PROCEEDINGS OF AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION

PROCEEDINGS OF AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION

(Special Report to FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING.)

(Continued from Page 360.)

Chester R. MacFarland, Secretary and Superintendent, Water Works, Tampa, Fla., Chairman of Committee on Standard Fittings for Water Meters, reported verbally as follows:

Report of Committee on Standard Fittings For Water Meters.

Two years ago a committee was appointed, of which I have the honor to be Chairman, to revise the standards of meter lengths and meter connections. This committee did considerable correspondence with manufacturers and also themselves during the first part of the year, and at Philadelphia we were enabled to get the manufacturers together. We made a partial report at that time in regard to what we belived was the proper length to be established for these meters. This year before this Convention was in session, the Committee made an effort to reach all of the manufacturers of meters. The manufacturers signified their willingness to meet this Committee here at this time, and we were very fortunate in having nearly all the manufacturers represented at this meeting. While we did not arrive at a standard for all the meters, yet we did arrive at what we believed to be a better standard for smaller sizes. In the opinion of the Committee we believed that it was unnecessary to fix a standard for onehalf inch meters, for five-eight inch meters, or for one and a quarter inch meters, although we found from some manufacturers that there are some of the one and a quarter inch meters used. In going over this matter with the manufacturers, the effort was to find some standard that would not interfere with present conditions cither of the manufacturers or the users of these meters. In fixing these sizes for lengths, which was the first matter to come up and in going over the different lengths, we concluded after deliberation that the length of the five-eighth inch meter from end of spud should he seven and three-eighths inch, but some of the manufacturers objected to this, and one manufacturer believed that it would be necessary to change his pattern to do this. This matter has not been fully investigated, and if it would be necessary for him to change his pattern, then seven and a half inches would probably be the length to be adopted. In the three-quarter inch meter, they universally agreed that nine inches was the proper length. On the one-inch there was an agrement reached on ten inches and three-quarters. Now as to the threads for these meters and couplings, the question was what thread would meet the present conditions. After considering the matter, it was agreed that what was known as the “Briggs Standard Straight Thread” would probably be more nearly universal than anything that we would establish to conform with what is being used. It was the sense of the Committee that Briggs Standard Straight Thread, using the size larger than the size of the meter, for instance, with a three-quarter inch meter, they have to use Briggs One Inch Thread, which is practically what we are using to-day. That is as far as they went into the matter. I will say to you further, gentlemen, that this report that we arc making to-day is only verbal. We hope to have a report fully prepared and have it printed in the Proceedings so that you may all have it for consideration between now and the meeting in New York, when, if there are any objections to the standards that we have suggested, or have used, they can there be discussed and finally acted upon. In regard to the larger meter, the question arose as to whether they should be thread meters, with either male or female connections, or flange connections. We found in discussing the matter with the manufacturers that the larger percentage of the one and a half inch, and the two inch meters that they sell, are sold with female threads, while I think the consensus of opinion of the Committee was that we would prefer to have a standard flange coupling, 2bolt coupling. But it is not the intention of this Committee to interfere with the present conditions any more than possible, but to arrive at some fixed standard on which we can all agree to operate our plants. So that in regard to this I would say to you, gentlemen and members of this Convention, that the intention of the Committee is to proceed further with this matter and prepare a standard set of specifications for these meters, either adopting two different lengths, one for male connections and the other for flange connections. The objection raised by the manufacturers as to the adoption of the flange connections was that in making the flange on a meter they had to make it so heavy that it might be a burden on the producer of the meter. The trouble is that if these flanges are brought up parallel to each other, that you can use a like flange on the meter, but if the meter should be a little out of line you all probably have had experience in regard to the methods of the man who goes out to look after that meter. It is probably near dinner time when he is about to finish, and he does not want to lose any time, so he applies a wrench on the bolt and away goes the flange on the meter, and you have lost the bottom of that meter. Therefore you see the reason for the manufacturers insisting that they think it would be better to use on the one and a half inch and two inch meters a female coupling rather than a finage coupling; but we hope at the next meeting that we will have this report prepared in full and have it published in the Journal, an in the meantime you can all have time to consider our recommendations, and if you have something better to offer, the Committee will be delighted to receive it. In reference to these lengths of the larger meters, we have not changed our recommendations as to these lengths since last year, so that it will be unnecessary for me to go into this further. I am sorry to say that we are not prepared to offer you something for final acceptance or rejection; but I imagine or infer that almost all of you gentlemen who have served on committees of this kind have experienced the difficulty of meeting all the conditions that surround a matter of this kind.

On motion of Mr. Diven, the above report was received and accepted, and the Committee continued until it concludes its work.

Question Box.

The Question Box and topical discussions were now taken up and quite generally discussed, but the press of other business did not permit the entire number of topics listed to be taken up at this time. Those participating in these discussions were Messrs Diven, Chester, Houston, Hodgkins, Connor, E. E. Davis, Patton, Wilcox, Bulkley, Leisen, Renner, Conard, Haddow, Wiles, Parlin, Thomas. Worrell, Haseltine, McDonald, Pollard, Gallagher, Gear. Hersey, Bohmann, Morgan, Watson and others.

Mr. Theodore A. Leisen, Detroit, Mich., announced that the Central States delegates had selected Mr. John Caulfield as their repre sentative on the Nominating Committee.

SEVENTH SESSION—THURSDAY NIGHT.

Albert Blauvelt, Association Manager Western Factory Insurance Association, Chicago, Ill., gave an address on the subject of “City Fire Limits.” illustrated by lantern slides. John D. Kilpatrick, Civil Engineer, New York City, delivered a lantern slide lecture on the subject of “Artesian Wells and Methods of Pumping Them,” which was discussed by Messrs. MacFarland, Moore, Baker, Wells Bulkley, Reimer, Berry and Cole. Paper by John Oliphant, on “Pneumatic Pumping as Applied to Municipal Plants,” illustrated by lantern slides, in the absence of Mr. Oliphant was read by Mr. West.

FRIDAY.

Burt B. Hodgman, Civil Engineer, New York City, read a paper on “The Life of Cast Iron Pipe,” which was discussed by Mr. Diven and others. Phillip Burgess, Hydraulic Engineer, Columbus, Ohio, read his paper on “Mechanical Analysis of Sand,” which was discussed by Messrs. Hansen, Leopold and Jewell.

On motion of Mr. Hansen, seconded by Mr. Jewell, a committee consisting of Messrs. Burgess, Hazen and George W. Fuller was appointed to consider the revision of standard methods of sand analysis.

Paper on “Air Bound Filters,” was presented by Prof. James M. Caird, Chemist and Bacteriologist, Troy, N. Y.; paper printed in March journal.

In the absence of the author, the paper by Edgar B. Kay, Consulting Engr., Tuscaloosa, Ala., was read by title, and ordered printed, and was discussed by Messrs. Wilcox, Hazen, Burgess, George W. Fuller and William B. Fuller.

W. F. Wilcox, Supt., Ensley, Ala., presented and moved the adoption of the following resolution :

“Resolved: That the Executive Committee be instructed to consider and report upon the advisability of the following: First: That a permanent committee be formed for the purpose of answering questions from Members of the Association covering matters of operation. Second: That these questions may be submitted at any time by letter to the Secretary, and the questions and answers thereto published of the Proceedings of the Association. Third: As to the advisibility of later publishing the questions and answers in pamphlet form to be sold for the benefit of the Association at such time and under such titles as may be later determined.” Motion carried, and the resolution was adopted.

Paper by Nicholas S. Hill, Jr., Consultg. Engr., New York, N. Y., on the subject of “Pipe Distribution Systems, Part 1: A Study of Considerations Affecting the Design of Pipe Distribution Systems,” printed in March Journal. William W. Brush, Dept. Water Supply, Gas and Electricity, New York City, read a paper on “Maintenance of the Water Supply Distribution System of New York City,” which appeared in March Journal. Royal Mattice, of the Local Entertainment Committee, expressed the hope that when the visitors -turned to their respective homes, they would carry with them the fondest recollections of the Queen City and they would come soon again in the future. Paper entitled “True Objects of Water Analysis,” by Frank Leslie Rector, M. D., New York, N. Y., in the absence of the author, was read by Secretary Diven, and ordered to be printed. Secretary Diven suggested that there were a number of topical questions that had not been considered owing to the press of other business, and that if any of those present desired to send in written discussions on the same, they would receive attention. W. F. Wilcox, Supt., Ensley, Ala., read a paper by Dr. Roundtree, on the subject of “First Aid to the Injured,” and it was ordered printed in the Proceedings.

Appreciation of Entertainment.

