Historical Sketch of the Rise of the Nozzle.—Some Modern Examples.
The following article is designed to exemplify how the nozzle and its powerful streams gradually developed, till, like the Judge and other nozzles, it became the formidable tool it is to-day. The illustrated article shows its value.
The hose nozzle of today, whether the one and onehalf-inch of the chemical hose, or the two and onehalf-inch of the ordinary engine, or the three to four or even five and one-half-inch of the fireboat is as direct a descendant of the old syringe used for extinguishing fires as is the fire engine itself. Its original is found in the apparatus invented by the Greek mechanic, Ctesibius, who lived between 260 and 240 years before the Christian era, and, as Vitruvius writes in the days of Caesar Augustus, invented a machine to “raise water very high,” one feature of which was a tube fixed perpendicularly on the top of an inverted funnel, into which the water was forced by compressed air and discharged through the pipe to a considerable distance. Small movable tubes, of the gooseneck order, were also attached to the steam turbine invented by Hero, of Alexandria, a pupil of Ctesibius. These could be turned rodnd and the water thrown in any direction. The syphons or squirts, mentioned by Pliny the Elder and Pliny the Younger, were movable pipes which could be turned any way and used to put out fires. Of the same sort were the pipes fixed in leathern bags or bottles (somewhat resembling the windbag if the bagpipe) which men carried in the time of fhe Roman emperor Trajan, and, when squeezed, threw a jet of water upon fires and extinguished them. The pipes in all these casts contrived to , pay a double debt—of hose and nozzle, principally the latter—in fact, the modern nozzle was originally the discharge pipe; which evolved itself into the nozzle when hose was first employed. Their use continued through many generations, and, when mounted on wheels, as they were in course of time, and attached to some crude style of hand pump undoubtedly formed an essential part of the primitive fire engine. When these appeared in an improved style, as the De Cans. Duperrier. or Hautsch engines, all of German manufacture and built in the seventeenth century, they were furnished with flexible tubes of hose, which could throw a one-inch stream from forty to eighty feet. There was little improvement for many years, except that the delivery pipe was considerably lengthened and fixed so as to turn horizontally. In the first half of the eighteenth century, a London mechanic of the name of Newsham took out several patents for the improvement of fire engines. The copper pipe or nozzle of the German engines was so improved in conformation as to throw a stream of water at a high velocity to a height of 161 feet. Improvements in nozzles were slow, and followed the introduction of hose. The most noteworthy was that of Bramah, a mechanical engineer of London, who, besides making improvements in the fire engine, in 1802 invented a boss or nozzle hemispherical in shape and perforated with small holes arranged at all angles within 180 degrees of each other, whereby a great degree of saturation was obtained, and a good service effected. With improved hose came improved nozzles, till the present perfection in their manufacture was reached.
THE GLAZIER NOZZLE.
At a fire on the 20th of May last in Youngstown, Ohio, the first real test in that city of the Glazier nozzle was given by the local fire department. The Daily Telegram says: “The stream, as thick as a man’s arm, was carried almost straight into the fifth story of the building, and the force and volume of the current of water was marvelous. Had it not been for the work performed by this piece of equipment, the buildings of the entire square, from Phelps to Hazel street would, it is believed, have been destroyed.” The illustration shows the nozzle in operation at that fire. The St. Louis fire department used a Glazier nozzle last week on a large fire, and Chief Swingley and Assistant Chief Haines made the remark that, if they had not placed it in operation at once, with the exposure of large warehouses adjoining, the chances were they would have had a big conflagration. Being able to place a twoinch stream on the fifth floor without the use of ladders, they were able to confine the fire to the building in which it started. They are highly pleased with the nozzle and have placed orders for several more. Chief Canterbury, of Minneapolis. Minn, thinks it is the best firefighting device on the market He has used it time and again, and, on account oi its construction and simplicity, no repairs have beer necessary in over a year’s use. The introduction of this nozzle .into fire departments and wherever needed for fire protection marks a new era in firefighting. The men in line like it because it does no; lock or leak under any pressure. The appliance is made by Glazier Nozzle and Manufacturing company, 31 South Pennsylvania street, Indianapolis, Ind.