OYSTERS, MILK, WATER, AND TYPHOID.
The recent death of the Dean of Winchester. England, and others who, with him, ate oysters at a public dinner, and died of typhoid fever, and the outbreaks of the same disease in Brooklyn and Manhattan, New York, from the same cause, have demoralised the oyster trade, and now, if these shellfish are partaken of at all, it is always in a cooked, not in a raw condition. The fault, however, was not in the oyster, but in its environment of sewagepolluted water, and, just so long as it is permitted to defile our rivers with feculent matter from otir sewers, the same risks will be run. The oyster drinks in these waters, often heavily charged with the typhoid bacillus, and thus becomes a vehicle of infection to all those who swallow it in its raw state, the outcome being sickness and death to a number of persons. It is the same with milk, which owes its powers as a typhoid generator to the fact that many of the fanners who sell it use polluted water for washing out their pans and cans, and thereby spread the seeds of disease far and wide, while the epidemic is still further propagated by the milk dealers and others, who. also, for the purpose of adulteration, make use of contaminated water. The recent outbreaks of typhoid fever at Paterson and in certain districts of Manhattan and possibly of Brooklyn, New York, are clearly traceable to the sale of polluted milk—an article of diet in which none but an experienced bacteriologist can detect the disease germs, and not even he unless he has the proper tools. More care for the purity of our watersheds and sources of water supply is, therefore, imperatively demanded, as is, also, an up-to-date system of filtration, which would reduce the pollution from ninety-five to ninety-eight or even ninety-nine per cent.