CONCERNING kitchen boilers, sometimes called hot water tanks, and, technically speaking, it is a better name. A word or two concerning them as at present arranged in the dwelling house. The plumber is called upon to use larger than the usual size pipe connections in order to facilitate a rapid flow of water into and out of the boiler for equally rapid distribution of hot water through the dwelling. It is apparent that the suggestion to the .plumber or by him is the result of experience and investigation. In many instances the object desired is but partially accomplished, and simply because the hot and cold water coupling connections are not equal in size of cross section to those of the pipes connected with them, nor is the down interior copper pipe of the boiler used for continuing the cold stream to the bottom of it made to conform to the size of the exterior pipes.
There is a partial advantage in the larger pipes being used even if they be throttled by the smaller couplings, but it is obvious that if continuity of cross section of areas are the same in the couplings as in the connecting pipes, then friction will be avoided, which is bound to occur in the column of water passing from a large pipe into a smaller coupling connection. Another feature of plumbing practice is that the connections between the “ water back ” of the range and the boiler are frequently too small to admit of a rapid circulation and equally rapid generation of hot water. The larger the better for practice ; they should be twice as large in cross section of area, not twice as large in diameter. It will be apparent to the intelligent plumber that the connections between the boiler and the water back are simply the prolongation of the boiler ; therefore the closer the boiler is to the water back and the larger the connecting pipes the better the practice of the plumber, and the more efficient his work in administration. Concerning circulating pipes between boiler and outlets, their object in construction is often defeated, simply being too small to perform their work effectively. The generating power of the water back is a vexed question to many plumbers. To their minds they frequently express the opinion that the water back is too large or too small. This is a question that is more annoying in particular cases than in general. The chief trouble in this relation is that most complaint is heard, in that house dwellers do not get enough hot water within the time they think they ought to. The answer may be made as follows : Boiler too small for the size of the family, or connections defective with the water back and boiler, or water back too small for size of boiler. Concerning loss of heat energy occasioned by radiation, it can be largely remedied by covering the boiler with felting or any non-conducting substance. This practice is yet to come into general use. It will be found to be a great improvement if applied to house boilers in the matter of saving the heat intact with the water of the boiler. It will also contribute a much desired improvement in the matter of lowering the temperature in kitchens of flats that are not celebrated for an excess of cubic feet of breathing space.