PROCEEDINGS OF AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION
(Special Report to FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING.)
(Continued from Page 360.)
Chester R. MacFarland, Secretary and Superintendent, Water Works, Tampa, Fla., Chairman of Committee on Standard Fittings for Water Meters, reported verbally as follows:
Report of Committee on Standard Fittings For Water Meters.
Two years ago a committee was appointed, of which I have the honor to be Chairman, to revise the standards of meter lengths and meter connections. This committee did considerable correspondence with manufacturers and also themselves during the first part of the year, and at Philadelphia we were enabled to get the manufacturers together. We made a partial report at that time in regard to what we belived was the proper length to be established for these meters. This year before this Convention was in session, the Committee made an effort to reach all of the manufacturers of meters. The manufacturers signified their willingness to meet this Committee here at this time, and we were very fortunate in having nearly all the manufacturers represented at this meeting. While we did not arrive at a standard for all the meters, yet we did arrive at what we believed to be a better standard for smaller sizes. In the opinion of the Committee we believed that it was unnecessary to fix a standard for onehalf inch meters, for five-eight inch meters, or for one and a quarter inch meters, although we found from some manufacturers that there are some of the one and a quarter inch meters used. In going over this matter with the manufacturers, the effort was to find some standard that would not interfere with present conditions cither of the manufacturers or the users of these meters. In fixing these sizes for lengths, which was the first matter to come up and in going over the different lengths, we concluded after deliberation that the length of the five-eighth inch meter from end of spud should he seven and three-eighths inch, but some of the manufacturers objected to this, and one manufacturer believed that it would be necessary to change his pattern to do this. This matter has not been fully investigated, and if it would be necessary for him to change his pattern, then seven and a half inches would probably be the length to be adopted. In the three-quarter inch meter, they universally agreed that nine inches was the proper length. On the one-inch there was an agrement reached on ten inches and three-quarters. Now as to the threads for these meters and couplings, the question was what thread would meet the present conditions. After considering the matter, it was agreed that what was known as the “Briggs Standard Straight Thread” would probably be more nearly universal than anything that we would establish to conform with what is being used. It was the sense of the Committee that Briggs Standard Straight Thread, using the size larger than the size of the meter, for instance, with a three-quarter inch meter, they have to use Briggs One Inch Thread, which is practically what we are using to-day. That is as far as they went into the matter. I will say to you further, gentlemen, that this report that we arc making to-day is only verbal. We hope to have a report fully prepared and have it printed in the Proceedings so that you may all have it for consideration between now and the meeting in New York, when, if there are any objections to the standards that we have suggested, or have used, they can there be discussed and finally acted upon. In regard to the larger meter, the question arose as to whether they should be thread meters, with either male or female connections, or flange connections. We found in discussing the matter with the manufacturers that the larger percentage of the one and a half inch, and the two inch meters that they sell, are sold with female threads, while I think the consensus of opinion of the Committee was that we would prefer to have a standard flange coupling, 2bolt coupling. But it is not the intention of this Committee to interfere with the present conditions any more than possible, but to arrive at some fixed standard on which we can all agree to operate our plants. So that in regard to this I would say to you, gentlemen and members of this Convention, that the intention of the Committee is to proceed further with this matter and prepare a standard set of specifications for these meters, either adopting two different lengths, one for male connections and the other for flange connections. The objection raised by the manufacturers as to the adoption of the flange connections was that in making the flange on a meter they had to make it so heavy that it might be a burden on the producer of the meter. The trouble is that if these flanges are brought up parallel to each other, that you can use a like flange on the meter, but if the meter should be a little out of line you all probably have had experience in regard to the methods of the man who goes out to look after that meter. It is probably near dinner time when he is about to finish, and he does not want to lose any time, so he applies a wrench on the bolt and away goes the flange on the meter, and you have lost the bottom of that meter. Therefore you see the reason for the manufacturers insisting that they think it would be better to use on the one and a half inch and two inch meters a female coupling rather than a finage coupling; but we hope at the next meeting that we will have this report prepared in full and have it published in the Journal, an in the meantime you can all have time to consider our recommendations, and if you have something better to offer, the Committee will be delighted to receive it. In reference to these lengths of the larger meters, we have not changed our recommendations as to these lengths since last year, so that it will be unnecessary for me to go into this further. I am sorry to say that we are not prepared to offer you something for final acceptance or rejection; but I imagine or infer that almost all of you gentlemen who have served on committees of this kind have experienced the difficulty of meeting all the conditions that surround a matter of this kind.