President Earl remarked that the Convention appreciated the arrangements which had been made in Cincinnati for their entertainment, comfort and pleasure, and Mr. John Caulfield, Honorary Life Member, St. Paul, Minnesota, presented and moved the adoption of the following resolution:

RESOLVED: That the Members of the American Water Works Association in Thirty-fifth Annual Convention assembled, hereby express their hearty appreciation of the bounteous entertainment which has been provided for this Convention, and extend a vote of thanks to the officials of the City of Cincinnati, the Chamber of Commerce, the members of the Entertainment Committees, and especially to the Ladies’ Committee, for the continuous evidences of their magnificicnt hospitality; also to the Press of the City for so ably recording the Proceedings of the Convention in the daily papers, and also to the Technical Press who sent their representatives to this Convention.

The resolution was adopted unanimously by rising vote.

Retiring President Earl returned his acknowledgment to the Members of the Association for the honor that they had conferred upon him in electing him to the Presidency, from the administration of which he was now about to retire. It had been a pleasure to him to serve the Association to the best of his ability and he hoped acceptably.

On motion of Mr. Caulfield the Convention adjourned.

LOCAL COMMITTEES.

The following local committees had charge of the arrangements for the reception of members and visitors and ladies and their entertainment during their stay in Cincinnati:

Honorary Committee—Hon. Frederick S. Spiegel, Mayor; Hon. Philip Fosdick, Director of Public Service; Hon. John R. Holmes, Director of Public Safety.

General Committee of Arrangements—John W. Hill, chairman; S. G. Pollard, secretary; F. C. Bitgood, vice-chairman; William B. Melish, August Herrmann, Charles H. Anderson, Dawson Blackmore, Thomas Ford, James E. Brady, Carl Dehoney, George W. Cleveland, Royal Mattice, E. B. Amole, J. A. Hiller, Gustav Jarecki, Henry C. Hill, J. W. Ellms, J. J. Conway. H. Resinberg, Newport, Ky.; J. Mason Howk, Covington, Ky.; R. P. Bricker, Shelby, Ohio; Frank S. Krug.

Citizens’ Entertainment Committee—William B. Melish, chairman; S. W. Coffman, treasurer; Carl Dehoney, secretary.

Finance Committee—George W. Cleveland, chairman; E. B. Amole, F. C. Bitgood, Dawson Blackmore, Philip Fosdick, Maurice J. Freiberg, G. W. Galbraith, John W. Hill, Gustav Jarecki, William B. Melish, Royal Mattice, Howard Wurlitzer.

At the Wednesday session of the convention a paper on “Franchises of Public Utilities as They Were and as They Are,” by H. C. Hodgkins, was tread. Following is an abstract of the paper:

FRANCHISES OF PUBLIC UTILITIES AS THEY WERE AND AS THEY ARE

The developing and perfecting of what the real estate man calls modern conveniences, and of those structures necessary for the elmployment of these conveniences which the publicist calls public Utilities, has been so rapid and has become so necessary to every human inhabitation that public utilities and their franchises are receiving the widest publicity and attention as a great economic question. It is the purpose of this paper to consider only such utilities as are ordinarily within the limits of the municipality.

Water works are the oldest of all Municipal Utilities. Water by some means has always been supplied, but it is only since about 1800 that is has been supplied in this country through regular system of piping. According to the Manual of American Water Works of 1890-1891, there were in the United States in 1800, sixteen water works of which one was owned by the public and fifteen by companies. The increase for the next fifty years was slow. In 1850 there were 33 public and 50 private. In 1875 there were 227 public and 195 private. In 1880 there were 293 public and 305 private. In 1890 there were 878 public and 1,159 private. _ In 1897 there were 1,690 public and 1,489 private. In Canada in 1890 there were 59 public and 36 private. In Canada in 1897 there were 109 public and 35 private. Since 1897 the number of works has greatly increased. I would call your attention to the statement that prior to 1880 there were probably not to exceed 700 of what we call Municipal Utilities in existence in this country, and in 1850 only about 120. The question of rights under which these companies operated was not regarded of great importance prior to 1880. The inventions of recent years and the demand for all sorts of conveniences has so increased the utilities that it is essential to the engineer to understand the franchises under which they operate. Distinction should be made between corporate franchises and special franchises. A corporate franchise is the right to exist as a corporation and do the business specified. A special franchise is, for example, the right to enter upon highways, public grounds, etc., and place certain structures thereon. Much confusion has existed as between a contract and a franchise, for the reason that both are frequently embodied in the same ordinance. As stated by Chancellor Kent, a franchise generally contains an implied contract or covenant, but a contract to tender a specific service as, for example, lighting of streets or water for fire protection is not a franchise, although a franchise may be and generally is necessary for carrying out the contract. In Nebraska a contract must provide for purchase after 10 years. In Wyoming a franchise must contain the express condition that the Municipality shall have the privilege of purchasing after 20 years. Pennsylvania and Ontario are the instances where the terms of purchase are explicitly stated and they are so widely divergent that I will give each of them. In Pennsylvania a Municipality may, after 20 years, become the owner of a gas or water company on paying therefor the net cost of erecting and maintaining the same with interest thereon at the rate of 10 per cent, per annum, deducting from said interest all dividends theretofore declared. In Ontario: “The Arbitrators in determining the amount to be paid for such works (gas or water) and property, shall first determine the actual value thereof, having a regard to what the same would cost, if such works should be then constructed, or such property then bought, making due allowance for deterioration, wear and tear and making all other proper allowances, and shall increase the amount so ascertained by 10 per cent, thereof which increased sum the said Arbitrators shall award as the amount to be paid by the corporation to said company. with interest from date of their award.”

