Proceedings of American Water Works Convention

Proceedings of American Water Works Convention

Discussion of Meters for Apartment Houses —Important Address by Adolph Mueller on Standardization of Brass Goods for Services

THURSDAY, JUNE 24

Morning Session, 9 o’Clock

(Continued from page 399)

(Continuation of Discussion on “What Is the Proper Size of Meter for Multiple Family Houses.”)

A. H. KNEEN—Mr. President, this article is very interesting from some points of view, hut most engineers say in regard to proper service charge, that there should be a service charge for various sizes of meters, but they do not tell the operating man where he should use that meter. They say it is up to the consumer. The consumer comes in and when he is building a house he tries to keep the cost down a little, and he will inevitably put in a fiveeighth inch when he should put in a three-quarters or a one-inch. If he does put in a five-eighth in a large house he has no bath on the third floor when he wants to get it, and when the laundress is washing in the laundry he cannot get any water up in the kitchen, and then he complains to the water company. We were very much interested in the company I am connected with, in getting the proper size of meters for various connections. In fact, if we can get it we connect the pipes now for a large percentage of the water that leaves the pumping station. Most of trouble we found has been in the houses where the plumbing was too small, the pipe, fixtures and the way it is connected is not the fault of the meter or service connections, or the pressure, which is very good, and I might say that the sized meter we determine upon is based on forty-pound pressure at the meter. Where we have a greater pressure then we recommend to the consumer to put in a pressure reducing valve at the head of the meter.

MR. Chester—My remarks only applied to domestic meters, and did not include the commercial or industrial meters at all.

MR. Brush—-This subject is one of great interest to the operating men. It is a subject that many of us would tike to have talked about for a long time, more time than we have available in the session today. One of the very important and useful objects of this association is to enable a group of associations to do the work that otherwise might have to be done individually by all the members of the association, and it appears to me that it would help us all very materially if we should have a committee appointed by the chair, at such a time as may be convenient, to consider the report in the question of rules and regulations and fixtures to be considered in determining the proper size of taps, service and meters. I have yet to find one water works man who is entirely sastisfied with the methods that are employed in his company or in his municipality in determining the size of the taps, service, and meters, and as we have seen this morning, there is a decided difference of practice, and there may be quite a decided difference of opinion, and my guess is that there is more difference in practice than there really will he in opinion as to what should be the practice, and if that question were to be carefully considered and considered in the light of experience, I think it would be helpful. Mr. President, I move that the chair be requested to appoint a committee to consider reports of this question, such report to be submitted when the committee finds it possible to do so. This is work which will require many months; it will require hard work on the report of the committee; it will require the co-operation and help of the members of this association, but I believe that the report of such a committee would be helpful when that question comes up before the Public Service Commissions, with which the majority of states are blessed, or otherwise, and we would all receive a great deal of benefit from the work of such a committee.

PRESIDENT Davis—The motion is made and seconded that a committee of the nature described by Mr. Brush, be appointed. Shall we vote on that at once or continue the discussion? All in favor please say “aye.” Opposed “No.” (Carried).

MR. Brush—Mr. President and gentlemen: The gentleman in the front seat there (Mr. Chester), made the remark that he had difficulty in getting water in his own home on the second floor. If you will permit me, I would like to ask the gentleman the size of his service and the size of the service pipe? How long has it been installed?

MR. Chester—The house is about twelve years old. It has a three-quarter inch service, and as I said, a pressure of ninety pounds.

MR. Brush—What is the service? Iron or steel?

MR. Chester—So far as I can find out—I live in a rented house—but so far as I can find, it is galvanized iron or steel. The meter is five-eighth inch. It is true that part of that trouble may come from the plumbing and the installation of the heater. I will say that the heater is not big enough for two baths, but that does not excuse the cold water pipe in the summer time, which runs around the heater, where the conditions are the same, and I have made enough experiments to know there is a great difficulty in getting the water up to the second floor.

