Plumbing Practice.

Plumbing Practice.

CONCERNING kitchen boilers, sometimes called hot water tanks, and, technically speaking, it is a better name. A word or two concerning them as at present arranged in the dwelling house. The plumber is called upon to use larger than the usual size pipe connections in order to facilitate a rapid flow of water into and out of the boiler for equally rapid distribution of hot water through the dwelling. It is apparent that the suggestion to the .plumber or by him is the result of experience and investigation. In many instances the object desired is but partially accomplished, and simply because the hot and cold water coupling connections are not equal in size of cross section to those of the pipes connected with them, nor is the down interior copper pipe of the boiler used for continuing the cold stream to the bottom of it made to conform to the size of the exterior pipes.

There is a partial advantage in the larger pipes being used even if they be throttled by the smaller couplings, but it is obvious that if continuity of cross section of areas are the same in the couplings as in the connecting pipes, then friction will be avoided, which is bound to occur in the column of water passing from a large pipe into a smaller coupling connection. Another feature of plumbing practice is that the connections between the “ water back ” of the range and the boiler are frequently too small to admit of a rapid circulation and equally rapid generation of hot water. The larger the better for practice ; they should be twice as large in cross section of area, not twice as large in diameter. It will be apparent to the intelligent plumber that the connections between the boiler and the water back are simply the prolongation of the boiler ; therefore the closer the boiler is to the water back and the larger the connecting pipes the better the practice of the plumber, and the more efficient his work in administration. Concerning circulating pipes between boiler and outlets, their object in construction is often defeated, simply being too small to perform their work effectively. The generating power of the water back is a vexed question to many plumbers. To their minds they frequently express the opinion that the water back is too large or too small. This is a question that is more annoying in particular cases than in general. The chief trouble in this relation is that most complaint is heard, in that house dwellers do not get enough hot water within the time they think they ought to. The answer may be made as follows : Boiler too small for the size of the family, or connections defective with the water back and boiler, or water back too small for size of boiler. Concerning loss of heat energy occasioned by radiation, it can be largely remedied by covering the boiler with felting or any non-conducting substance. This practice is yet to come into general use. It will be found to be a great improvement if applied to house boilers in the matter of saving the heat intact with the water of the boiler. It will also contribute a much desired improvement in the matter of lowering the temperature in kitchens of flats that are not celebrated for an excess of cubic feet of breathing space.

Plumbing Practice.

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Plumbing Practice.

GREAT care is taken by many plumbers in the adjustment of plumbing apparatus in that the work shall look symmetrical and mechanical in finish. This is proper and desirable, and should be insisted upon. It is often the case, however, that an excellent piece of work in appearance is not as complete in utility as it might have been had a little more pains been taken with a feature of the work often neglected. Why it is that a plumber will run a certain supply pipe to a point of delivery and then throttle it by a flat waterway bibb cock and a flat waterway stop cock is to some minds inconceivable. If it be intended, then there is no further use of writing about it. Still it would be quite as reasonable to have the cross section of the diameter of the pipe equal in area to the area of the stop cock or bibb cock, and the additional cost of the increased size of the pipe could then be avoided. This condition of things is frequently found in plumbing practice ; it does not interfere so seriously in the matter of the size of discharge faucet, the excuse being, the larger the pipe the greater the velocity than in a small pipe. Yet, losing sight of the fact that if such be the case, why not continue the same “ to the end ” of the faucet and get the benefit of the velocity entire? The serious part, however, in the plan is the stop cock controlling the supply to the delivery pipe and discharge cock. Very few plumbers consider what detriment is effected in using a flat waterway stop cock supposed to equal in cross section of area the cross section of the area of the delivery pipe with which it is connected. A few minutes’ consideration will convince the most obtuse plumber that the }4-‘mch and ⅝-inch stop cock with a flat waterway in but few instances possesses the area in cross section equal to ^-inch or ⅝-inch pipe, circular in form. Even if it did, it will be found that diyerting a circular stream to a rectangular stream through the waterway of a stop cock and back again to a circular stream is at the expense of the energy of the velocity of the current of water occasioned by the diversion.

It is but trifling to maintain the relations necessary to reduce friction in moving water through service pipes. To break the current g*nerated by velocity is the thing to avoid, and if it is recognized in plumbing practice, a good step in progressive plumbing will be inaugurated.

Therefore if you would obtain the best results from circular discharge pipes, be they lead, iron or brass, see to it that stop cocks are round waterway, and also the same regarding bibb cocks. It will be found upon close examination of the merits of this feature of plumbing that a great saving will be effected in the matter of frictional resistances, which absorb so much of the energy of the flow of water through distributing pipes in the dwelling and warehouse.