Many companies hold that their franchises were exclusive. The New York State Court of Appeals, in the case of the Syracuse Water Company vs. the City of Syracuse,† decided, “a franchise to be exclusive must therefore by given by the terms of the grant, otherwise it is not a resultance from its nature.” This case was carried to the Supreme Court of the United States and by that court was dismissed. Therefore there are probably very few, if any, exclusive franchises, but there arc probably a good many perpetual franchises. The length of contracts for public services has been fixed by the local authorities even where the statutes placed no limitations. _ Some were made for only one year at a time, a great number were made for 20 years and a smaller number for 25 or 30 years. The history of American water works is the most fruitful field for the study of franchises. In granting these franchises it was the custom in many cases for the city to empoly an engineer to lay out the system of pipe distribution, specify the reservoir or stand-pipe and the pumping machinery and prepare the franchise and then call for bids on a hydrant rental basis. In some cases complete detailed specifications were embodied in the contract. The usual custom was to provide a test of fire streams which really measured the capacity of the works. Complete schedules of rates to private consumers were as a rule embodied in these franchises, and as a general rule the right or option to purchase was reserved to the Municipality. As has been shown, time was lightly considered and the limitations that were made were due more to a confusion of terms than to intent to cause demise at specified date. I have due regard for the many able minds that believe that the term of a franchise should be short and definite. Their position is, however, entirely untenable unless they provide for the orphaned property after its right to live and be utilized has terminated. These considerations arc bringing about a change in the manner in which public utilities are regarded. Public service commissions are becoming the rule. The railroad commission of Wisconsin was established in 1905 and two years later was given jurisdiction over all public utilities. The law in the State of New York, establishing two public service commissions, was enacted in 1907, during the administration of Governor Hughes. This law as amended in 1910 is used as an argument in many states for similar laws. The rapid spread of commission_____ vast number of decisions of different commissions reasoning from different view points; the very considerable contribution by engineers on the terms of regulation, valuation and rates has created a mass of literature scattered through pamphlets, society reports, etc. This mass of material has yet to be compiled and made available for the guidance of the interests effected. In 1913 The National Civic Federation published a work entitled “Commission Regulation of Public Utilities.” “A compilation and analysis of the laws of 43 states and of the Federal Government for the regulation by central commissions of railroads and other public utilities.” From this work and an article in the “Annal” by I. L. Sharfman and the statutes of many of the states much following information was obtained. Since 1913 two states have established commissions and seven others have added largely to their statutes. Delaware, Utah and Wyomingt are the only states having no central commissions. New York, Massachusetts and South Carolina have each two commissions and in Massachusetts the telephone and telegraph are under the jurisduction of the Highway Commission. Twenty-four states make express provisions for the valuation of properties of public utilities by the commissions: Arizona, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Washington, West Virginia and Wisconsin. Rates must be just and reasonable. A reasonable average return upon the value of the property actually used in the public service and the necessity of making reservation out of income for surplus and contingencies is generally recognized. Unjust discrimination is almost invariably prohibited. Puplicity in the establishment and change of rates is as a rule required. Authority to fix, establish or prescribe rates and charges is given in 24 states: Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Carolina, (does not apply to Charleston, Marion, Spartanburg, Sumter and Union or the Town of Conway), South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and Wisconsin. Authority to regulate accounts, etc., is given in 27 states: Alabama, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, Indiana, West Virginia and Illinois. Depreciation accounts are mandatory in Ohio and Wisconsin and the commission may require them in Arizona, California and New Jersey. Recent statutes provide for depreciation accounts in Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi, Pennsylvania and Michigan. In 18 states the consent of the commission is necessary to authorize the issue of stock and bonds: Arizona, California, Georgia,_ Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jerescy, New York, Ohio, Texas, Vermont, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana and Pennsylvania. Acertificte of convenience and necessity is required in 20 states before commencing operations under a franchise: Arizona, California, Connecticut, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, South Dakota, Vermont, Wisconsin, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Indeterminate franchises are provided for in Massachusetts and Wisconsin and by recent legislation (according to Sharfman), in Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Perhaps the most explicit, at least the most notable, of the public service commission laws is that of Wisconsin. While franchises in Wisconsin have been made indeterminate, the length of time for which franchises may be ranted in New York does not appear to have ecn changed. A study of the statutes reveals but little tendency toward shortening the duration of franchises but on the contrary a tendency toward prolongation or, as in the case of Wisconsin, of indeterminate franchises. The indeterminate franchise has yet to win its place although, judging from recent legislation, it seems to be growing in favor. So far it is the only answer that has been made to a much vexed question. Many able lawyers have asked, “What are you going to do when your franchise expires?” And when the franchise has expired and even before, competing franchises have been granted with the result that the owners of one have purchased the other, thereby continuing with increased capitalization the previous conditions. In some cases where there was a contract for public service, as in the case of water or electric light, the municipality has constructed works on the theory that the expiration of the contract terminated the franchise and all right to do business thereunder. Neither of these conditions are desirable. Some one said, “Public utilities must be controlled and regulated by government, or must be left to do as they please or must be operated by tthe public.” That they can be left to do as they please no one will contend. That they can be operated by the public is, of course, possible, but public ownership in the great majority of utilities is not here nor is it likelv to be in the near future. Public ownership of water works exists in large and increasing numbers, and ownership of other utilities exists and will very likely increase. As engineers and managers we have to face both conditions. Towns that own their water works will not own any other utility; towns that own police and fire alarm systems will not own other signaling systems; towns that own the electric light plant will not own the gas plant, and towns that own the telephone system will not own the telegraph. The question then is not how shall utilities operated under a franchise be controlled, but rather how shall utilities be controlled whether publicly or privately owned. As a fundamental principle they should each be controlled and operated under the same rules and regulations. It will be argued that publicly owned utilties should not be operated for profit while those privately owned are operated for that express purpose. Everv business will either show a profit or loss and every utility, whether public or private, should be planned to show a balance on the credit side. In other words the maintenance and operation of no utility should be a charge on the general tax budget. Therefore the method of accounting should be the same in either case. Every utility should be charged with the following: Taxes on the same basis as other property. Accident Insurance. Fire Insurance. All damages not covered by insurance. Water, light, heat, telephones, etc. Rental of offices and buildings, whether owned by the city or not, unless they are owned by the utility. Interests on bonds, notes and other liabilities. Legal expenses and services, even though performed by city attorney. Engineering expenses and services, even though performed BY the city’s engineers. Depreciation and sinking fund charges. All utilities using the public streets should be charged, in addition to the repairs they are compelled to make, with an annual tax, depending on the character of the utility, to be paid into a pavement repair fund. Every utility should be credited for every public service rendered, such as: Fire protection. Water for schools, fountains, street sprinkling and sewer flushing.

+ 116 New York, Page 167, October, 1889.

‡ Law passed in 1915 providing for Commission.

Electricity, gas, heat, telephones, etc. Use of poles by other utilities. Transportation of city employees and material not otherwise paid for. All plans for construction of privaately owned utilities should be approved by the city’s engineers or be in accordance with general specifications prepared by the city, and where approval by state officials is required the same rules should apply whether the utility is to be publicly or privately owned. The attitude of the manager or the engineer toward his property should be the same whether public or privately owned. Efficiency in management should be secured in either case and the reward of efficiency should be freely conceded not only to the manager but also to the capital which took the risk and produced the utility. This reward should accrue to the respective owners whether they be a corporation or a municipality. The speaker is aware that this latter proposition will call forth loud protestation, but he would call attention to the fact that from 60 per cent, to 75 per cent, of the population of every city live in rented houses and pay but little or no taxes. If a municipally owned utility is established it is the property owner who takes the risk and stands the loss. Therefore if the utility is a success the property owner should receive the benefit the same as though they were stockholers in a corporation. The proposition that municipally owned utilities should not be operated for profit is a delusion and a snare. The proposition is boldly made that the rates for every municipally owned utility should be fixed on the basis of returning a reasonable profit. If a municipality is to engage in the business of any utility it should be required to first acquire the property of the particular utility then in existence. There may be reasonable exceptions, as in the case contemplated by the New York law, for a city to light its own streets without being required to engage in commercial lighting. Any theory of municipal ownership without acquiring the property of the utility in existence at the time must, if reasoned out to a conclusion, abrogate all rights of regulation or control. On the other hand the denial of the right of government regulation will surely lead to competition by the municipality with resulting waste and disaster. As men interested in water works you will note that in only sixteen states are water works placed under the control of commissions. The reason for this is probably due to the fact that in most, if not all, states water supplies and water works are to some extent under the control of the State Board of Health. In addition the franchises under which water companies operate reserve a large measure of control.to the municipalities. As a rule rates which may be charged for water, as well as hydrant rental, are fixed for a term of years and at the expiration of the term are subject to revision under a new contract. Some writers believe that local control is the proper method and that commission control is wrong in principle, and the much mooted question of local self government as opposed to state control comes to the front. Here again water works afford the best field for investigation, and are the most prolific in argument for each side of the case. Local control has in many cases demonstrated its futility. As the municipality is in fact a party to a contract it can not in fairness be left to interpret and change its terms. Resort must therefore be had to the courts or a commission and for the present the logic of events point to the commission. In the case of the municipally owned utility the management is frequently such that regulation by a state commission has been demonstrated to be desirable. If commission regulation is necessary for companies it is also desirable for the municipality and all utilities whether publicly or privately owned should be subject to the same regulation. It must not be inferred from the rapid spread of commission legislation that the panacea for all franchise troubles has been found. Commissions have yet to demonstrate their practicability and usefulness. Much will depend upon the character and ability of the men composing the commissions.

CONVENTION NOTES.

The trip provided by the city on the Ohio river to visit the pumping station and new filtration plant at California, a suburb of Cincinnati, was a success in every way. The day was fine and the sail most enjoyable, while the luncheon provided on the boat on both trips was most liberal and appetizing. A large number of the visitors climbed the hill and inspected the fine pumping station, equipped with the large engines constructed by R. D. Wood & Co., of Philadelphia. A visit was then paid to the new filtration plant, about one-half mile distant from the pumping station. These improvements will provide ample pumping and filtration facilities for the City of Cincinnati for many years to come. On the return trip a stop was made at the main pumping station.

The reception at the Gibson House on Monday evening by the Water Works Manufacturers’ Association proved a very enjoyable affair, dancing being carried on in the ball room, in which many took part, and light refreshments were served by an efficient corps of attendants belonging to the hotel.

Mr. Royal Mattice, chairman of the Ladies’ Entertainment Committee, proved to be the most ubiquitous and efficient manager the association has seen in many a day.

The sessions of the convention were well attended ; that on Thursday evening, at which John D. Kilpatrick described “Artesian Wells and Methods of Pumping Them,” proved of much interest.

The exhibition of water works appliances was larger than that of last year, but the space allotted to it was not so good. Complaint was made that no special time of the association was set down for inspecting the handsome displays, as most of them were placed in position at considerable expense. More time and space ought to be assigned for this important part of the conventions.

The Water Works Manufacturers’ Association provided automobile rides for the ladies, which were greatly appreciated, and the final dinner of the association at Chester Park on Friday evening proved a most successful and enjoyable affair.

John W. Hill, of Cincinnati, and Commissioner Fosdick gave an interesting display of repartee at the opening meeting of the convention on Tuesday forenoon. Both gentlemen seemed to be in particularly good speaking form and their sallies provided much amusement for the full house that enjoyed them.

The genial John Caulfield, of St. Paul, one of the most popular members of the association, received his election to honorary membership as a great compliment. It was the smallest gift that the association could provide. considering his long and faithful career as an active member.