MR. Brush—Skin friction evidently takes place in the service pipe. I will say that I am here to learn and not to teach, but I would like to give my experience since the ruling of the Public Utility Commission of the State of New Jersey went into effect in March, 1914. I have since then renewed about 400 services. In every instance, or very nearly so, the services put in within the last fifteen years have proved to be steel, which we know the galvanizing will not adhere to, and steel is very much more susceptible to corrosion.

MR. Chester—We are not troubled so much with corrosion in Pittsburgh.

MR. Brush—Then it is pitting. The Public Utilities Commission of the state of New Jersey permitted us, that is, the Public Utility Corporation, some privileges, and one of them was this; they have permitted us to make rules and regulations governing the plumbers and customers as a whole to make some changes. But they will not permit anything between the main and the building smaller than twenty inch size galvanized iron or lead pipe. The service is run and maintained and paid for by the corporation to the curb, that is, nothing smaller than three and three-quarters lead pipe. The consumer can put in what he pleases larger than that. He can have the privilege of that, but the material must be of that quality. He is permitted to put in that size or larger, but nothing smaller, and I think, in my experience, there is a great deal of trouble, due to skin friction in the services.

MR. Luscombe—Mr. Chester stated, in connection with the supply in apartment houses, that a large pipe was run in the basement and the header was taken there for supplying each tenant separately. I would be very glad to have him state whether in the case of non-payment if you find that plan of the water company is practical, as practical as where separate service pipes are run from the property line in.

MR. Chester—The condition I have described is one of the Ohio Valley Water Company’s and the plan is inaugurated by the flat-house builders with the consent of the water company. Now, in that case, every meter is a separate meter, and there is a shut-off before you get into the meter and if that tenant does not pay his water bill, the On-and-off man simply goes in and turns the stop cock, and takes the meter back to the shop, and the consumer pays all the charges and also the service charge in advance before he gets his meter back. In Jefferson City we specified that the header should be outside of the curb ; in other words, we put the header just back of the curb and put a row of service boxes right along hack of the curb; consequently our inspector is not denied admission to them, should he go to turn the water off, and if he does that he knows that there are, say, six apartments there, and there are six curb boxes, and he knows which one to shut off. That is simply the result of experience.

MR. Luscombe—Where the header was in the basement you must have a special shut-off cock in order to successfully control the water, because in a case where the water is turned off, somebody who might be interested, might go and turn it on again without the knowledge of the water company.

MR. Chester—He takes the meter along with him.

MR. Luscombe—We find it is very easy to put what we call a “Dutchman” in there and resume the service.

MR. Chester—Well, it is a form of larceny and we can take action against him, if he does.

ADOLPH MUELLER-I am very much interested in the discussion, and the matter may be further enlightened when discussion is held on the subject of plumbing. I have been working at that business for forty years (you may not believe, but I have). The standard committee, of which I am a member, in analyzing the plumbing and brass fixtures, found within the last four or five years some radical changes. There has been an effort made to eliminate the five-eighths goods by the plumbing and brass manufacturers, because, as one member said, we ought to have a real honest-to-God three-quarter-inch opening cock. We took a report. We sent out questionnaires to over forty manufacturers of brass plumbing goods, and there was not one who made a real “honest-to-God” threequarters cock, or a compression cock. We found that the fiveeighths cock was usually half-inch, and we found the three-quarters was usually five-eighths and we found the half-inch was usually three-eighths. The brass manufacturers, at a meeting held a few months ago, decided to adopt—I may say I was instrumental in making the motion to this effect on account of the fact that another gentleman said he wanted an “honest-to-God” three-quarters opening cock—but wc decided that each opening of the compression stop cock must be the area of the pipe which it supplies. In other words, a half-inch pipe must be a half-inch; five-eighth must be five-eighth; three-quarters must be three-quarters, and so on. I am interested in the service connections. I am making a talk on that a little later on, but I want to say that in the manufacture of hundreds of thousands of corporation cocks every year, we find the demand is for a larger size. We find that the demand is for connections that will fill a bath tub quickly with a three-quarter inch connection, and we are doing a work in standardization which I feel will be of wonderful benefit and help to water works people.

