. The aqueduct extending from the Nashua river to the Sudbury resetvoir, which is now practically completed, is to be known as the Wachusett aqueduct. The reservoirs in Framingham, formerly known as basin 1, basin 2. and basin 3, are to be known as Framingham reservoir No. t, Framingham reservoir No. 2, and Framingham reservoir No. 3, with the corresponding designation of the dams The reservoir and dam in Ashland, formerly known as basin 4 and dam 4, are to be known as the Ashland reservoir and the Ashland dam. The reservoir and dam in Ilopkinton, formerly known as basin 6 and dam 6 are to be known as the Ilopkinton reservoir and the Ilopkinton dam. The reservoir in Ilopkinton, formerly known as Whitehall pond, is to be known as Whitehall reservoir, and the dam of this reservoir is to be known as Whitehall dam. The other reservoirs, lakes, ponds, and aqueducts will retain their former names. The work was begun two years ago. There remaios to be done about two years’ additional work. A temporary dam has been erected at Clinton,and connection has been nearly completed between the Nashua river and the Wachusett aqueduct. It is, therefore, anticipated that by the tnd of the present month the waters of the Nashua river will be diverted into the aqueduct, and thence conveyed to the Sudbury reservoir. From the Sudbury reservoir they will henceforth be conveyed through existing waters to the Chestnut hill reservoir. By the substantial completion of the Sudbury reservoir the storage of water in that reservoir has been begun, and a largely increased supply will be afforded by means of its great capacity. At present the water distributed is derived from the sources that supply Boston. In two or three months, however, there will be a constantly increasing proportion of the water of the Nashua river coming to the Metropolitan water district. The old pumping engints are being used to pump the water from Chestnut hill reservoir to the various parts of the Metropolitan water district, including the city of Boston; but the spare pumping engines in this station can now be put into service, to be used for the present, in order to provide a water supply for the northern portion of the Metropolitan district, and to pump water to Spot pond, which will be used as a great distributing reservoir in the northern portion of the district, corresponding with Chestnut hill reservoir in the southern portion, except that it is at a level twenty feet higher. The board has already completed main lines of pipe forty-two miles in length, connecting Chestnut hill reservoir with the greater part of the cities and towns of the Metropolitan district. and the maiu lines will be laid to the remainder of the cities and towns as early as possible in the current year. From now on the board will supply water to the cities of Somerville, Chelsea, and Everett, and the Charlestown district of the city of Boston, which are now supplied with water from Mystic lake, as well as to the remainder of the city of Boston. The pumping engines at the Mystic pumping station have been stopped, and Mystic take has been finally abandoned as a source of water supply. Water will now be pumped from Chestnut hill reservoir through the great main pipes which pass through Brookline, a narrow strip of Boston, under the Charles river, and through Cambridge and a part of Somerville toconnections which have been made with the main pipes through which water is supplied to Somerville, Charlestown, Chelsea, and Everett. It is anticipated that water will be supplied to the cities of Malden and Medford within the coming month. The length of the pipe through which the water will be pumped is six miles, and the we’ght of the water to be put in motion is 12,000 tons.