On motion of Mr. Diven, the above report was received and accepted, and the Committee continued until it concludes its work.
The Question Box and topical discussions were now taken up and quite generally discussed, but the press of other business did not permit the entire number of topics listed to be taken up at this time. Those participating in these discussions were Messrs Diven, Chester, Houston, Hodgkins, Connor, E. E. Davis, Patton, Wilcox, Bulkley, Leisen, Renner, Conard, Haddow, Wiles, Parlin, Thomas. Worrell, Haseltine, McDonald, Pollard, Gallagher, Gear. Hersey, Bohmann, Morgan, Watson and others.
Mr. Theodore A. Leisen, Detroit, Mich., announced that the Central States delegates had selected Mr. John Caulfield as their repre sentative on the Nominating Committee.
SEVENTH SESSION—THURSDAY NIGHT.
Albert Blauvelt, Association Manager Western Factory Insurance Association, Chicago, Ill., gave an address on the subject of “City Fire Limits.” illustrated by lantern slides. John D. Kilpatrick, Civil Engineer, New York City, delivered a lantern slide lecture on the subject of “Artesian Wells and Methods of Pumping Them,” which was discussed by Messrs. MacFarland, Moore, Baker, Wells Bulkley, Reimer, Berry and Cole. Paper by John Oliphant, on “Pneumatic Pumping as Applied to Municipal Plants,” illustrated by lantern slides, in the absence of Mr. Oliphant was read by Mr. West.
Burt B. Hodgman, Civil Engineer, New York City, read a paper on “The Life of Cast Iron Pipe,” which was discussed by Mr. Diven and others. Phillip Burgess, Hydraulic Engineer, Columbus, Ohio, read his paper on “Mechanical Analysis of Sand,” which was discussed by Messrs. Hansen, Leopold and Jewell.
On motion of Mr. Hansen, seconded by Mr. Jewell, a committee consisting of Messrs. Burgess, Hazen and George W. Fuller was appointed to consider the revision of standard methods of sand analysis.
Paper on “Air Bound Filters,” was presented by Prof. James M. Caird, Chemist and Bacteriologist, Troy, N. Y.; paper printed in March journal.
In the absence of the author, the paper by Edgar B. Kay, Consulting Engr., Tuscaloosa, Ala., was read by title, and ordered printed, and was discussed by Messrs. Wilcox, Hazen, Burgess, George W. Fuller and William B. Fuller.
W. F. Wilcox, Supt., Ensley, Ala., presented and moved the adoption of the following resolution :
“Resolved: That the Executive Committee be instructed to consider and report upon the advisability of the following: First: That a permanent committee be formed for the purpose of answering questions from Members of the Association covering matters of operation. Second: That these questions may be submitted at any time by letter to the Secretary, and the questions and answers thereto published of the Proceedings of the Association. Third: As to the advisibility of later publishing the questions and answers in pamphlet form to be sold for the benefit of the Association at such time and under such titles as may be later determined.” Motion carried, and the resolution was adopted.