WILLIAM A. Nial—There is a principle in hydraulics to which the attention of one of the recent speakers should be drawn. It might be termed, I think, “equalization.” It came pointedly to my notice at the meeting of this organization in a large city, where I was in a large hotel, and when taking a bath, I noted the water was going out of my bathtub. There was no waste open, but presently I discovered that the water was going into the general system throughout the hotel, and evidently was filling up some other bathtub than my own. If that can be carried out successfully in many places (I have good reason to believe that it is in operation in the place I mentioned), there can be a further saving with respect to plumbing work and fixtures through the whole construction.

HORACE C. Nixon—I listened to Mr. Elliott’s remarks with a great deal of interest, and I was struck with the fact that there are two factors which govern the size in meters installed in multiple family houses. Now, until those two factors are brought into line, and in a measure eliminated, the proper size of meters will never, I believe, be supplied to multiple family houses. Now, Mr. Elliott tells us how they ring in a large pipe with a header from that with tees supplying the various meters in the various apartments. I have made my home in one of the newest, as well as one of the smallest cities in Canada. It is a new city, where we have been taking advantage of every experience of others of which we could learn, and have started in, not where the other fellows have left off, but from the point to which they have progressed. Now, we have adopted in multiple family houses a system which Mr. Elliott has told us about, bringing in a large sized pipe with the header and various tees, and we say they shall not call for a smaller meter than necessary to supply their needs. We have eliminated the service charge. Now this was claimed would increase our expenditures, and lose us control of the meters. It did nothing of the kind. Wc have safeguarded the other factor which Mr. Elliott spoke of, and that is in regard to the payment for the water. We claimed a deposit equal to six months’ consumption on each meter before the water is turned on. That deposit, if not used up by their account during the period, is returned to the consumer. I believe if the committee which is to be appointed will take cognizance of these two factors, they will be able to do very good work. Mr. Mueller has spoken of the standardization of water goods. I have an interesting announcement to make in that regard, which I think will enable them to start in in a good way’, and accomplish good work. I will take that up after Mr. Mueller has spoken this afternoon.

MR. DAVIS (Richmond, Va.)—I may say that I have had more experience with meters than any man in this convention. I put in my first meter in 1874, one made by my dear friend, George Ellis some years before, 1868 or ’58. I am not sure just which it was. I am told, but I did not see it, that they had a five-inch meter which weighed five hundred pounds. My experience with meters is very varied. One of my great difficulties and the same thing I am sure has been experienced by all of you, is the fact that in these meters the water way is not clear. I have tested these from every conceivable angle, and I have never seen a meter that will show more than about sixty per cent, of the opening of a given size. I made one test once just for curiosity, on the difference between the flow, getting the amount of water that will come out of it, by putting a gauge on one side and letting the water run through a two and a half inch opening on the other side, and taking the amount of pressure shown on the guage to see how much is flowing through that two and a half inch nozzle. I wanted to demonstrate how much I could find out if I put a two-inch meter on the two and a half inch nozzle, and opened it right wide, and then multiplying it by three. I did that, and it came to 131. I put a gauge on the reverse or other side, and took the meter off, and let the water flow. I would not do it myself, but I had a young fellow doing that from Cornell. They would not give those facilities to an old man like me, but they wanted it done scientifically, so he finally did it the way he wanted it, and when he was through, I said, “Well, my boy, what do you make it,” and he said “I find it 394 gallons every minute.” Well, I said, “I got three times 131. How far have I missed it ?”

MR. Gear—This is all very instructive and very interesting to water works men, but there was a subject that came up yesterday morning, and there are a great many people who are dissatisfied with the way it was settled. It was in regard to an amendment to the constitution, that was brought in, to elect the secretary by popular ballot the same as we elect the rest of the officers. I asked for an explanation at the time and who it was who sent it in. Nobody spoke. 1 then made a motion that it be referred back and be not accepted. It was not recommended by the executive committee, and I don’t know why’, but since then I have heard a great deal of comment about the hotel, and a good deal of fault-finding with me, because I sent it back, and in order to give the members who are here a chance to express their opinions again, I make a motion that we reconsider that action whereby we voted to reject the amendment to the constitution yesterday morning.