The association is growing by rapid strides, the Central States and Illinois Water Supply Associations’ members having come into its ranks. It will soon be time for permanent headquarters.

Much interest was taken in the resolution of Morris Sherrerd advocating a return to the old method of electing officers. The resolution was printed in this journal.

The election of Nicholas S. Hill, Jr., as president for the current year meets with general approval. Mr. Hill is not only a qualified parliamentary tactician, but a very successful consulting engineer.

Mr. Earl made a good presiding officer.

The hundreds of FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING displayed at the convention proved too little for the demand for copies.

The next convention, in New York City, next year, promises to be a great success. The Waldorf-Astoria promises to provide room for all at reasonable rates, and the exhibits will be well taken care of.

The program issued for the thirty-fifth convention of the American Water Works Association., at Cincinnati, May 10-14, consisted of twenty-eight pages, including the cover. At the top of each page were the words “Cincinnati Bids You Welcome.” and at the bottom, “We Are Glad You’re Here.”

PROCEEDINGS OF AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION

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PROCEEDINGS OF AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION

(Special Report to FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING.)

(Continued from Page 344.)

The secretary presented the report of the Board to canvass the results of the election of officers atid the president announced officially their election as follows: President, Nicholas S. Hill, Jr.; vice-president, Leonard Metcalf; treasurer, James M. Caird; trustees, Carleton E. Davis and C. H. Rust. The report of Secretary Diven on membership showed a total of 1,147, which includes 69 new members of the Illinois Water Supply Association. The secretary stated that the change in the Constitution by which delinquent members are now carried for a less time than formerly had had an effect in causing more members to be dropped during the ast year than had ordinarily been the case, antes W. Caird, Troy, N. Y., submitted his report as treasurer, which showed a balance on hand of $4,268.15.

Secretary Diven announced that the Central States Water Works Association had presented to the Executive Committee their petition to be formed into a Section of the American Water Works Association, presenting also their constitution which had been approved by the Executive Committee and accepted. It was the expectation that the acceptance of this new Section would make one hundred additional members. This announcement was received with applause. The following papers were read: Paper by Edward Bartow, Director State Water Survey, Illinois University, Urbana, Ill., “Observations of Some European Water Purification and Sewage Disposal Plants,” illustrated by lantern slides, which was printed in the March Journal; paper by D. F. Fulton, on “The Yonkers Water Supply and Its Future Development.” This paper was printed in the March Journal. It was discussed by Edward Wegman, Con. Engr., Yonkers, N. Y. Paper by Langdon Pearse, Chicago, Ill., on “The Rapid Filter Plant at Evanston, Ill.;” printed in March Journal; paper by Louis L. Tribus, C. E., New York City, on “Water Supply Treatment at Council Grove, Kansas.” Printed in March Journal. Discussed by Charles W. Saxe, Chemist Filtration Plant, Waco, Texas. John W. Hill, Con. Engr., Cincinnati, O., gave interesting remarks under the title of “History of Cincinnati Water Works,” paper printed in March Journal. Paper by John W. Alvord C. E., Chicago, Ill., “The Appellate Court of the State of New York and the Question of Allowance for Paving Over Mains in Valuation Work.” Discussed by Messrs. Luce, Cappelen, Hodgkins. Howe, Salomon, Knowles, Chester, Wegman, Ledoux, Salmon and Gear.

Paper, illustrated by lantern slides, by Daniel D. Jackson, Sanitary Expert, New York, N. Y., on “The Softening of Water by Filtration Through Artificial Zeolite Gravel.” Discussed by Messrs. Wegman, Bartow, Ellms and others; address by Joseph W. Ellms, in charge of Engineering Laboratory and Experimental Tests, Cincinnati Water Works, on the subject of “The Cincinnati Water Works,” illustrated by lantern slides.

WEDNESDAY.

Theodore A. Leisen. General Superintendent Board of Water Commissioners, Detriot. Mich., Chairman Committee on Prevention of Stream and Lake Pollution, presented an informal report, in part as follows: “As probably a great many of you know, considerable work has been done along the line that this Committee has been carrying on, on the boundary waters between Canada and the United States, through the work of the International Boundaries’ Commission; and that work is being productive of very good results in the line of suggestions and advice, although possibly not yet in the direction of actually accomplishing anything as a completed fact. Efforts along the same line are being directed to the Ohio River from Cincinnati to Louisville. No reports of that work have yet been issued. It was hoped that we would have some data to go on during the course of the present year. I might say in passing

that the efforts along the international boundary line, in my estimation, ought to be followed up just as strongly, or even more so, on our own rivers throughout the whole coun. try where those rivers of necessity carry the sewage of certain cities and municipalities further down take their supplies for drinking water from the same river. I think that embodies in a very concise way about all that the Committee can report at this time. It is a subject that I feel ought to be followed up by this Association, and the Association through the medium of a Committee ought to get in very close touch with the situation. It is hoped that by next year a report of considerable value may be presented to the Association. There is one other effort that individually has been made, and that is, to get the steamers or vessels along tne Lake routes where the travel is excessively heavy to take some steps toward keeping the sewage on the boats and to be discharged only at certain points where the damage to water supplies will be minimized. In addition to that an effort is being made—and I might say with possibly some success—to get the steamer companies to come to a realization of the fact that it would be desirable on their part to treat that sewage in some manner, even though it may be crudely done, before it is discharged at any point into the lakes or rivers along the boundary line. That is an effort we are making at Detroit at the present time, and as I said, it seems to have met with some degree of success in the promises obtained from the navigation companies looking to the fulfillment of work along that line.

Paper by Bernard M. Wagner, Asst. Engr. Dept., Construction, Dept., Water Supply, Brooklyn, N. Y., on “The Acquisition of Private Water Plants by Municipalities,” printed in March Journal. Discussed by Messrs. Wegmann, John M. Diven and William H. Henby.

H. E. Keeler, Chicago, Ill., Chairman Finance Committee, presented the report of the Committee, which was referred to the Executive Committee; viz:

Report of Finance Committee.

Your Finance Committee beg to report that it has examined and audited the books of the Treasurer and Secretary and find them well and accurately kept. Your Committee further finds from the certificate of the President of the Bank, where the funds of the Association are kept, that the balance shown to be on hand by the Treasurer’s report at close of the year ending March 31st, 1915, is on deposit to the credit of the Association, and that all bills presented and certified for the year have been paid. Authority has been given your Finance Committee, by the Executive Committee, to invest any surplus funds that, in its judgment, can be properly set aside in Municipal or State Bonds and a beginning will be at once made to create a reserve fund in the hope that the Association may, in due time, have something to fall back upon in case of emergencies or unforseen necessities. Your Committee recommends that in the future all disbursements be governed entirely by funds appropriated for the various activities of the Association’s work, and beg to submit the following for the year, beginning April 1st, 1915. There should be, and there is hereby appropriated out of any funds in the Treasury of the Association: For Convention purposes. $550; for office and postage purposes, $650; for election purposes, $75; for committee purposes. $200; for section purposes. $500; for office equipment, $50; for insurance, $50; for rents, $150; for salaries of Secretary and Editor. $1,500; for printing, distribution and all other charges incurred in publishing the Assn. Journal, except salary of Editor, $5,000; contingent expenses, $500; total, $9,225. Moneys hereby appropriated shall not be transferred from one fund to another fund, and no indebtedness shall be incurred beyond the appropriation herein named for any particular purpose. Your

Committee, judging from past experience, believe that amounts herein recommended are adequate, and within the resources of the Association.

Respectfully submitted,

H. E. KEELER.

HOWARD DILL,

H. B. MORGAN, Committee.

H. C. Hodgkins, C. E., Syracuse, N. Y., gave his paper on “Franchises of Public Utilities, As They Were and As They Are.”