Paper by Nicholas S. Hill, Jr., Consultg. Engr., New York, N. Y., on the subject of “Pipe Distribution Systems, Part 1: A Study of Considerations Affecting the Design of Pipe Distribution Systems,” printed in March Journal. William W. Brush, Dept. Water Supply, Gas and Electricity, New York City, read a paper on “Maintenance of the Water Supply Distribution System of New York City,” which appeared in March Journal. Royal Mattice, of the Local Entertainment Committee, expressed the hope that when the visitors -turned to their respective homes, they would carry with them the fondest recollections of the Queen City and they would come soon again in the future. Paper entitled “True Objects of Water Analysis,” by Frank Leslie Rector, M. D., New York, N. Y., in the absence of the author, was read by Secretary Diven, and ordered to be printed. Secretary Diven suggested that there were a number of topical questions that had not been considered owing to the press of other business, and that if any of those present desired to send in written discussions on the same, they would receive attention. W. F. Wilcox, Supt., Ensley, Ala., read a paper by Dr. Roundtree, on the subject of “First Aid to the Injured,” and it was ordered printed in the Proceedings.
Appreciation of Entertainment.
President Earl remarked that the Convention appreciated the arrangements which had been made in Cincinnati for their entertainment, comfort and pleasure, and Mr. John Caulfield, Honorary Life Member, St. Paul, Minnesota, presented and moved the adoption of the following resolution:
RESOLVED: That the Members of the American Water Works Association in Thirty-fifth Annual Convention assembled, hereby express their hearty appreciation of the bounteous entertainment which has been provided for this Convention, and extend a vote of thanks to the officials of the City of Cincinnati, the Chamber of Commerce, the members of the Entertainment Committees, and especially to the Ladies’ Committee, for the continuous evidences of their magnificicnt hospitality; also to the Press of the City for so ably recording the Proceedings of the Convention in the daily papers, and also to the Technical Press who sent their representatives to this Convention.
The resolution was adopted unanimously by rising vote.
Retiring President Earl returned his acknowledgment to the Members of the Association for the honor that they had conferred upon him in electing him to the Presidency, from the administration of which he was now about to retire. It had been a pleasure to him to serve the Association to the best of his ability and he hoped acceptably.
On motion of Mr. Caulfield the Convention adjourned.
The following local committees had charge of the arrangements for the reception of members and visitors and ladies and their entertainment during their stay in Cincinnati:
Honorary Committee—Hon. Frederick S. Spiegel, Mayor; Hon. Philip Fosdick, Director of Public Service; Hon. John R. Holmes, Director of Public Safety.
General Committee of Arrangements—John W. Hill, chairman; S. G. Pollard, secretary; F. C. Bitgood, vice-chairman; William B. Melish, August Herrmann, Charles H. Anderson, Dawson Blackmore, Thomas Ford, James E. Brady, Carl Dehoney, George W. Cleveland, Royal Mattice, E. B. Amole, J. A. Hiller, Gustav Jarecki, Henry C. Hill, J. W. Ellms, J. J. Conway. H. Resinberg, Newport, Ky.; J. Mason Howk, Covington, Ky.; R. P. Bricker, Shelby, Ohio; Frank S. Krug.
Citizens’ Entertainment Committee—William B. Melish, chairman; S. W. Coffman, treasurer; Carl Dehoney, secretary.
Finance Committee—George W. Cleveland, chairman; E. B. Amole, F. C. Bitgood, Dawson Blackmore, Philip Fosdick, Maurice J. Freiberg, G. W. Galbraith, John W. Hill, Gustav Jarecki, William B. Melish, Royal Mattice, Howard Wurlitzer.
At the Wednesday session of the convention a paper on “Franchises of Public Utilities as They Were and as They Are,” by H. C. Hodgkins, was tread. Following is an abstract of the paper:
FRANCHISES OF PUBLIC UTILITIES AS THEY WERE AND AS THEY ARE
The developing and perfecting of what the real estate man calls modern conveniences, and of those structures necessary for the elmployment of these conveniences which the publicist calls public Utilities, has been so rapid and has become so necessary to every human inhabitation that public utilities and their franchises are receiving the widest publicity and attention as a great economic question. It is the purpose of this paper to consider only such utilities as are ordinarily within the limits of the municipality.