MR. SMITH (Atlanta, Ga.)—I second that.

MR. Chester—Is this session not called for another purpose? I will rise to a point of order. I think this motion is out of order, as this session is called for another purpose.

PRESIDENT Davis—I believe that technically it is in order at any time during the course of the convention. I don’t believe I can sustain Mr. Chester’s point of order, unless it be construed as “steam-roller” methods.

MR. Chester—I don’t know of a quicker way than to take an appeal from the Chair’s decision.

After a long discussion, in which several of the speakers eulogized the secretary and spoke of his long and valuable services to the association, a motion that Mr. Gear’s resolution be laid on the table was carried.

MR. SMITHMr. Chairman. In order that we may have an opportunity of speaking, I make the motion that this matter be taken from the table at three o’oclock this afternoon.

MR. CHESTER-I second that motion.

PRESIDENT Davis—It is moved and seconded that Mr. Gear’s resolution be taken from the table at three o’clock, as a matter of special business. All in favor say “aye”: opposed, “No.” (Carried).

We will now proceed with the next order of business, which is a special paper by Adolph Mueller.

Mr. Mueller’s Paper

MR. Mueller—Mr. President and gentlemen of the American Water Works Association: Probably many of you have not seen me. It has been over twenty years since I attended a convention of this kind. My brother Fred usually attends these meetings, and I have been the fellow back at the desk at home supplying the necessary funds.

As the chairman of the proposed Committee on Standard of Water Works Goods, I have been invited here to this meeting, and I assure you that I greatly appreciate the invitation. It is a great honor to be here and to give you the view point of the brass manufacturers.

Last month I attended a meeting of the National Association of Manufacturers in New York City, and at that meeting we had a Profesor of Economics from the Vanderbilt University of Tennessee, to make an address on the open shop, one in which we are all interested in as manufacturers. In addressing this banquet, he said, “Gentlemen, you-all don’t really understand how we appreciate it to be invited down to this fine banquet; I used to live in Richmond, Va., at a time when they had liquor down there, and one day when I was walking down the street, I met Colonel Anderson. It was a hot day, and he said ‘Colonel, how would you-all like to walk down to my house and have a nice cold mint julep?’ and when Colonel Anderson asked me that, I said, ‘Walk, hell; let’s run.’”

Gentlemen, I attended my first convention, I think, in 1890. Then I did not attend again until I think 1900, but as you know we have a large family, and we have to divide these good things up, and so Fred usually comes here.

In all merchandising and manufacturing a greater variety of articles is offered than is necessary or desirable. This is due entirely to the desire of the merchant or manufacturer to meet an individual as well as a general demand on the part of his trade. Speaking more specifically, the manufacturer produces goods after patterns which his customer suggests rather than to produce goods according to his own patterns, which he knows will fulfill necessary requirements. There are many customers who have ideas and some have hobbies which they insist shall be followed. Frequently it is a hobby and nothing else, but it is not an easy matter to disabuse a man’s mind of a hobby. In any instances the hobby is the result of stubborn insistence growing from the habitual use of a certain kind of goods, and an antagonism to changing to any other particular kind of goods. The use of a line of goods with some individualizing feature becomes a habit, and habits are hard to change. Some such lines are impractical from a manufacturing standpoint and they are not only more expensive to make but they add to the cost of the goods which are more nearly standard in character. Much of the trouble which we face is due to the willing acquiescence of manufacturers through their desire to secure business. We are all guilty. We have taken these orders contrary to our own judgment. We find as a result that one town must have a particular kind of thread, another insists on a particular style of body and still another wants a particular kind of key, none of which is really essential to efficient duty, because none of them have any real bearing on the real purpose of the article. They are merely fads which we have tolerated until they have become obnoxious, principally because they arc unnecessary. As manufacturers who are in daily contact with all these problems we believe the time has come to call a halt.