Leonard Metcalf, Consulting Engr., Boston, Mass., Chairman, Committee on Depreciation, presented verbally the report, as follows:

Report of Committee on Depreciation

“Mr. President and Gentlemen, it has seemed wiser to the Committee on depreciation not to attempt at this time to make a final report to the Association, but merely report progress. You are many of you doubtless aware that the treatment of depreciation is very much up in the air at the present time. The question is being studied from various points of view by various associations, and particularly at the present time by a Committee of the American Railway Association, which has been in conference with the Interstate Commerce Commission Engineer Corps. The subject is also under active discussion at the present time by a Committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers on the Valuation of Public Utilities; and in view of this situation it has seemed wiser that the Committee should not report in a way which may lead to action by this Society until these bodies which now have the matter under consideration outline for mally the methods which would be pursued. There is another phase of the question which has a bearing upon the matter, namely, the practices of the various Commissions more particularly with reference to the allowance which shall be made annually for depreciation through the agency of the rates; therefore, it has seemed to your Committee wiser to postpone until these other reports shall have been published, and then to outline to the Association the difference between the Water Works problems and the Railway problem particularly and its effect upon the method of treatment of the transportation question, which may be adopted. In that connection it is perhaps interesting to say that those members of the American Society of Civil Engineers Committee on Public Utilities, who have had to do more particularly with Water Works and like utilities, have been very much struck by the presentation made by the American Railway Association Transportation Committee of the difference in the desirable treatment as to this question of allowance for depreciation as viewed with respect to the Railway problem as compared with the Water Works problem. In other words, in the case of a very large property such as railway property, covering a great many different classes of property, and covering a wide territory, it is much more rational as it now seems to us to treat the allowance for depreciation as a purely maintenance problem; whereas in the case of Water Works, in which a very large percentage of its property is long lived, as in the case with cast iron pipe for instance, to adopt that sort of policy would when the life of the cast iron pipe had been reached, whatever that life may be, throw a serious temporary burden upon the community; whereas wise foresight would do away with the burden absolutely. For these reasons, your Committee has no formal report to make at this time, although all of its members have taken an active interest in the subject during the past twelve months, and suggest that it would be desirable for the Association to have a Standing Committee on Depreciation.”

Without objection, the report of the Committee was received, and the Committee continued.

Charles P. Hoover, Chemist Filtration Plant, Columbus, Ohio, presented his paper on “The Manufacture of Alum at the Columbus Softening and Purification Works.” Discussed by Messrs. Caird, Hawkcs, Dalton, Burgess and others, who asked questions without announcing their names.

The special order of the selection of the next Convention city was now taken up and representatives present from cities extending invitation were heard, viz: John R. Young, Manager Convention Bureau, Merchants Association; Frank L. Wilcox, C. E., St. Louis. Mo.; E. E. Wall, Water Commissioner. St. Louis, Mo.; Theodore A. Leisen. Board of Water Commissioners, Detroit. Mich.; E. E. Davis, Supt. Water Works, Richmond, Va.; J. Waldo Smith. Chief Engr. Board of Water Supplies, New York City; Justin A. Runyan, Secy. Convention Bureau, St. Louis, Mo.; Messrs. Ackerman, Auburn, New York; Reimer, East Orange. N. J.; Wilcox, Birmingham, Ala., and Maury, Chicago, Ill., were appointed by the Chair as tellers of election; the results of the ballot for the next conven tion city being as follows: Total number

of votes cast, two hundred and seventy-three; of which New York received one hundred and forty-two votes; St. Louis, ninety-four; Detroit; thirty-three; Richmond, three, and Erie, Pa., one. The Chair announced that New York City had been selected as the Convention city for 1916.

Morris R. Sherrerd, Chief Engineer, Street and Water Commission, Newark, N. J., moved the adoption of the following resolution:

WHEREAS: The operation and management of water plants are, or should be conducted in the interest of their stockholders, which stockholders in the case of a municipally owned plant are the water takers or inhabitants of such municipality, and

WHEREAS: The accounting methods prescribed by most, if not all of the Public Utilities Commissions of the various state? require the charging of both sinking fund and depreciation against operation, and

WHEREAS: When the income from such plant is sufficient to provide for both sinking fund and depreciation, revenue which might otherwise justify a reduction of water rates is by this method excluded from consideration in the making of such rates, and

WHEREAS: It is not obligatory for private Water Companies to provide sinking funds for their bond issues, and earnings in excess of depreciation are distributed by them as dividends, and

WHEREAS: This method tends to place a municipally owned plant at a disadvantage and prevents its stockholders from getting their dividends in a reduction of rates.

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED: That it is the sense of the American Water Works Association, in convention assembled, that the attention of the Public Utilities Commissions of the various states be called to the inequalities resulting therefrom, and that they be requested to modify their requirements re garding this feature of accounting.

AND BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED: That the Secretary is hereby instructed to forward a copy of this resolution to the various Public Utilities Commissions throughout the country.

On motion, consideration and action upon the above resolution was postponed until Thursday morning.

Paper by Carl P. Birkenbine, Hydraulic Engineer, Philadelphia, Pa., on “Variations in Precipitation as Affecting Water Works Engineering,” was considered as read.

THURSDAY.

This day was especially designated on the Program as “Superintendent’s Day,” but owing to the fact that some business that had not been taken up at previous sessions was carried over, it was impossible at this time to fully discuss all of the matters tha’ it was desired to take up under the head of “Superintendent’s Day.” Scotland C. Highland, Secretary and Superintendent of the Water Works, Clarksburg, West Va., Chairman of the Committee on Plumbing Code and Control of Plumbers, presented the report of the Committee in the form of a paper under the title of the Committee’s designation. Paper was discussed by Messrs. Houston, Reimer. Folwell, Chester. Leisen, Connor, Morgan, Hodgkins, Souder, Wilcox, Herron, Hornung and Wills.

D. A. Reed. Manager, Water and Light Dept., Duluth, Minn., gave a paper on “Assessing Cost of Extensions in a MunicipallyOwned Plant.”

The proposed amendments to the Constitution which had been presented for consideration at a previous Session, were taken up for consideration. After an extended discussion participated in quite generally by those present as to the relative merits of the proposed amendments and the substitute? recommended by the Executive Committee a vote was taken on the adoption of the amendment to Article VI, Sections 3 and 4, as proposed by Messrs. Sherrerd, Halpin. Milne, Ackerman, Cappelin and Davis, and the same was adopted. President Earl announced that pursuant to the provisions of the amendment just adopted, the election of the Nominating Committee would take place at five o’clock in the afternoon, and be made a special order for that hour. Representatives from (1) The New England States, (2) The Middle States, (3) The Southern States (4) The Central States, (5) the remainder of the United States and all territory outside of the United States, were requested to caucus after the close of the morning session and elect their respective representatives on the Nominating Committee so as to be prepared to report the result at five o’clock P. M.

Morris R. Sherrerd, Newark, N. J., was recognized by the Chair and moved the adoption of a resolution heretofore presented by him with reference to certain methods prescribed by Public Utilities Commissions whereby it is not obligatory for private water companies to provide sinking funds for their bond issues and earnings in excess of depreciation, etc. etc., and after some discussion by various members, Mr. Chester proposed a modification in the wording of the resolution which Mr. Sherrerd declined to accept but offered as a substitute for his previous resolution the following:

“WHEREAS, the operation and management of water plants are, or should be conducted in the interest of their stockholders, which stockholders in the case of a municipally owned plant, are the water takers or inhabitants of such municipality, and

WHEREAS, the accounting methods prescribed for public utilities by most, if not all of the Public Utilities Commissions of the various states require the charging of both sinking fund and depreciation against operation, and

WHEREAS, when the income from such utility is sufficient to provide for both sinking fund and depreciation revenue which might otherwise justify a reduction of water rates, is by this method excluded from consideration in the making of such rates, and

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, that it is the sense of the American Water Works Association, in Convention assembled, that the attention of the Public Utilities Commissions of the various states be called to the inequalities resulting therefrom, and that they be requested to modify their requirements regarding this feature of accounting.

AND BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the Secretary is hereby instructed tc forward a copy of this resolution to the various Public Utilities Commissions through, out the country.”

A vote being taken on the substitute above resulted, ayes twenty-three, nays, thirty-six and the substitute resolution was not agreed to. On motion of Mr. Hodgkins, Syracuse, N. Y., the substantive matter covered by the resolution was referred to the Executive Committee for consideration and report at the next Convention.

The paper read by Mr. Reed on “Assessing Cost of Extensions in a Municipally Owned Plant,” was discussed by Messrs. Wills, Wiles, Diven, Milne, Reimer, Luscombe, Leisen, Earl, Hersey and Kimball. The paper submitted by Jacob Klein, on the subject “How to Determine the Size of Tap and Meter.” was discussed by Messrs. Diven and Luscombe. Paper by W. E. Haseltine, Manager Ripon Light and Water Company, Ripon. Wis.. was read entitled, “A Mercury Column Alarm for Standpipe.”

C. W. Wiles, Delaware, Ohio, read his paper on “Water from Gravel Wells,” which was discussed by Messrs. Haddow, Haseltine, Moore, Hodgkins and others. Ernest B. Black. Consulting Engr., Kansas City, Mo., read his paper on “Difficulties in the Designing and Operation of Medium Size Water Works Systems.”

CHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL SECTION.