Water works are the oldest of all Municipal Utilities. Water by some means has always been supplied, but it is only since about 1800 that is has been supplied in this country through regular system of piping. According to the Manual of American Water Works of 1890-1891, there were in the United States in 1800, sixteen water works of which one was owned by the public and fifteen by companies. The increase for the next fifty years was slow. In 1850 there were 33 public and 50 private. In 1875 there were 227 public and 195 private. In 1880 there were 293 public and 305 private. In 1890 there were 878 public and 1,159 private. _ In 1897 there were 1,690 public and 1,489 private. In Canada in 1890 there were 59 public and 36 private. In Canada in 1897 there were 109 public and 35 private. Since 1897 the number of works has greatly increased. I would call your attention to the statement that prior to 1880 there were probably not to exceed 700 of what we call Municipal Utilities in existence in this country, and in 1850 only about 120. The question of rights under which these companies operated was not regarded of great importance prior to 1880. The inventions of recent years and the demand for all sorts of conveniences has so increased the utilities that it is essential to the engineer to understand the franchises under which they operate. Distinction should be made between corporate franchises and special franchises. A corporate franchise is the right to exist as a corporation and do the business specified. A special franchise is, for example, the right to enter upon highways, public grounds, etc., and place certain structures thereon. Much confusion has existed as between a contract and a franchise, for the reason that both are frequently embodied in the same ordinance. As stated by Chancellor Kent, a franchise generally contains an implied contract or covenant, but a contract to tender a specific service as, for example, lighting of streets or water for fire protection is not a franchise, although a franchise may be and generally is necessary for carrying out the contract. In Nebraska a contract must provide for purchase after 10 years. In Wyoming a franchise must contain the express condition that the Municipality shall have the privilege of purchasing after 20 years. Pennsylvania and Ontario are the instances where the terms of purchase are explicitly stated and they are so widely divergent that I will give each of them. In Pennsylvania a Municipality may, after 20 years, become the owner of a gas or water company on paying therefor the net cost of erecting and maintaining the same with interest thereon at the rate of 10 per cent, per annum, deducting from said interest all dividends theretofore declared. In Ontario: “The Arbitrators in determining the amount to be paid for such works (gas or water) and property, shall first determine the actual value thereof, having a regard to what the same would cost, if such works should be then constructed, or such property then bought, making due allowance for deterioration, wear and tear and making all other proper allowances, and shall increase the amount so ascertained by 10 per cent, thereof which increased sum the said Arbitrators shall award as the amount to be paid by the corporation to said company. with interest from date of their award.”
Many companies hold that their franchises were exclusive. The New York State Court of Appeals, in the case of the Syracuse Water Company vs. the City of Syracuse,† decided, “a franchise to be exclusive must therefore by given by the terms of the grant, otherwise it is not a resultance from its nature.” This case was carried to the Supreme Court of the United States and by that court was dismissed. Therefore there are probably very few, if any, exclusive franchises, but there arc probably a good many perpetual franchises. The length of contracts for public services has been fixed by the local authorities even where the statutes placed no limitations. _ Some were made for only one year at a time, a great number were made for 20 years and a smaller number for 25 or 30 years. The history of American water works is the most fruitful field for the study of franchises. In granting these franchises it was the custom in many cases for the city to empoly an engineer to lay out the system of pipe distribution, specify the reservoir or stand-pipe and the pumping machinery and prepare the franchise and then call for bids on a hydrant rental basis. In some cases complete detailed specifications were embodied in the contract. The usual custom was to provide a test of fire streams which really measured the capacity of the works. Complete schedules of rates to private consumers were as a rule embodied in these franchises, and as a general rule the right or option to purchase was reserved to the Municipality. As has been shown, time was lightly considered and the limitations that were made were due more to a confusion of terms than to intent to cause demise at specified date. I have due regard for the many able minds that believe that the term of a franchise should be short and definite. Their position is, however, entirely untenable unless they provide for the orphaned property after its right to live and be utilized has terminated. These considerations arc bringing about a change in the manner in which public utilities are regarded. Public service commissions are becoming the rule. The railroad commission of Wisconsin was established in 1905 and two years later was given jurisdiction over all public utilities. The law in the State of New York, establishing two public service commissions, was enacted in 1907, during the administration of Governor Hughes. This law as amended in 1910 