Fig. 2—Special Thread Inlet; Special Round Body; Special Union Coupling Outlet

A committee on standardization of water works brass goods has been appointed by the National Association of Brass Manufacturers, and we are here to ask the assistance and cooperation of this Association in doing this. We want you gentlemen to realize that a standardization in Corporation and Curb Cocks will be as much to your interest as to ours. As manufacturers we might arbitrarily make any change or establish any standard upon which we might agree, and by holding to this agreement force the change upon the trade. That is not our desire, however; we want to make changes only where we have your support and we want to make only such changes as our experience as manufacturers teaches us will benefit the entire trade.

In a manufacturing sense every hobby or fad in goods, when acceded to, calls for first—Special patterns, second—a special factory run, frequently with special tools. It means special attention to the order until it is boxed and shipped. Special patterns, tools, etc., means added factory equipment, which may be used but once or twice a year, this meaning an added investment, which must be reckoned with in storage, insurance, etc. It does not go into a special overhead charge against these goods but it goes into the factory’s general overhead so that ultimately you users of regular goods must pay a certain proportion of the expense of the special goods.

Now this is not fair to the man who is content to use regular pattern, but the manufacturer if he seeks to know and maintain a cost system can’t very well help himself.

Frankly we manufacturers want your business—we want it at a fair, legitimate profit. We want to give you the very best goods at the lowest reasonable price possible. Anything that we can do to reduce the cost of manufacture is more to your advantage than ours, for this reason–whatever the manufacturer’s selling price is, the profit is still there, and must be if we expect to continue business. We also desire to emphasize the necessity of eliminating odds and ends or irregular styles of goods in order to be able to give better service in shipments. These are all simple facts but they are worth stating. It’s overlooking simple, fundamental facts that gets us into all kinds of trouble.

The first step in the accomplishment of what we desire is an understanding of and an agreement to a standardization of corporation cocks. You gentlemen doubtless realize that during the past few years there has been a marked trend toward standardization. This was emphasized by the war which presented to the American mind the fundamental fact that to accomplish our purpose we must as a people act in unison—that is certain things had to be done in a certain way at a certain time. It did not make any difference whether fuses or shells were made in the Glauber, United Brass, Hayes, Smith or Mueller Plant, they had to be made according to accepted and approved standards. The officials who bossed the job did not care a rap what they or we thought about it. The manufacturer was a mere detail—it was the ultimate use of the goods that governed the question—for instance the goods had to be so made that if it became necessary to use parts made by the different factories to secure a complete article, they would fit and function. There is good, hard common sense behind this plan. That is just what we want to apply in the case of corporation cocks. We do not see any reason for having more than three different kinds of threads to corporation cocks, or more than three styles of cocks.

To begin with, a corporation cock is not beautiful nor artistic—it is strictly utilitarian. Its one purpose is to form the connection with the main. Its insertion in the main is accomplished through the use of a tapping machine or a monkey wrench or in fact any kind of wrench with which it can be securely gripped. F’or this purpose it should have Hats on the side. So much for the mechanical neccessities. As a service proposition it must have strength to withstand the strain of installation as well as the strain resulting from the depression of the earth.

There is one other point and that is the threads. As nearly as our committee can ascertain there are three threads which must be taken into account.

Cocks to be inserted with a tapping machine, Iron Pipe rhreaded cocks and a coarse thread on cocks for wood main.

These three cover practically every necessary phase of water works practice.

The iron pipe thread is standard. The wood pipe thread is made coarse like a wood screw because it screws into wood pipe and should be standardized. The cocks inserted with a machine should have a uniform thread and adopted as standard. Experience has proved that any other thread is no better than the three mentioned, although there are innumerable threads which to the eye are identical with those which we desire to standardize. It is when you try to make them mesh that you learn they are not the same. They are off a sixty-fourth part of an inch but that sixty-fourth is just enough to cause you worry and inconvenience. It’s that sixty-fourth that represents the fad or hobby of someone who developed the belief that without it a corporation cock is imperfect. As a matter of fact this variation has nothing whatever to do with the service qualities of a cock.