The first session of the meeting of the Chemical and Bacteriological Section, held on Thursday morning, was called to order by Mr. W. F. Monfort, St. Louis, Mo. The minutes were approved as read. Francis F. Longlcy, New York, N. Y., presented a paper on “Present Status of Disinfection of Water Supplies,” which was discussed by Messrs. Jennings, Jewell, Litch, Letton, Sackett, Kienle and Curry. The paper by Wilson F. Monfort, consulting chemist, St. Louis, Mo., printed in the A. W. W. A. March Journal, under the title “Dry Feed of Chemicals in Water Purification,” was discussed by Messrs. Monfort and Ellms. Paper by Edward Bartow, Director State Water Survey, Illinois University, Urbana, Ills, (printed in March Journal), was discussed by Mr. Stovcl. Paper by Wilson F. Monfort, consulting chemist, St. Louis, Mo, on “Bacteriological Standard for Drinking Water.” Discussion of this paper was deferred for the present. Dr. W. H. Frost, surgeon in charge U. S. Public Health Service, Cincinnati, Ohio, gave a paper entitled “Some Considerations in Estimating the Sanitarv Safety of Water Supplies,” which was discussed later. The paper by Dr. Frost was now discussed by Messrs. Stovcl, Jewell, Worthen, Bartow, Hoover, Taylor, Burgess, Orchard, Curry, De Berard and Hansen. . Edward Bartow, Director State Water Survey, Urbana, Ills., read his paper on “Arsenic in Filter Alum,” which was discussed by Messrs. Caird, Jennings, Kimberley and Burgess. The paper by Shepcrd T. Powell, resident chemist, Baltimore County Water & Electric Co., Baltimore, Md., on “Effect of Algae on Bicarbonates in Shallow Reservoirs,” in the absence of the author, was read by the secretary.

Edward Bartow was nominated for member of Executive Committee. Dr. Bartow said: “I will have to decline. I don’t believe you ought to consider me for any office at all. I will do all I can; I have been trying to do it, and I hope you won’t put me on for any office.” Mr. Hansen, Dr. W. H. Frost and Mr. C. P. Hoover, Columbus, Ohio, were nominated and the secretary instructed to cast a ballot for the election of the three nominees, which was done, and their election announced by the Chair.

THE EXHIBITS.

The number of exhibitors at the convention exceeded that of any previous convention, there being in all sitxy-four companies having displays.

AUis-Chalmers Co. This well-known pump manufacturing company bad on display attractive literature, also large posters giving details of the Aliis-Chalmers product.

American Bitumastic Enamels Company. This company showed sections of pipe and metal plates coated with bitumastic enamel, some of which had been in service for many years. It also displayed photographs of metal dry docks which were in service over twenty years, but evidencing no signs of deterioration due to air or water. Among the more prominent products to which bitumastic enamel has been applied are the dry dock “Dewey,” which was built in Maryland and towed to Manila, P. I., with coating still in excellent condition; Gatun upper locks of the Panama Canal, where 3,200,000 square feet of surface are. protected by bitumastic enamel. The material is used to a great extent by water works for protecting steel pipe lines and stand pipes.

American Valve and Meter Company. The part of this display which attracted most attention was an assortment of Crescent water meters, including various sizes of frost proof disc, split case and duplex piston meters. It also had on exhibition a device whereby water tank attachment for filling railway engines could be attached directly to a high pressure water main without the aid of tank or float valves. It is so arranged that the supply can be shut off during various intervals of time, thereby eliminating water hammer.

Anderson & White. The Iowa Patent Fire Hydrants and Valves were exhibited by this company. The Iowa Hydrant is one of the Corey type, constructed of high grade material throughout. The working parts are of bronze and can be removed through the top of the hydrant for repairs. The valves which were exhibited were especially designed for water works use. Anderson & White are Eastern agents for the Iowa Valve Company, located at Oskaloosa.

Badger Meter Manufacturing Co. The display of Badger Meters attracted considerable attention. It consisted of different sizes of disc meters, frost proof meters, turbine meters, and turbine compound meters. The turbine compound is the latest product of the company, and is so constructed that it records large as well as very small flows. Nearly 4,000 Badger Meters are in service in Milwaukee alone.

Birch Valve & Manufacturing Co. Included in this exhibit were valves and valve seats of various sizes involving the improved designs and ideas of William T. Birch, President of the company. The Birch valve embodies the features of all metal body valves but with the weaknesses of some of the earlier makes eliminated. The absence of the screw threads and binder plates which sometimes work loose or break is noticeable. The rubber seat rings are secured separately and uniformly and are then located in the valve body. It is claimed that this valve will not warp nor leak, nor will it sink into the port or ride the ridges of the seat but rests only on outer and inner bearings.

James Boyd & Bo., Inc. The miniature pumping engine exhibited by the James Boyd & Bro. Co. provided quite an attraction, for not only did it demonstrate the merits of their turbine valve seats but it also gave a clear demonstration of the internal working of a pump in operation. The principal of this seat is in the broad gradual curved ribs which impart a rotary motion to the water. The rotary motion of the water reacts upon the valve revolving it a short distance with each stroke of the pump providing a new point of contact every time the valve closes. The saving of friction and slippage, the company claims, is an appreciable economy in steam. The ease with which the valve opens and closes eliminates water hammer and enables the engineer to increase the speed of the pump. In connection with this exhibit were turbine valves which had been used nearly five months on a Boyd turbine pump valve seat, and which showed uniform wear throughout.

Builders Iron Foundry. This company had displayed a number of recording devices in connection with Venturi meters; both disc and rotary records. The Venturi meter is used mainly for large flows which are determined by the use of Pitot tubes.

Buffalo Meter Company. Included in this exhibit were complete lines of American and Niagara meters, also sectional meters showing the gearing, disc, etc. In the American and Niagara meters, the gear pivots, gear drive and disc control are all mounted upon a removable gear plate. In the smaller size meters this plate sits upon the measuring chamber and is thus always in proper working connection with the disc spindle. It also forms a cap which excludes sand and dirt from the upper bearing of the measuring disc. Among the devices of interest to meter users and which the Buffalo Meter Company also displayed were their extension Dial Curb boxes which form a low priced and convenient meter setting; cast iron manhole ring and cover; scalable vertical pipe meter connection; iron lock boxes for enclosing a 5/8-in. American or New Niagara meter and coupling nuts to prevent the meter being tampered with when placed in an exposed location; Buffalo Jet meters for filling sewer flush tanks, etc.; bound meter books; pocket meter reading books, meter record books; portable testing water meter, etc.

Central Foundry Company. This company displayed a section of cast iron pipe for water works. It also makes valve services, roadway boxes and special castings.

Joseph Dixon Crucible Company. Samples of graphite water proofing paint, also lubricating oil for hydrants, etc. Dixon’s graphite paint is well known as a rust proofing covering for valves, standpipes, and other metal work which is affected by atmospheric conditions and water. Stand pipes, all kinds of tanks, pipes, trestle work, boiler fronts, smoke stacks, and all metal works are preserved by Dixon Silica Graphite Paint against corrosion, abrasion, corrosive action of acids, heat, cold weather, etc., and when used on the inner part of tanks does not taint or discolor the water.

Ford Meter Box Company. This company displayed a complete line of its well known meter boxes and meter box covers, also its meter testing machine which has been found satisfactory in water departments. The new addition this year to its product was a meter testing machine for small towns whereby only one meter is tested at a time. It accommodates meters from 5/8 to 1 inch. The illustration herewith shows this convenient and modern device.

NEW FORD TESTER FOR SINGLE METER.

Chapman Valve Company. A line of Anderson Patent Couplings was the only display among its large number of products that this company showed. These couplings have proven to be simple, strong mechanically and of high class. Anderson patent goosenecks, which are used in connection with corporation cocks and iron service pipe were included in the display, as well as goosenecks complete with corporation cocks, and curb cocks.

Chicago Bridge & Iron Works. A large line of photographs showing notable installations of modern water tower and elevated tanks constituted the display of this well known company. Among its large contracts are included a 1,200,000 tank at Louisville, Ky., 220 feet high; a 100,000 gallon tank at East Boston, Mass., 241 feet high; also a 60,000 wash water tank, for the filter system at Kansas City, Kans., where all water is confined within a vertical height of 15 feet.