is used as an argument in many states for similar laws. The rapid spread of commission_____ vast number of decisions of different commissions reasoning from different view points; the very considerable contribution by engineers on the terms of regulation, valuation and rates has created a mass of literature scattered through pamphlets, society reports, etc. This mass of material has yet to be compiled and made available for the guidance of the interests effected. In 1913 The National Civic Federation published a work entitled “Commission Regulation of Public Utilities.” “A compilation and analysis of the laws of 43 states and of the Federal Government for the regulation by central commissions of railroads and other public utilities.” From this work and an article in the “Annal” by I. L. Sharfman and the statutes of many of the states much following information was obtained. Since 1913 two states have established commissions and seven others have added largely to their statutes. Delaware, Utah and Wyomingt are the only states having no central commissions. New York, Massachusetts and South Carolina have each two commissions and in Massachusetts the telephone and telegraph are under the jurisduction of the Highway Commission. Twenty-four states make express provisions for the valuation of properties of public utilities by the commissions: Arizona, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Washington, West Virginia and Wisconsin. Rates must be just and reasonable. A reasonable average return upon the value of the property actually used in the public service and the necessity of making reservation out of income for surplus and contingencies is generally recognized. Unjust discrimination is almost invariably prohibited. Puplicity in the establishment and change of rates is as a rule required. Authority to fix, establish or prescribe rates and charges is given in 24 states: Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Carolina, (does not apply to Charleston, Marion, Spartanburg, Sumter and Union or the Town of Conway), South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and Wisconsin. Authority to regulate accounts, etc., is given in 27 states: Alabama, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, Indiana, West Virginia and Illinois. Depreciation accounts are mandatory in Ohio and Wisconsin and the commission may require them in Arizona, California and New Jersey. Recent statutes provide for depreciation accounts in Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi, Pennsylvania and Michigan. In 18 states the consent of the commission is necessary to authorize the issue of stock and bonds: Arizona, California, Georgia,_ Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jerescy, New York, Ohio, Texas, Vermont, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana and Pennsylvania. Acertificte of convenience and necessity is required in 20 states before commencing operations under a franchise: Arizona, California, Connecticut, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, South Dakota, Vermont, Wisconsin, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Indeterminate franchises are provided for in Massachusetts and Wisconsin and by recent legislation (according to Sharfman), in Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Perhaps the most explicit, at least the most notable, of the public service commission laws is that of Wisconsin. While franchises in Wisconsin have been made indeterminate, the length of time for which franchises may be ranted in New York does not appear to have ecn changed. A study of the statutes reveals but little tendency toward shortening the duration of franchises but on the contrary a tendency toward prolongation or, as in the case of Wisconsin, of indeterminate franchises. The indeterminate franchise has yet to win its place although, judging from recent legislation, it seems to be growing in favor. So far it is the only answer that has been made to a much vexed question. Many able lawyers have asked, “What are you going to do when your franchise expires?” And when the franchise has expired and even before, competing franchises have been granted with the result that the owners of one have purchased the other, thereby continuing with increased capitalization the previous conditions. In some cases where there was a contract for public service, as in the case of water or electric light, the municipality has constructed works on the theory that the expiration of the contract terminated the franchise and all right to do business thereunder. Neither of these conditions are desirable. Some one said, “Public utilities must be controlled and regulated by government, or must be left to do as they please or must be operated by tthe public.” That they can be left to do as they please no one will contend. That they can be operated by the public is, of course, possible, but public ownership in the great majority of utilities is not here nor is it likelv to be in the near future. Public ownership of water works exists in large and increasing numbers, and ownership of other utilities exists and will very likely increase. As engineers and managers we have to face both conditions. Towns that own their water works will not own any other utility; towns that own police and fire alarm systems will not own other signaling systems; towns that own the electric light plant will not own the gas plant, and towns that own the telephone system will not own the telegraph. The question then is not how shall utilities operated under a franchise be controlled, but rather how shall utilities be controlled whether publicly or privately owned. As a fundamental principle they should each be controlled and