The first piece of actual work on the Metropolitan system was done July 29, 1895. when the borings were begun to determine the character of the river bottom in Clinton. A wooden dam has been built on the Nashua river, at Clinton, which will serve until the proposed stone dam is completed. From there an aqueduct twelve miles long has been built, mostly by cutting through solid rock, to the so-called basin 5 in Southboro. This basin was begun by the water department of the city of Boston, and a year ago was taken by the Metropolitan water commission, when about half done, and completed. From that point the water is carried to Boston through the former mains of the Boston water works. The work which has been thus far completed is the construction of an aqueduct from the Nashua river, in Clinton, to the large reservoir in Southboro, known as basin 5, and the completion of basin 5, which had been begun by the city of Boston for its own use. The aqueduct is twelve miles long, partly covered and partly open. It has a capacity of 300,000,000 gallons daily. It is calculated that the Nashua watershed v. ill yield, even in a series of very dry years, 105.000,000 gallons of water daily; so that, with the 68,000,000 gallons obtainable from the Sudbury and Cochituate systems, the Metropolitan district will have, under the most unfavorable circumstances, a daily supply of 173,000,000 gallons of water—a supply double the capacity of all the sources now utilized for the entire district. The completion of the entire work, as now planned, will take four or five years more. The estimate for the construction of the work is $19,”00,000. The towns and cities within-the Metropolitan district to be supplied by the reservoir are Boston, Cambridge, Lynn, Somerville, Chelsea, Newton.Malden,Waltham, Quincy. Woburn, Brookline, Medford, Everett Hyde Park, Melrose. Watertown, Wakefield, Stoneham, Revere, Arlington, Winchester, Milton, Saugus, Lexington.’Winthrop, Belmont, and Nahant. The water flows by gravity from the Nashua river through the Nashua aqueduct to reservoir No. 5, in Southboro, and thence by gravity through existing reservoirs and works to Chestnut hilt reservoir. The water from the Nashua river can, to a large extent be kept separate from the water of the Sudbury river. The area of the watersheds in square miles is as follows: Nashua, 118.23 square miles; Sudbury, 75 2; Cochituate, 18.87—total, 212.30. The daily capacity can be added to by adding sources in central and western Massachuchusetts, the following totals: After adding Assabet, 201,000,000 gallons; after adding upper Ware, 272,000,000 gallons; after adding Lower Ware and Swift, 472,000 000 gallons; after adding Deerfield, 870,000,000 gallons; after adding Westfield, 990.000,000 gallons. The following are the statistical details of the reservoir and dam to be built upon the Nashua river at Clinton:
Reservoir.—water surface, 4,195 acres; water surface, 6.56 square miles; total contents, 63,068,000,000 gallons; length, 8.41 miles; maximum width, 2.05 miles; total length of shore line, not including islands, 35.40 miles; maximum depth, 129 feet; average depth, 46 feet; length of railroad flooded, 6.56 miles; length of roads flooded, 19.21 miles; inhabitants on land required for reservoir, 1,711; dwellings on land required for reservoir, 224; mills on land required for reservoir, six; schoolhouses for land required for reservoir, six; churches on land required for reservoir, four.
Dam—The dam is to be built of masonry and founded on solid rock. Length across valley at water level, 1,250 feet; maximum height of water above bed of river, 129 feet; maximum height of water above surface of rock, 184 feet; water level, above Boston city base, 395 feet.
Nashua aqueduct.—This includes: (1) Two miles of rock tunnel-conduct lined throughout on the bottom and arche where the tunnel is not sufficiently stable—nearly half of th tunnel requiring arching. The tunnel-conduct where arched is thirteen feet, six inches wide and eleven feet, te inches high; where arched, twelve feet, two inches wide, an ten feet, ten inches high This tunnel-conduct cost about $4 per linear foot. (2) Seven miles of masonry aqueduct built i an excavated trench and covered with earth. The bottom an side walls are built of Rosendale cement concrete masonn lined with brick work. The upper arch is built of Portlan cement concrete masonry. This portion of the aqueduct i eleven feet, six inches wide, and ten feet, six inches high; tb slope is one foot in 2.500. This aqueduct cost about $20 pt linear foot. (3) A seven-arch granite bridge carrying th aqueduct over the Assabet river. This bridge has a tot£ length of 359 feet. The lower part of the aqueduct on th bridge has the same shape as adjacent portions of the aque duct; but the upper part is rectangular and covered with iro beams and brick arches. To insure watertiehtness, an interic lining of lead has been built into the brick work, eight inches back from the inside of the aqueduct. The bridge cost approximately $90,000. (4) Three miles of open channel. This channel is twenty feet wide on the bottom, and has side slopes of three horizontal to one vertical. A minimum depth of about six feet of water will be maintained in it by means of a dam at the lower end, and another dam rather more than half way up the channel. The purpose of these dams is to cause a slow velocity, which wiil not scour the banks, and to avoid trouble with ice in winter. The channel empties into the upper end of one of the branches of reservoir No. 4. The open channel cost about $6 per linear foot.