H. W. Clark Company. The most interesting features of the H. W. Clark exhibit were the Clark Meter Coupling Yoke and the Clark “Wonder” lock for meter boxes. The meter coupling yoke is made along new lines and manufactured to sell at a low figure. It is used in connection with meter box installation and is made of cast iron with bronze settings. It requires a special key to remove the meter and can be connected up without the use of unions. It makes a perfectly rigid and quick operating connection with the meter. The “Wonder” lock in connection with the Clark meter box covers is so arranged that the handle which lifts the lid is also the key. Key cannot be removed from lid without locking the box. Other specialties which the Clark Company showed were their meter boxes, wireless pipe locator, Clark meter testers, both for six meters or less and for one meter alone; Clark leak indicator; Clark service box and valve finders; Clark “Sonofone,” etc.

Columbian Iron Works. The section hydrant which this company had for demonstrating purposes proved interesting along with its general display. The hydrant was of full size, with part cut away so that the operation was easily shown. One of the features of this hydrant is the removable bronze seat ring which by means of a special wrench furnished can be taken out through the top of the hydrant and by removing the seat ring the main valves, as well as the drain, is also removed, thus obviating the necessity of disconnecting the hydrant or disturbing the hydrant barrel in any way. The Columbian Iron Works also showed one of its valves, and meter boxes. By using this box the meter can be taken out and reset from the surface by the use of a single T-handle wrench. There are over 10,000 of these boxes in service in the City of New Orleans where they have proved very successful.

East Jersey Pipe Company. Showed sections of riveted steel pipe coated with bitumastic enamel.

Eddy Valve Company. Sectional view of the well known Eddy fire hydrant and also a sectional valve. The Eddy hydrants have been used in the water departments for many years and have proven to be most satisfactory in every way. Of the valves it may be said that the inside parts which are moved by the stem consists of three pieces: the two gates and the bell. The gates are hinging on trunnions. The trunnions conform to a cylindrical recess in the gates. The face of each gate is a convex surface which forms a concave surface on the back of the gate. This allows the gates to properly adjust themselves to their seats and the gates are free to revolve on the trunnions so as not to always seat in the same position.

Electro Bleaching Gas Company. The chlorine apparatus exhibited by this company was typical of the main installations they have made. It consisted of a complete plant manually controlled meter type apparatus.

Fire and Water Engineering. A large supply of copies of the special convention were displayed and were eagerly taken by the visitors interested. As usual this proved to be one of the popular features of the convention, being the only special water works journal exhibited.

Garlock Packing Company. This exhibit consisted of samples of various kinds of packings.

Gamon Meter Company. A complete line of “Watch Dog” water meters manufactured by this company made an attractive display. The disc type of meters from 5/8 to 2 inches and “Current” type from 1 1/4 to 6 inches were shown. Of the disc type meters the following may be said: They are made of all bronze with a low disc revolution; rubber bushed gear trainand non-leaking stuffing box. Of the “Current” type the leading features are all bronze main casings; ease of inspection and large water passage.

Harrison Bros. & Company, Inc. This exhibit included filter alum, sulphate of alumina, and the Harrison “Antoxide,” which is a rust preventative. The company says: “Its value and success does not depend entirely upon its water proofing and moisture excluding properties due to its varnish vehicle; the antoxide coating in addition to being a perfect sealer carries within itself ingredients which prevent formation of rust under the coating if it is broken.”

National Water Main Cleaning Company. The handsome display consisted of sections of pipe taken from a score of different cities, where water mains have been cleaned. Some of these sections showed incrustations of over an inch in thickness, others showed where sediment nearly filled the pipe. The effectiveness of cleaning by this method is demonstrated by the fact that in many cases the capacity of the main after cleaning has been three and four times that which it had before cleaning. The exhibit was both educational and interesting. A successful test was given for the benefit of those present of which illustrations are shown herewith.

NATIONAL WATER MAIN CLEANING CO. CLEANING MAIN AT CINCINNATI DURING CONVENTION WEEK. DRAWING SCRAPER FROM MAIN. X INDICATES SCALE AND SEDIMENT REMOVED FROM PIPE.THE SCRAPER.NECTION TO MAIN THROUGH WHICH SCRAPER WAS DRAWN.

Hays Manufacturing Company. Sill cocks, valves, hose boxes, street washers and Payne tapping machine constituted the display of the Hays Manufacturing Company. The Payne tapping machine has found satisfactory service in many water departments in which it is used. Its principal use is tapping for long main end corporation cocks. Lead Lined Iron Pipe Company. Samples of lead lined iron pipe, lead lined iron stop cocks, tin lined iron pipe and fittings occupied the space of the Lead Lined Iron Pipe Company of Wakefield, Mass. This company is the only manufacturer of amalgamated lead lined iron pipe and amalgamated tin lined iron pipe in the world. This lead lined pipe and fittings can be used for acid water or corrosives without fear of injury, for even the joints are made lead to lead. In the fittings threads are made in tin, recessed into the iron so that there can be no corrosion in the fitting. It is especially effective where alkaline or acid water are to be used. It is used in hundreds of places with most satisfactory results.

Hersey Manufacturing Company. The Hersey exhibit may be expressed by “All kinds of meters for all kinds of services.” Its detector meter for fire lines especially attracted considerable attention. The Hersey disc meters range in size from to 6 inches inclusive. The measuring chamber of the disc meter, which is removable from the casing, is made of bronze composition and is tinned. It is made in three parts. The piston is conical in shape and made of vulcanized hard rubber, reinforced to withstand a heavy strain. All parts are so organized as to be easily taken apart and are interchangeable. The Hersey Rotary meter for hard usage ranges in size from to 6 inches. The Torrent meter is made for large flows in sizes up to 12 inches, and the Compound in six sizes from 3 to 12 inches inclusive. The company also exhibited strainers, dial extensions and meter connections.

Leadite Company. Several short sections of flanged pipe joined with Leadite subjected to a pressure of 500 pounds per square inch proved a very effective example exhibit of what this well known product can do. No sign of a break appeared though this pressure was maintained for the full time of the convention. Samples of Leadite in place pipe and special sectional pieces showing junctions between metal and Leadite, demonstrated its effectiveness. Leadite is a manufactured compound having four times the volume of lead for the same weight. Like cement it grips the pipe and forms a water tight bond. Water mains in a certain city after being in service four years protected with Leadite were exposed and tested under water pressure of 300 pounds without leak.

Modem Iron Works. The attractive exhibit of this company consisted of “Snow” quick repair stop box covers; Peerless adjustable extension stop cock box covers, for water or gas; D. B. M. Wireless pipe locator; I. X. L. flush tank regulator; and a new type of regulator for the same purpose. The Snow stop box cover is designed to fit stop boxes where the cover has been broken or lost. Judging from the number in service they have met the requirements for which they were designed. Not only is it used for repair purposes but it is also used to a great extent on new boxes. The Peerless adjustable extension stop cock box is designed for use when the depth of pipe cocks from the surface of the street varies. The top part of the box telescopes into the lower chamber through packing in stuffing box, which when tightly pressed with bolts through gland around extension tube forms a watertight joint. It can be set fast enough to hold a ton weight or more.

SOME OF THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE INTERNATIONAL STEAM PUMP CO. AT THE AMERICAN WATER WORKS CONVENTION IN CINCINNATI. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: A. R. THOMSON, E. A. DECROW. GEO. W. GULB, MISS GRACE GALBRAITH. M. E. MAHR. MRS. GEO. H. CARR, H. F. PEAKE, F. W. HANKS, GEO. H. CARR, HERMANN MYERS.

H. Mueller Manufacturing Company. The Mueller exhibit consisted of a large display of tapping machines; water pressure regulators; goose necks; corporation and curb cocks; reamers; and a large variety of other water works tools. A miniature drinking fountain for horses shown follows very closely the idea of the bubbling fountain for public use. The horse on walking up to the fountain steps on a small triangular platform which causes a valve to open and water to bubble up in the fountain. This is an improvement both from water consumption and sanitary standpoints, for the water does not continue to flow, after horse finishes drinking, but each horse has fresh water, which is not the case in the float operated tub type of water trough.

National Meter Company. A fine assortment of Crown, Empire, Nash, Gem, Premier, and the Empire Compound water meters. The handsome booklets dstributed, giving a description of the Panama Pacific exhibition where the National Meter Company has a large exhibit, showed in an attractive way not only the progress of the National meter business during the forty-five years the company has been organized, but also gives a complete account of the various stages of construction from the ingot metal to the finished device in operation.