operated under the same rules and regulations. It will be argued that publicly owned utilties should not be operated for profit while those privately owned are operated for that express purpose. Everv business will either show a profit or loss and every utility, whether public or private, should be planned to show a balance on the credit side. In other words the maintenance and operation of no utility should be a charge on the general tax budget. Therefore the method of accounting should be the same in either case. Every utility should be charged with the following: Taxes on the same basis as other property. Accident Insurance. Fire Insurance. All damages not covered by insurance. Water, light, heat, telephones, etc. Rental of offices and buildings, whether owned by the city or not, unless they are owned by the utility. Interests on bonds, notes and other liabilities. Legal expenses and services, even though performed by city attorney. Engineering expenses and services, even though performed BY the city’s engineers. Depreciation and sinking fund charges. All utilities using the public streets should be charged, in addition to the repairs they are compelled to make, with an annual tax, depending on the character of the utility, to be paid into a pavement repair fund. Every utility should be credited for every public service rendered, such as: Fire protection. Water for schools, fountains, street sprinkling and sewer flushing.
+ 116 New York, Page 167, October, 1889.
‡ Law passed in 1915 providing for Commission.
Electricity, gas, heat, telephones, etc. Use of poles by other utilities. Transportation of city employees and material not otherwise paid for. All plans for construction of privaately owned utilities should be approved by the city’s engineers or be in accordance with general specifications prepared by the city, and where approval by state officials is required the same rules should apply whether the utility is to be publicly or privately owned. The attitude of the manager or the engineer toward his property should be the same whether public or privately owned. Efficiency in management should be secured in either case and the reward of efficiency should be freely conceded not only to the manager but also to the capital which took the risk and produced the utility. This reward should accrue to the respective owners whether they be a corporation or a municipality. The speaker is aware that this latter proposition will call forth loud protestation, but he would call attention to the fact that from 60 per cent, to 75 per cent, of the population of every city live in rented houses and pay but little or no taxes. If a municipally owned utility is established it is the property owner who takes the risk and stands the loss. Therefore if the utility is a success the property owner should receive the benefit the same as though they were stockholers in a corporation. The proposition that municipally owned utilities should not be operated for profit is a delusion and a snare. The proposition is boldly made that the rates for every municipally owned utility should be fixed on the basis of returning a reasonable profit. If a municipality is to engage in the business of any utility it should be required to first acquire the property of the particular utility then in existence. There may be reasonable exceptions, as in the case contemplated by the New York law, for a city to light its own streets without being required to engage in commercial lighting. Any theory of municipal ownership without acquiring the property of the utility in existence at the time must, if reasoned out to a conclusion, abrogate all rights of regulation or control. On the other hand the denial of the right of government regulation will surely lead to competition by the municipality with resulting waste and disaster. As men interested in water works you will note that in only sixteen states are water works placed under the control of commissions. The reason for this is probably due to the fact that in most, if not all, states water supplies and water works are to some extent under the control of the State Board of Health. In addition the franchises under which water companies operate reserve a large measure of control.to the municipalities. As a rule rates which may be charged for water, as well as hydrant rental, are fixed for a term of years and at the expiration of the term are subject to revision under a new contract. Some writers believe that local control is the proper method and that commission control is wrong in principle, and the much mooted question of local self government as opposed to state control comes to the front. Here again water works afford the best field for investigation, and are the most prolific in argument for each side of the case. Local control has in many cases demonstrated its futility. As the municipality is in fact a party to a contract it can not in fairness be left to interpret and change its terms. Resort must therefore be had to the courts or a commission and for the present the logic of events point to the commission. In the case of the municipally owned utility the management is frequently such that regulation by a state commission has been demonstrated to be desirable. If commission regulation is necessary for companies it is also desirable for the municipality and all utilities whether publicly or privately owned should be subject to the same regulation. It must not be inferred from the rapid spread of commission legislation that the panacea for all franchise troubles has been found. Commissions have yet to demonstrate their practicability and usefulness. Much will depend upon the character and ability of the men composing the commissions.