What you want a corporation cock to do is to screw into a main and make a water tight joint; to have a good thread to which you can connect the goose necks; to have sufficient strength to withstand the strain of installation and the strain resulting from settling or depression. When you have this kind of a cock you have all that you can reasonably demand. When you can get it through the selection from the cocks adopted as standard you have gotten something through process of elimination that will answer the same purpose in Massachusetts that it will in California.

I have purposely mentioned these Eastern and Western extremities to show you what “specials” mean. In our experience eighteen cities in Massachusetts demand 36 different kinds of corporation cocks— different in minor details only. Ten cities in California require 36 different kinds of cocks—72 different kinds in 28 cities.

Fig. 1—3/4-inch Lead Flange Union Inlet; 1 1/4-inch I. P. Outlet.

Some of the facts that we have gathered are interesting:

Fig. 3—5/8-inch Inv. Curb Cock; Special I. P. Union, in Addition to Regular Lead Flange Union

It takes 332 styles and sizes of corporation cocks to meet the needs of 128 cities where three styles or patterns in sizes from /” to 2″ or 21 cocks would answer. I doubt if any of you gentlemen realize the extent of this wide demand and what it means to a manufacturer.

These are some of the suggestions that have been made regarding standardization of corporation cocks: Make all corporation cocks with flat sides, eliminating all round bodies or othe shapes. Eliminate squares and hex on all our cocks except on 1 1/4, 1 1/2 and 2-inch sizes. Eliminate 54-inch sizes. Eliminate female thread corporation cocks.

Three kinds of threads as previously mentioned; The openings on Iron Pipe Threaded Corporation cocks shall be reduced in the smaller sizes making 1/2-inch I. P. Threaed Cocks 54-inch opening, 54-inch with 1/2-inch opening, 34-inch with 54-inch opening and 1-inch with 34-inch opening.

The reason for reducing the opening in I. P. threaded cocks is because it is more practical for manufacturing and allows more metal, making a stronger cock.

Cocks inserted with machines and Wood Main Cocks to have full bore or openings.

The Couplings or Outlet End of all Corporation Cocks to have standard I. P. Threads one size larger than body.

All Couplings to be standard as to length and weight.

All Lead Flange work to be standardized threads for Nut and Spud and uniform length and weight of sleeves.

All these suggestions may not be adopted but they are being discussed. Why should cities with a population of from 10,000 to 30,000 require a special round body corporation cock with special inlet and outlet threads when New York, Chicago. Detroit, Omaha, Denver and Los Angeles can get by with regular patterns and regular threads. There is no reason at all except the smaller cities have been given that they have asked for. Any change which has been suggested entails no hardship or expense on cities which have special sizes and threads.

Any change that has been suggested does not in any way affect the service-giving qualities of the goods, nor does it affect its strength or earning qualities. It simply makes a standard article, and the nearer we can get to standards the better it will be for manufacturer and consumer alike.

As previously stated the National Association of Brass Manufacturers has appointed a committee on the Standardization of Water Works Brass Goods and we would greatly appreciate having the American Water Works Association appoint a Committee or in some manner advise, assist and cooperate with us in the work we are endeavoring to accomplish.

Mr. Mueller’s Extempore Remarks

We are standardizing the bath-cock threads in all dimensions of measurements, of all tapers so that the bath cocks, according to the way we are now making them, can be replaced at any time by taking the cock manufactured by any manufacturer, but you take the ball cock—about five or six years ago I heard a statement made by a manufacturer that he had twenty-nine different standard threads on the ball cocks. That man has failed in business since then, but in addition to that he had all kinds of couplings—I don’t know how many he had. We have standards on bath cock, ball cocks, basin cocks, and back and front couplings. We have a standard in each of these. We also have a standard in a great many other things; we have a standard in the bonnet, in the openings, in the square, in the key and other things, but it will take some time to get all these into effect, but these are some of the things which we have been doing. I have a few blue-prints here which I think are very interesting, and there are one or two other things which I will state briefly.