Simplex Valve & Meter Company. “Simplex” meters, meter registers for use with Venturi tube, Pitot tubes, weirs, orifices, meters for measuring of boiler feed water, portable pitot chart recorder for water waste and pump slippage, indicator, manometers for use with Venturi tubes, manometers for use with pitot tubes, Simplex pitot tubes, rate of flow controllers for mechanical and slow sand pressure filters, direct-acting and indirect types, loss of head and rate of flow gauges, indicating, recording and combined types, which do not require copper floats, elevation gauges and other devices,

Henry R. Worthington. This exhibit included a complete line of Worthington disc meters; Worthington Compound meters; Worthington Frost Proof meters; Worthington Turbine meters; Worthington Strainers; Worthington meters with elevated contact and a supply of meter parts. In the disc meter the opening in the bottom of the inner case under the ball bearing of the disc provides egress to the settling basin in the bottom for any fine silt or sand carried by the water. This eliminates the wear where sand and silt are carried under the ball. The interior case or measuring chamber is of brass composition and the disc is of special hard rubber. The operation of the Duplex Piston meter is well known. The Worthington Turbine meter is a development of the Worthington Turbine Pump. It is of the Current type designed particularly to handle large flows of water with minimum loss of pressure.

Multiplex Manufacturing Company. Complete line of air valves for permitting air to leave the water main when filling and to enter the main when emptying; also for removing air from top of syphons without allowing water to leak out.

Sanitation Corporation. Sewage screening devices such as are used in Germany for removing solids from sewage.

Neptune Meter Company. A complete line of Trident meters, including disc meters, breakable bottom meters, split case meters, compound meters, etc. The part of this display which attracted most attention was a section meter enclosed in a glass case. The glass case was filled with water so that the operation of the meter could be observed. Their Crest meter for large flows and Watercart meter for attaching to street sprinkling wagons also proved interesting. The company also had for distribution copies of its pamphlet “The Trident” which is issued from time to time.

United Brass Manufacturing Company. Showed an attractive line of water works brass goods.

R. D. Wood & Company. Complete line of literature on the well known Matthew hydrants and water works products.

Water Works Equipment Company. Had a large and interesting display of water works appliances.

New York Continental Jewell Filtration Company. The literature, photographs, and plans of mechanical filter plants distributed were interesting. Up to August 1. 1913, three hundred and twenty-five city and town water works had adopted filtration plants of the New York, Continental, Jewell, Hyatt, Warren, American, National or Blessing types. These cities represent a total daily capacity of 800,000,000 gallons and nine of these cities and towns have increased the capacity of their plants, several as many as three times.

Pitometer Company. Water consumption survey apparatus, including pitot tube and recording devices, also pump slip indicators. This company has conducted water works surveys at a number of cities, the latest of which was Washington, D. C. At this city the residts were most satisfactory for leaks of very large volume were discovered.

Permutit Company. Water softener plant for use in connection with steam boilers or where water of 100 per cent, softness is required.

Pittsburgh-Des Moines Bridge Company. Literature and photographs of installations ranging in capacity from 50,000 gallons to 2,100,000 gallons and in height to 200 feet were were distributed. The standard water tower of their design rests on a typical concrete foundation. The column, while necessarily short, is made in two sections, the upper see tion of the column leading to the tank, and the lower section resting on the foundation. This company has made over 1,000 installations of water tanks.

Pittsburgh Filter Manufacturing Company. Operating table of typical filter plant, ____ miniature filter plant for demonstrating. The miniature plant showed the course of water from the time it entered filter until discharged. The operating table was more to show the method of control of this company’s mechanical filters. It also distributed handsome booklets including the following, describing Soft Water, Pressure Filters, Softening of Water, Filter Equipment, Gravity Filter, Coagulants and Straining Apparatus.

Pittsburgh Meter Company. Showed a complete line of Keystone and Eureka meters, also Keystone Portable testing meter, water meter prover, and Westinghouse fish trap. The disc of the Keystone meters is reinforced with a perforated aluminum plate which lessens the possibility of breakage. A strainer is placed near the inlet to protect the interior from particles of foreign matter. The chamber is a complete unit and “presents a true surface to the discs. Any part may be removed or replaced irrespective of the others. The Keystone Comprotector or compound detector meter is designed for use on fire service lines. The function of the meter is to measure all water drawn through the line from the smallest capacity of the drinking fountain to the large capacity of a fire service main and to permit of the meter being used on all manufacturing or central services regardless of whether or not this service is used for fire protection. The Eureka water cart or stand pipe meter is designed for the use which its name suggests, as is also the Keystone portable testing meter.

Rickersberg Brass Company. Complete line of corporation and curb cocks and other works brass goods.

Ross Valve Manufacturing Company. Portable fire hydrant heads of the type adopted by Baltimore, and other large cities, also “Trojan” operating and regulating valve. The portable fire hydrant head is carried with the hose to the fire and attached to flush hydrant. Any pressure from shut off to full pressure can be obtained independently on all four regulated openings. Ross regulating valves are used in the controlling of high pressure fire services of New York, Brooklyn, Baltimore, Jacksonville, San Francisco, and Cleveland. The illustration herewith shows the Ross hydrant heads exhibited.

PART OF ROSS VALVE MKG. CO. EXHIBIT AT CINCINNATI.

Rensselaer Valve Company. Full size Corey hydrant with sectional top and bottom showing operation of this well known type of fire hydrant; also Rensselaer valve for water department use. Of the Rensselaer “Improved Type” Corey Hydrants it might be mentioned that 70,000 are now in use.

A. P. Smith Manufacturing Company. Hydrants for filling sprinkler carts; indicate post valves; repair sleeves; valve inserting machines; Smith tapping apparatus; French pipe cutting machine; French lead joint remover; the Wood water meter testing machine; the Rapp removable screw plug; Smith Patent Calking machine; corporation tapping machine; corporation and curb cocks; Smith hydrants for high and low pressure, etc. The Smith High Pressure hydrant has been installed in a number of cities in connection with high pressure service, including New York, while the Smith Tapping apparatus is in use in all leading water works plants in America.

Sanitary Company of America. Cast iron extension service boxes fitted with “No Bolt” covers, also “No Bolt” repair covers for repairing any standard service box. These repair covers are designed to fit any make of service box on the market. They are held in place by lugs in the box, which engage a flange attached to center of cover.

Standard Asphalt & Rubber Company. Mineral rubber floors; No. 6 Waterproofing; mineral rubber mastic; mineral rubber flux; mineral rubber pipe coating; asphalt roof cement; refrigerator compound, insulation, for batteries, etc.; protective paints; bituminous putty; damp-proofing; asphalt filler; asphalt binder; mineral rubber asphalt cement; asphalt paving cement.

S.E.T. Valve & Hydrant Compound. Special valve housings and service boxes for water and gas distribution service. “The Perfect” Curb Box and the “Ideal” roadway box, which is designed for housing gate valves or other apparatus in the ground when it is desired to render them accessible for repairs. It is built in round and square models, in sections of cast iron plate of different height to meet the requirements of various depths of trench.

W. P. Taylor Company. Standard cast iron extension shut-off boxes for water and gas services.

Thomson Meter Company. Complete line of Lambert water meters. The Lambert meter is made in sizes from 5/8 to 6 inches inclusive, and is finished with hard rubber disc pistons reinforced with a perforated internal steel plate. Relative to the Lambert meters the company says: “In the ‘Lambert’ are embodied all improvements which the test of time and long service have proven to be requisite in a perfect water meter. The successful application of the disc principal originated with us and has been severely tested all over the world during the last 28 years, in which time we have made and sold over 700,000 of that one type.”

Union Water Meter Company. Assortment of King Disc meters, Nilo meters, Union Rotary meters and Columbia meters, and pressure regulating valves. The measuring chamber of the King meter has a large capacity, resulting in a low rate of disc rotation. The intermediate great train compressing hard rubber gears and bronze pinions are included in the standard design, however, bronze gears are furnished if desired. All moving parts with the exception of the register are assembled in a single working unit. The Nilo meter is designed for large flow and the Nilo compound, the latest of the Union Water Meter Company’s products, measures both large and small flows. The Columbia meter is especially adopted for use where water carries considerable sediment. The Rotary piston meter allows practical uninterrupted flow of water, the principal feature of this type of meter.

United Lead Company. A copper-lead metal for bearings, bushings, metallic-packing, acid plants, etc., a substitute for bronzes and other alloys containng tin, also lead wool for calking water mains.

Wallace & Tiernan. This company had a large exhibit which included different types of chlorine apparatus plants which are now in use in a large number of water works all over the country. The Wallace & Tiernan exhibit was one of the centers of attraction as their exhibition was both complete and interesting. All apparatus displayed at the convention had been purchased beforehand and is to be installed at once in the cities for which it was built.

W. M. Powell Valve Company. Line of water works accessories of the well known “White Star” brand, including a large assortment of valves.

Berkshire Manufacturing Company. Corcoran patent lead pipe couplings for general water works use and also special couplings for water meters.

(Report to be Continued)