The trip provided by the city on the Ohio river to visit the pumping station and new filtration plant at California, a suburb of Cincinnati, was a success in every way. The day was fine and the sail most enjoyable, while the luncheon provided on the boat on both trips was most liberal and appetizing. A large number of the visitors climbed the hill and inspected the fine pumping station, equipped with the large engines constructed by R. D. Wood & Co., of Philadelphia. A visit was then paid to the new filtration plant, about one-half mile distant from the pumping station. These improvements will provide ample pumping and filtration facilities for the City of Cincinnati for many years to come. On the return trip a stop was made at the main pumping station.
The reception at the Gibson House on Monday evening by the Water Works Manufacturers’ Association proved a very enjoyable affair, dancing being carried on in the ball room, in which many took part, and light refreshments were served by an efficient corps of attendants belonging to the hotel.
Mr. Royal Mattice, chairman of the Ladies’ Entertainment Committee, proved to be the most ubiquitous and efficient manager the association has seen in many a day.
The sessions of the convention were well attended ; that on Thursday evening, at which John D. Kilpatrick described “Artesian Wells and Methods of Pumping Them,” proved of much interest.
The exhibition of water works appliances was larger than that of last year, but the space allotted to it was not so good. Complaint was made that no special time of the association was set down for inspecting the handsome displays, as most of them were placed in position at considerable expense. More time and space ought to be assigned for this important part of the conventions.
The Water Works Manufacturers’ Association provided automobile rides for the ladies, which were greatly appreciated, and the final dinner of the association at Chester Park on Friday evening proved a most successful and enjoyable affair.
John W. Hill, of Cincinnati, and Commissioner Fosdick gave an interesting display of repartee at the opening meeting of the convention on Tuesday forenoon. Both gentlemen seemed to be in particularly good speaking form and their sallies provided much amusement for the full house that enjoyed them.
The genial John Caulfield, of St. Paul, one of the most popular members of the association, received his election to honorary membership as a great compliment. It was the smallest gift that the association could provide. considering his long and faithful career as an active member.
The association is growing by rapid strides, the Central States and Illinois Water Supply Associations’ members having come into its ranks. It will soon be time for permanent headquarters.
Much interest was taken in the resolution of Morris Sherrerd advocating a return to the old method of electing officers. The resolution was printed in this journal.
The election of Nicholas S. Hill, Jr., as president for the current year meets with general approval. Mr. Hill is not only a qualified parliamentary tactician, but a very successful consulting engineer.
Mr. Earl made a good presiding officer.
The hundreds of FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING displayed at the convention proved too little for the demand for copies.
The next convention, in New York City, next year, promises to be a great success. The Waldorf-Astoria promises to provide room for all at reasonable rates, and the exhibits will be well taken care of.
The program issued for the thirty-fifth convention of the American Water Works Association., at Cincinnati, May 10-14, consisted of twenty-eight pages, including the cover. At the top of each page were the words “Cincinnati Bids You Welcome.” and at the bottom, “We Are Glad You’re Here.”