I was very much interested the other day in an inquiry we received for a three-quarter lead flush cock, with an inch and a quarter outlet (Fig. 1). We could not make it, because it would mean a new pattern, and we cannot make those today. These are demanded by the Utility Commission in the state of Connecticut. The state of Connecticut has adopted certain rules, and they must have certain sized connections, that is, a three-quarters lead cock must have a certain thread outlet. Now, gentlemen, to make an article of that kind is awfully irregular, and consequently it is hard to make. I don’t know whether some of you gentlemen are from the New England States or not, but I want to call your attention to one cock, and that is the Newport Pattern Curb Cock which never was right, never is right, and never will be right, and I will tell you why. You take a Newport pattern curb cock. It has a large ball of metal in the center. The moment you get that metal ball, you have it thicker at one end and thinner at the other and you have a very hard moulding job. You can make it, and perhaps you do make it, but it is not mechanically right. The nearer you can get the thickness of a brass casting uniform the easier job it is to mould and machine those goods. Don’t forget that. You take a large ball of metal through one point and when that cools off it cools quicker at the shallow place and that draws it in at the other places and you are liable to have cracks in that large ball of metal. Those are the things about which I want to speak plainly, because those are things which every brass manufacturer has to contend with.

Then there is the corporation cock with a special thread or inlet. This also is a very difficult job to handle, and if you order those goods, don’t condemn the manufacturer for not shipping them forthwith (Fig. 2).

Now here (Fig. 3) is a curb cock, a five-eighths inverted tee cock, with a five-eighth lead flange with a union coupling on the other end. This was added by one of the permanent members of the American Water Works Association. He is not here today, and while it is a nice cock to talk about, it is a very difficult cock to make.

Then there is the special cock with the lead flange union, with a wiping joint union on the other side, and the lead flange in here (Fig. 4). That is, I presume, on account of the City Ordinance where the plumbers are required to go into the houses. The water works runs to the curbs and the plumber makes the connections in the houses.

These are very important things to eliminate whenever possible in the standardization of brass goods. I want to say that in the catalogue of brass manufactures we have about twelve thousand different styles of brass goods. Now, we want to get it down to a third of that if we can, or a quarter of it, because for any manufacturer to carry all that in stock is practically impossible.

Fig. 4—Special Lead Pipe Union, in Addition to Regular Lead Flange Union

(Continued on page 494)

Convention Proceedings, A. W. W. A.

(Continued from page 476)

There is one other thing to which I desire to call your attention, and that is the matter of metal. We have a metal mixture which I believe is a very important thing. It ought to be standardized. You have it in many states, one city will have eighty-two per cent copper and seven parts tin, and so on, and lead and zinc; another will have eighty-three per cent; and another eighty-five, and another eighty-seven and so on. If we can arrive at a standard metal mixture, where we could have the stamp of approval of this body, it certainly would be a blessing for the manufacturer of brass goods. When you have to run a special order through with a special mixture, it makes a hard job out of it.

I want to tell you another little story and then I will quit. I was out in California, and I happened to go this time and Fred stayed at home, and they have a standard book in the schools. They furnish the books to the children there who attend the schools. I have a brother whose brother-in-law and wife and children went out to California, on account of one of the boys who had asthma, and these little children go to school. One of these boys had a little difficulty with his voice, and he came home from school one day and he said “Daddy, did you ever hear the story of the little girl who went to the market to buy some meat?” “No,” the father said. (They tell these stories in the school there and mark them on them), and the little boy said “This little girl went to the market to buy some meat and liver, and she bought the meat and liver, and it was a rainy day,” like they have in California some times “and she stepped out and slipped and fell down, and a good, kind lady drove up in her big limousine, to help her to her feet. She said, ‘little girl, are any bones broken?’ and the little girl said, ‘No, ma’am, I don’t guess any bones are broken, but I think 1 squashed my liver.” I hope I have not “squashed your livers” in some of the things I have said.

I desire, if possible, to secure the co-operation through the Committee or whatever channel you desire to utilize, in the standardization of water works brass goods, and I am sure the manufacturers will appreciate it and 1 can guarantee that you will bless us for work of this kind. I thank you.

(To be continued)

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